Organizational Behaviour Unit 1 Development of Organizational Behaviour
Toward a definition of OB The concept of organizational behaviour is somewhat misleading because OB refers to the behaviour of people in an organization. An organization is a system of two or more people, engaged in cooperative action trying to reach a purpose(Kilduff and Doughberrysired in Champoux, 2006 p6). Hellriegel, slocum and Woodman (1995 p4) define organizational behaviour as a study of human behaviour, attitudes and performance in an organization.
Toward a definition of OB It is interdisciplinary, drawing from concepts from social and clinical psychology, sociology, cultural anthropology, industrial engineering, and organizational psychology.
Historical foundations of OB Scientific Management Frederick W. Taylor (1911) The four principles of Taylor’s scientific management: Carefully study the jobs to develop standard work practices. Standardize the tools used by workers. Select each worker scientifically. Management and workers cooperate to ensure that work is done according to standard procedures. Management plans and makes task assignments; workers carry out assigned task.
Historical foundations of OB Theory of Administration Henri Fayol (1919) Fayol’s theory described the major management functions and several principles that act as a administrative guide. Five functions of management: Planning Organizing Commanding Coordinating controlling
Historical foundations of OB Fayol (con’t) “all must observe the same general principles”. The principle of administration were central to his theory of administration. They are set tools a manager needs to perform the function of management. Division of labour Authority and responsibility Centralization Delegation of authority Unity of command Unity of direction
Historical foundations of OB Bureaucracy (Max Weber, 1922) An administrative structure with well defined offices and functions and hierarchical relationships among the functions. The bureaucracy defines the authority when it develops its division of labour. The person who takes authority assumes the authority of that position.
Historical foundations of OB Bureaucracy (con’t) Features: Clearly defined and specialized functions Use of legal authority Hierarchical form Written rules Technical trained bureaucrats Appointment based on technical competence Clearly defined career path Fixed formal relationships among clearly defined hierarchically organized functions.
Historical foundations of OB Mary Parker Follet’s (1925) and Chester Bernard (1938) – humanistic perspective on management that emphasized: Importance of understanding human behaviours Needs and attitudes in the work place Social interaction and group processes
Historical foundations of OB Human Relations Movement The human relations school considers that effective control comes from within the individual rather than from strict, authoritarian control. The relations movement emphasized satisfaction of employee’s basic needs as key to increased productivity. The Hawthorne Studies (1939) is a significant qualifying perspective as it emphasized the extent to which social pressures affect employees in the work place and how the relationship between managers and operatives influence the level of productivity in the work environment. Maslow and McGregor (1960) – motivation of the individual
Historical foundations of OB Peter Drucker (1995) Proposed the philosophy of management by objectives (MBO) and self-control. Managers and employees define goals for every department, project, and person and use them to monitor subsequence performance.
Why study OB? To attain the competencies needed to be an effective employee, team leader, and/or manager. Knowledge and skills gained should help to diagnose, understand, and explain what is happening around to an employee in his or her job.
Issues in OB Issues in organizational behaviour are likely to result from areas of : Workforce diversity Changes in the work force and customers Gender Race and ethnicity Age Quality management Technology Global environment Ethics