Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
SAFETY TALK
FIRED HEATERS
M.C JOMON
1
Kochi Refinery
HEATER
Heater is used to raise the temperature of a process fluid from lower
temperature to higher temperat...
Kochi Refinery
HEATER
3
Kochi Refinery
HEATER
Types
Vertical tube cylindrical heater
• Most common type refinery heaters.
• Vertical radiant tubes...
Kochi Refinery
HEATER
Types
Horizontal box type
[ single shell/ twin shell ]
• Heat duty from 20-125 MM Kcal/hr.
• Horizon...
Kochi Refinery
HEATER
Types
Arbor or wicket type heater
[for very low pressure drop [ .2-.3 kg/cm2]
• Tubes are like inver...
Kochi Refinery
HEATER
Types
Inverted wicket type
• Horizontal firing.
• Single or double firing.
• In situ hydro testing n...
Kochi Refinery
HEATER
Types
Helical coil heater
small heat duties up to 15 mm kcal/hr.
Not used in refineries.
8
Kochi Refinery
HEATER
Types
Classification based on firing.
• Side fired -One side / both side.
• Bottom fired
• Top fired...
Kochi Refinery
HEATER
Types
Classification based on fuel
• Gas firing
• Oil firing
• Combination firing
Gas firing Oil fir...
Kochi Refinery
HEATER
Types
Classification based on Draft
• Natural Draft-
• Forced Draft - using F.D fan
• Induced Draft ...
Kochi Refinery
HEATER
Draft
Draft is the difference in pressure which causes the flow of air into the furnace
and flue gas...
Kochi Refinery
HEATER
Impact of higher draft
• Taller flame
• Flame lift –off
• High air flow through burners[ in
natural ...
Kochi Refinery
HEATER
Complete Combustion
• Complete combustion occurs when 100% of the energy in the fuel is extracted Th...
Kochi Refinery
HEATER
Excess Air = 100 x (20.9%) / (20.9% -O2m%) - 100%
Where O2 m% = The measured value of oxygen in the ...
Kochi Refinery
HEATER
sections
• Convection section.
• Radiant section
• Header box: internally insulated structural compa...
Kochi Refinery
HEATER
sections
Convection section
• Bare tubes at the bottom of the convection section shields the studded...
Kochi Refinery
HEATER
sections
Radiant section
• Absorbs 60-80% of total duty.
• Radiation contribution -90%
• Tubes are i...
Kochi Refinery
HEATER
Parts/ terminology
• Bridge wall : Wall separating two adjacent heater zones.
• Arch: Flat or sloped...
Kochi Refinery
HEATER
Parts / terminology
• Louver damper: Damper consists of several blades [ Combustion air Control]
• C...
Kochi Refinery
HEATER
Parts / terminology
• Pass: flow streams: Flow circuits consisting of one or more tubes in parallel....
Kochi Refinery
HEATER
Parts terminology
• Tube guide: Device used with vertical tubes to restrict horizontal movement whil...
Kochi Refinery
HEATER
TUBES
• Bare Tubes.
• Tubes with extended surface.
• Fins
• Studs
• Segmented fins
Bare tubes Studde...
Kochi Refinery
HEATER
Tubes with extended surface
Solid fins.
• Most commonly used in gas
firing heaters.
• Soot deposit c...
Kochi Refinery
HEATER
Tubes with extended surface
Studded tubes
• Used for oil firing /combination firing case.
• Easier t...
Kochi Refinery
HEATER
TUBES
• Horizontal tubes –maximum 25m due to construction /handling
problems.
• Vertical tubes- maxi...
Kochi Refinery
HEATER
Tube Metallurgies
• Carbon steel:- Reboiler, steam generator, super heater, hot oil etc.
• 5 Cr/ 9cr...
Kochi Refinery
HEATER
Soot blower
Soot blowers.
• Soot blower remove the soot from the studded tubes in convection section...
Kochi Refinery
HEATER
Burner
Burners
Classification based on fuel
• Fuel gas burner.
• Fuel oil burner.
• Combination burn...
Kochi Refinery
HEATER
Burners
Classification based on fuel air mixing
• Premix gas burner
• Raw gas/oil burner.
• Staged f...
HEATER
Burners
Raw gas/ oil burner
• Can fire fuel oil fuel gas or combination.
• Typical turn down ratio 3:1 [oil] and 5:...
HEATER
BURNERS
Staged Fuel Burners
• Low Nox burner [ 40 ppm vd]
• Typically 30% primary fuel and
• 70% secondary fuel
• H...
HEATER
BURNERS
Staged Air Burner
• Low Nox burner - [50-70 ppm vd]
• More effective with combination firing.
• Air is spli...
HEATER
BURNERS
Flue Gas Recirculation Burner
• Ultra Nox burner [ 25- 30 ppm]
• A part of flue gas is circulated back into...
HEATER
BURNERS
New technology next generation Ultra Nox burner
• Nox less than 10 ppm
• Employ combination of staged air, ...
HEATER
Our fuel specifications
Fuel oil
LHV 9500-10000
Viscosity @ 185oc 19-23 cst
Sulphur .4-.7 %
N2 2000ppm
Na 90-170ppm...
HEATER
Efficiency
Fuel efficiency
• Total heat absorbed divided by the total input of heat derived from the combustion of
...
HEATER
Checking
1. Tube external corrosion ,tube crack , colour change, bend.
2. Arch area refractory damage.
3. Bottom re...
HEATER
Checking
11 . Heater body red hot / paint damage due to over heat
12 . Refractory damage.
13 . Flame flash back.
14...
HEATER
Checking
21 . Stack temp high/low.
22 . Fuel oil/ gas leaks.
23 . Incomplete combustion [ black smoke ]
24 . More e...
HEATER
Checking
31 . Check fuel oil pressure temp and flow , and steam tracing.
32 . Ensure atomizing steam pressure, and ...
HEATER
Checking
41 . Individual burner valve opening [ should not be pinched]
42 . Individual burner air damper opening [ ...
HEATER
Checking
51 . Any abnormal sound/ vibration on coil jump over.
52 . Coil jump over supports ,coil outlet supports o...
HEATER
Checking
61 . Soot blower steam valve conditions
62 . Soot blowing steam condensate traps.
63 . Soot blower poppet ...
HEATER
Checking
71 . Peep hole damages, glass damages, rope damages etc.
72 . Atomizing steam, fuel oil, gas valves passin...
HEATER
Checking
81 . Fuel oil supply return header pressures at battery limit.
82 . Oil leakages through oil guns.
83 . An...
HEATER
Checking
91 . Heat resistant paint damage on heater body.
92 . Heater body red hot bulging.
93 . Velocity steam dry...
HEATER
Decoking
Thermal decoking : Using air and steam inside tubes , controlled firing in heater.
[ It take more time, ch...
HEATER
dry out
• To be done after heater long shut down work or refractory work .
• Controlled fire inside the furnace and...
HEATER
problems - reasons
Internal tube corrosion sulphur and naphthenic acid corrosion
External tube corrosion metal oxid...
HEATER
problems - reasons
Flame lift off high draft
Back fire High arch pressure, burner coking , burner
tip damage , bloc...
HEATER
problems - reasons
High arch temperature Over firing , flame lift off , high gas firing
pressure , secondary combus...
HEATER
problems - reasons
Tube sheet damage in convection section After burning , If Na, Va in fuel oil is more
corrosion ...
HEATER
mcj 54
EMERGENCIES ACTIONS
Pass flow control valve / flow failure Closely monitor individual pass outlet
temp , put...
DO NOT
mcj 55
• Do not run heater with by passed interlocks
• Do not pinch individual burners
• Do not keep different open...
HEATER
Crude heater start up after shut down
• Purge Fuel gas line with N2.
• Reset FG / pilot SOVs and charge fuel gas.
•...
HEATER
Crude heater start up after shut down
• Start FD fan , open combustion air louvers, and purge heater with air.
• Li...
Thank You mc jomon 58
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Heater operation

10,038 views

Published on

safe refinery heater operation

Published in: Career
  • DOWNLOAD THIS BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (Unlimited) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/yyxo9sk7 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yyxo9sk7 } ......................................................................................................................... ACCESS WEBSITE for All Ebooks ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/yyxo9sk7 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yyxo9sk7 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yyxo9sk7 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • DOWNLOAD FULL BOOKS, INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • DOWNLOAD FULL BOOKS, INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, eBooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Heater operation

  1. 1. SAFETY TALK FIRED HEATERS M.C JOMON 1
  2. 2. Kochi Refinery HEATER Heater is used to raise the temperature of a process fluid from lower temperature to higher temperature. Services in Refinery • Fractionation: Crude, Vacuum, Reboilers. • Thermal cracking: DCU , Visbreaker, Hydrocracker. • Catalytic cracking: Reformer, CCR. • Reaction: Hydrotreater 2
  3. 3. Kochi Refinery HEATER 3
  4. 4. Kochi Refinery HEATER Types Vertical tube cylindrical heater • Most common type refinery heaters. • Vertical radiant tubes and horizontal convection tubes. • Smallest plot area required. • Tubes expand vertically. • Less number of tube supports. One at top and one guide at the bottom for each tube. • Not preferably used for highly vaporizing services. • Heat duty up to 40 MM K cal/hr. 4
  5. 5. Kochi Refinery HEATER Types Horizontal box type [ single shell/ twin shell ] • Heat duty from 20-125 MM Kcal/hr. • Horizontal radiant/convection tubes. • Requires large plot area. • Choice of having heater outlet at the radiant section bottom or top. • Large number of tube supports required. • 20-25% costlier than vertical heater. • Used in crude vacuum coker heaters. 5
  6. 6. Kochi Refinery HEATER Types Arbor or wicket type heater [for very low pressure drop [ .2-.3 kg/cm2] • Tubes are like inverted U shape. • All vapour flow. Non coking services. • Low pressure heaters. • Heat duties of 17.5-100 MM Kcal/hr. eg. CCR , • Bottom manifold. • Free draining. • Can be combination firing because of bottom firing. 6
  7. 7. Kochi Refinery HEATER Types Inverted wicket type • Horizontal firing. • Single or double firing. • In situ hydro testing not possible. • Eg. CCR 7
  8. 8. Kochi Refinery HEATER Types Helical coil heater small heat duties up to 15 mm kcal/hr. Not used in refineries. 8
  9. 9. Kochi Refinery HEATER Types Classification based on firing. • Side fired -One side / both side. • Bottom fired • Top fired. • Side fired Bottom fired Top fired 9
  10. 10. Kochi Refinery HEATER Types Classification based on fuel • Gas firing • Oil firing • Combination firing Gas firing Oil firing Oil + Gas firing 10
  11. 11. Kochi Refinery HEATER Types Classification based on Draft • Natural Draft- • Forced Draft - using F.D fan • Induced Draft – using I.D fan and drop out doors. • Balanced Draft – using F.D and I.D fans. 11
  12. 12. Kochi Refinery HEATER Draft Draft is the difference in pressure which causes the flow of air into the furnace and flue gases through the heater. The pressure differential is caused by the difference in densities of the flue gas in the heater and stack and the air surrounding the furnace. • Positive draft means flue gas pressure is below ambient pressure. • Negative draft means fluid pressure is above ambient pressure at the same elevation. • Draft is controlled by stack damper or by ID fan. • Ideal draft in a natural draft furnace is -1 mm wc. 12
  13. 13. Kochi Refinery HEATER Impact of higher draft • Taller flame • Flame lift –off • High air flow through burners[ in natural draft burners only] • Air leakages thru joints of heater body/ explosion door/peepholes. • Excess air more. Impact of lower draft • Damaging heater structure. • Flame or hot air leakage to atmosphere • Low air flow through burners , low excess air [ in natural draft] • Pressurization of heater. 13
  14. 14. Kochi Refinery HEATER Complete Combustion • Complete combustion occurs when 100% of the energy in the fuel is extracted There must be enough air in the combustion chamber for complete combustion to occur. • The combustion process is extremely dependent on time, temperature, and turbulence. Excess Air • In order to ensure complete combustion, combustion chambers are Fired with excess air. • Excess air increases the amount of oxygen and nitrogen entering the flame increasing the probability that oxygen will find and react with the fuel. [ Nox formation ] • Addition of excess air greatly lowers the formation of CO. 14
  15. 15. Kochi Refinery HEATER Excess Air = 100 x (20.9%) / (20.9% -O2m%) - 100% Where O2 m% = The measured value of oxygen in the exhaust. Examples: When O2m% = 5% Then: excess air = 100 x (20.9%) / (20.9%-5%) - 100% = 100 x (20.9%) / (15.9%) - 100% = 100 x (1.31) - 100% excess air = 31% 15
  16. 16. Kochi Refinery HEATER sections • Convection section. • Radiant section • Header box: internally insulated structural compartment separated from the flue gas stream which is used to enclose a number of headers or manifolds. • Stack 16
  17. 17. Kochi Refinery HEATER sections Convection section • Bare tubes at the bottom of the convection section shields the studded tubes from direct radiation. • Normally 3 rows. Absorbs remaining 40-20% of total duty. • Core bells to prevent flue gas by passing around tubes. • May have additional waste heat recovery coils or super heating coils for efficiency improvement. • Soot blowing area. 17
  18. 18. Kochi Refinery HEATER sections Radiant section • Absorbs 60-80% of total duty. • Radiation contribution -90% • Tubes are in Vertical or Horizontal. 18
  19. 19. Kochi Refinery HEATER Parts/ terminology • Bridge wall : Wall separating two adjacent heater zones. • Arch: Flat or sloped portion of the radiant section opposite the floor. • Damper: A device for regulating the flow of air or flue gas. • Pilot : Small burner that provides the ignition source for the mail burner • Atomizer : Device used to reduce a liquid fuel to fine mist using steam. • Breeching: Heater section that where the flue gases are collected after the last convection coil for transmission to the stack or the outlet duct. • Jump over: Inter connecting pipe work within a heater coil section. 19
  20. 20. Kochi Refinery HEATER Parts / terminology • Louver damper: Damper consists of several blades [ Combustion air Control] • Corbel : Projection from refractory surface generally used to prevent flue gas bypassing the tubes in the convection section. if they are triangular pitch. • Duct: conduit for air or flue gas • Anchor / Tieback/ Jagger : a metallic or refractory material that holds refractory or insulation. • Ceramic wool / Refractory bricks : Insulators • SOB : Shut off Blind./guillotine blind : single blade isolation of air ducts in a heater , like blind. 20
  21. 21. Kochi Refinery HEATER Parts / terminology • Pass: flow streams: Flow circuits consisting of one or more tubes in parallel. • Plenum wind box: Chamber surrounding the burner that is used to distribute air to the burners or reduce combustion noise. • Primary air: Portion of the total air that first mixes with fuel. • Setting loss: Radiation loss: heat lost to the surroundings from the casing of the heater and the ducts and auxiliary equipment's. • Secondary air: Air supplied to the fuel to supplement primary air. • Shield section/ shock section: Tubes that shield the remaining convection section tubes from direct radiation. • Target wall/ reradiating wall: Vertical refractory brick which is exposed to direct flame impingement on one or both sides.- mainly in DCU heaters. 21
  22. 22. Kochi Refinery HEATER Parts terminology • Tube guide: Device used with vertical tubes to restrict horizontal movement while allowing the tube to expand horizontally while firing. • Tube supports: Device used to support tubes. • Tube retainer: Device used to retain horizontal radiant tubes from lifting off the intermediate tube supports during operation • Vapour barrier: Metallic foil placed between layers of refractory as a barrier to flue gas flow. • Soot blower: device used to remove soot or deposits. • Strake/spoiler: metal attachment to a stack that prevent the formation of vortices that can cause wind induced vibration. 22
  23. 23. Kochi Refinery HEATER TUBES • Bare Tubes. • Tubes with extended surface. • Fins • Studs • Segmented fins Bare tubes Studded tubes Fins Segmented fins 23
  24. 24. Kochi Refinery HEATER Tubes with extended surface Solid fins. • Most commonly used in gas firing heaters. • Soot deposit chance is more. • Easy to fabricate. • Less pressure drop. Segmented fins • More prone to damage. • Higher heat transfer rate than solid fins. • Higher pressure drop. • Rarely used in refinery. 24
  25. 25. Kochi Refinery HEATER Tubes with extended surface Studded tubes • Used for oil firing /combination firing case. • Easier to clean. • Strong. • Costlier than fins. 25
  26. 26. Kochi Refinery HEATER TUBES • Horizontal tubes –maximum 25m due to construction /handling problems. • Vertical tubes- maxi. 18m due to limit large variation in the longitudinal heat flux distribution. • Convection area -Normally all tubes are horizontally. 26
  27. 27. Kochi Refinery HEATER Tube Metallurgies • Carbon steel:- Reboiler, steam generator, super heater, hot oil etc. • 5 Cr/ 9cr :- Crude, Vacuum ,Visbreaker, DCU. • SS316L/317L:- Crude with high TAN. Vacuum with high TAN. • SS347H:- Hydrotreter ,Hydrocracker, and Hydrogen. 27
  28. 28. Kochi Refinery HEATER Soot blower Soot blowers. • Soot blower remove the soot from the studded tubes in convection section. • Dry MP steam is used. • After soot blowing flue gas temperature leaving convection section increases. • Soot blower frequency is depended on the fuel used. • In case of Fuel oil case daily is recommendable. 28
  29. 29. Kochi Refinery HEATER Burner Burners Classification based on fuel • Fuel gas burner. • Fuel oil burner. • Combination burner. Classification based on draft • Natural draft. • Forced draft 29
  30. 30. Kochi Refinery HEATER Burners Classification based on fuel air mixing • Premix gas burner • Raw gas/oil burner. • Staged fuel burner • Staged air burner. Low Nox Burners. • Flue gas recirculation burner. Classification based on NOx emission. • Low NOx burner [ less than 50 ppm] • Ultra NOx burner. 20-50 ppm • Next generation or new technology burner -less than 10 ppm. 30
  31. 31. HEATER Burners Raw gas/ oil burner • Can fire fuel oil fuel gas or combination. • Typical turn down ratio 3:1 [oil] and 5:1 [ gas ] 31mcj
  32. 32. HEATER BURNERS Staged Fuel Burners • Low Nox burner [ 40 ppm vd] • Typically 30% primary fuel and • 70% secondary fuel • High excess air in primary tip reduces flame temperature. • Low O2 in secondary tip results in longer combustion time 32mcj
  33. 33. HEATER BURNERS Staged Air Burner • Low Nox burner - [50-70 ppm vd] • More effective with combination firing. • Air is split into 2-3 zones to slow the combustion • Primary air to initiate combustion. • Secondary air to complete the combustion and maintain flame shape. • Tertiary air to control the flame outer temperature. 33mcj
  34. 34. HEATER BURNERS Flue Gas Recirculation Burner • Ultra Nox burner [ 25- 30 ppm] • A part of flue gas is circulated back into the flame to dilute air/fuel mixture. • Delayed combustion as well as cooler flame. • Very large spacing required between burners And burners are bigger in size. • Very tall flames. 34mcj
  35. 35. HEATER BURNERS New technology next generation Ultra Nox burner • Nox less than 10 ppm • Employ combination of staged air, staged fuel, flue gas recirculation methods. 35mcj
  36. 36. HEATER Our fuel specifications Fuel oil LHV 9500-10000 Viscosity @ 185oc 19-23 cst Sulphur .4-.7 % N2 2000ppm Na 90-170ppm Va 2.5 ppm CCR 14-19 % C/H ratio 8.1 -8.3 Nickel 36-52ppm Fuel Gas LHV 9000 H2S 300ppm H2 15-20 % C1 25.3% C2 19.6% C4 4% C5 .2% C6 Nil mcj 36
  37. 37. HEATER Efficiency Fuel efficiency • Total heat absorbed divided by the total input of heat derived from the combustion of fuel only. [Lower heating value basis.] Thermal efficiency • Total heat absorbed divided by the total input of heat derived from the combustion of fuel plus sensible heats from air fuel and any atomizing medium. • The heat absorbed is equal to the total heat input minus the total heat losses from the system. Total heat input – Stack losses – Radiation heat losses Efficiency = X 100 Total heat input 37mcj
  38. 38. HEATER Checking 1. Tube external corrosion ,tube crack , colour change, bend. 2. Arch area refractory damage. 3. Bottom refractory damage, refractory bulging, bottom body bulging. 4. Flame impingements on tubes. 5. Coking on oil/ gas burners. 6. Atomization of fuel oil. 7. Fuel oil temperature/ viscosity. 8. Tube over heating by flame impingement/ coking/ low coil flow. 9. Tube support / retainer damages. 38mcj
  39. 39. HEATER Checking 11 . Heater body red hot / paint damage due to over heat 12 . Refractory damage. 13 . Flame flash back. 14 . Flame lift off [ high draft, high fuel gas pressure, atomizing steam / fuel oil Dp more] 15 . After burning or secondary combustion.[ re- ignition CO in convection section ] 16 . Pilot burner tip damages 17 . Flue gas / combustion air leakages through burner plenum chamber. 18 . Pilot lite off. 19 . Skin temp raise 20 . Arch temp raise 39mcj
  40. 40. HEATER Checking 21 . Stack temp high/low. 22 . Fuel oil/ gas leaks. 23 . Incomplete combustion [ black smoke ] 24 . More excess air [ over bright flame, and white smoke on stack] 25 . Intermittent flame/ flame height more. 26 . Condensate in atomizing steam[ sparkling flame]. 27 . Condensate in fuel gas. 28 . High fuel oil/ gas firing pressure 29 . Hot spots on tubes. 30 . Flue gas leaks through air ducts. 40mcj
  41. 41. HEATER Checking 31 . Check fuel oil pressure temp and flow , and steam tracing. 32 . Ensure atomizing steam pressure, and condensate free. 33 . Skin temperature- normal value 450- 4800C 34 . Stack damper condition 35 . Air leaks[ open doors ,bolts joints] 36 . Burner flame shape height , smoke. 37 . Abnormal flue gas temperature in convection section. 38 . O2 level in stack- 2-3% normal 39 . Draft/ arch pressure. 40 .Combustion air damper, opening. hot spot ,flame back up. 41mcj
  42. 42. HEATER Checking 41 . Individual burner valve opening [ should not be pinched] 42 . Individual burner air damper opening [ should be same for all burners] 43 . Fuel oil viscosity, return header flow, steam tracing. 44 . Dp of atomizing steam / fuel oil. 45 . Burner tile conditions 46 . Abnormal noise, whistling sound. 47 . Flue gas temperature at APH inlet and outlet. 48 . ID suction temperature. 49 .Fluid coupling loading/ VFD . rpm indication. 50 . Bearing cooling water temperature/ flow. 42mcj
  43. 43. HEATER Checking 51 . Any abnormal sound/ vibration on coil jump over. 52 . Coil jump over supports ,coil outlet supports outside heater. 53 . Convection inlet flange leak, pressure reading. 54 . Igniter working condition. 55 . ID , FD motor amperages. 56 . Leakages through ID, FD , and ducts. 57 .ID, FD inlet outlet damper opening. 58 Clogging of FD inlet filter. 59 . ID suction pressure. 60 . ID, FD bearing temperature, vibration, sound. 43mcj
  44. 44. HEATER Checking 61 . Soot blower steam valve conditions 62 . Soot blowing steam condensate traps. 63 . Soot blower poppet valve opening / closing/ passing. 64 . Soot blower shaft condition after soot blowing[ retract or not] 65 . Damage of castable refractory after soot blowing. 66 . Pilot conditions, pilot air register condition, any flame flash back through pilot. 67 . Convection outlet temperature reading 68 . Radiation outlet individual pass out let temperature. 69 . COT. 70 . Box purging steam any passing. 44mcj
  45. 45. HEATER Checking 71 . Peep hole damages, glass damages, rope damages etc. 72 . Atomizing steam, fuel oil, gas valves passing/ gland leaks/wheel damages. 73. Lp gas burner status. Lp gas flame arrestor dp. Lp gas pressure. 74 . Hot well gas burner conditions. Flame arrestor dp, line plugging, condensate carryover etc. 75 . Hot well gas knock out drum level. 76 . Fuel gas knock out drum level. 77 . Fuel gas c/v SDV status, opening, gland leaks, SDV solenoid valve. 78 . Fuel oil c/v SDV supply and return status. 79 . Fuel header PCV opening [ supply/ return tie up]. 80 . Fuel oil heater steam/ condensate flow, temperature. 45mcj
  46. 46. HEATER Checking 81 . Fuel oil supply return header pressures at battery limit. 82 . Oil leakages through oil guns. 83 . Any abnormal fuel gas/ flue gas smell near heater. 84 . Leakages through SOBs. 85 . Any instrument air leaks, near c/v s stack dampers. 86 . Stack damper openings. 87 . Acid corroded spots on the body. 88 . Explosion door opening. 89 . Analyzers readings. 90 . Insulation damages. 46mcj
  47. 47. HEATER Checking 91 . Heat resistant paint damage on heater body. 92 . Heater body red hot bulging. 93 . Velocity steam dryness. 94 . Any abnormal vibration of coils due to velocity steam. 95 . Radiation out let/ swing elbow flange leaks. 96 . Oil soaking in insulation while start up after shut down. 97 . Heater transfer line flange [ at column nozzle ] leak. 98 . Pass control valve openings, gland leak, coil pressure. 99 . Emergency steam to be closed while heater starting. 100 . Ensure plant air line blinds. 101 . Ensure coil minimum flow. 47mcj
  48. 48. HEATER Decoking Thermal decoking : Using air and steam inside tubes , controlled firing in heater. [ It take more time, chance to tube metallurgy damage] Mechanical decoking : Using water with pigs inside the tubes. On line Spalling : Steam inside tube and firing in heater. One individual pass can be done on line. Coke removed by thermal shock. [ only in DCU heater] 48mcj
  49. 49. HEATER dry out • To be done after heater long shut down work or refractory work . • Controlled fire inside the furnace and steam inside the tubes . 49mcj
  50. 50. HEATER problems - reasons Internal tube corrosion sulphur and naphthenic acid corrosion External tube corrosion metal oxidation, and by H2S04 Erosion High velocity with solids, impingement on fitting Polythionic acid corrosion [ for steel tubes] on tube outside. In hydro cracking /hydrode-sulphurisation heaters only. Creep rupture damage Due to high tube temp [ skin] Hot spot / tube bulging Due to coking inside tube , flame impingement , and by low coil flow /velocity. Coking on fuel oil gun / oil dripping High viscosity , poor atomization , improper gun guide tube fitting. 50mcj
  51. 51. HEATER problems - reasons Flame lift off high draft Back fire High arch pressure, burner coking , burner tip damage , block inside burner chamber Flame impingement on tubes Burner tip coking , tip damage ,poor atomizing . Sparkling flame Condensate in atomizing steam Over bright flame [ combination firing ] More excess air Smoky flame High fuel firing pressure , low combustion air , poor atomizing , and burner coking High arch pressure Over firing , stack damper/ ID problem , burner coke purging 51mcj
  52. 52. HEATER problems - reasons High arch temperature Over firing , flame lift off , high gas firing pressure , secondary combustion . Pulsating fire [ alternately ignite and goes out] Lack of air and low draft Excess smoke on stack Incomplete combustion , burner coking , poor atomizing , burner tip damage , less combustion air , and heater tube failure Burner tile damage Due to sodium Vandate corrosion , Tube coloure change Ash burning , coking inside tube , flame impingement Tube support damage Flame impingement , hammering of tubes high temp oxidation , 52mcj
  53. 53. HEATER problems - reasons Tube sheet damage in convection section After burning , If Na, Va in fuel oil is more corrosion chance is more. Refractory damages High arch temp, improper dry out , thermal shock due to fast temperature raise, soot blowing steam condensate , poor casting . Hot spot / acid corroded holes on heater body Refractory damages , flue gas entry inside the refractory bed gaps . mcj 53
  54. 54. HEATER mcj 54 EMERGENCIES ACTIONS Pass flow control valve / flow failure Closely monitor individual pass outlet temp , put c/v in MAN mode or open b/p b/v. Fuel oil trip Rectify the problem and start oil firing Fuel gas trip Rectify the problem and restart firing Heater total trip Restart after rectifying problem , ensure proper coil flow , and furnace draft , and ensure pilot flame . Heater tube failure shut down the heater from remote emergency switch , cut the coil flow, open emergency coil steam,
  55. 55. DO NOT mcj 55 • Do not run heater with by passed interlocks • Do not pinch individual burners • Do not keep different openings in individual air louvers • In case of tube failure do not admit air into heater , use steam only • Do not run heater with fully closed stack damper Use proper PPE s [ gloves , thermal protecting face shields ]
  56. 56. HEATER Crude heater start up after shut down • Purge Fuel gas line with N2. • Reset FG / pilot SOVs and charge fuel gas. • Flush fuel oil lines to CBD , Reset supply /return SDV s. • Establish fuel oil circulation in supply and return headers. • Purge individual oil lines up to oil gun [ to a drum ] and insert oil guns. • Line up all instruments. • Start cold oil circulation inside heater coils. • Wide open stack damper and box purge heater with steam [ 20 minutes].ensure draft. 56mcj
  57. 57. HEATER Crude heater start up after shut down • Start FD fan , open combustion air louvers, and purge heater with air. • Lite the pilot burners. • Lite FG burners. [ never lite from the adjacent burner] • Purge the FO burner with steam. • After gun purging open FO atomizing steam, then slowly open fuel oil and adjust the flame. • After stabilizing start ID fan , and kept stack damper opening minimum . • Control arch pressure using ID fan speed, and stack damper opening. 57mcj
  58. 58. Thank You mc jomon 58

×