Leadership<br />
Objectives<br />At the end of this lesson students should be able to:<br />Discuss the role of leadership in an organizati...
Leadership <br />Traits model<br />
Trait model<br />The trait model is based on the observed  characteristics of leaders. The model identify four traits that...
Traits Model<br />Intelligence – leaders tend to have somewhat higher intelligence than their subordinates.<br />Maturity ...
Criticism of the traits model<br />Traits model does not identify consistent patterns among successful leaders.<br />It re...
Behavioural model<br />leadership<br />
Behavioural models<br />Behavioural models focus on what leader actually do and how they do it. These model show the leade...
Ohio State University leadership model<br />This research was conducted in the 1940s with the objective of identifying lea...
Consideration dimension<br />The extent to which leaders have job relationship characterized by:<br />mutual trust<br />tw...
Initiating structure dimension (1)<br />The extent to which a leader define and structure their roles and their subordinat...
Initiating structure dimension (2)<br />High degree of initiating structure is concerned with accomplishing tasks by givin...
Contingency Model<br />Hersey and Blanchard’s situational model<br />
Hersey and Blanchard’s situational model<br /> Hersey and Blanchard’s situational model is based on the relationship (supp...
Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory<br />high<br />Participating <br />Followers able, unwilling, insecure<...
Selling – explain your decisions and provide opportunities for clarification
Participating – share ideas and facilitate in making decisions
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Leadership

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Leadership

  1. 1. Leadership<br />
  2. 2. Objectives<br />At the end of this lesson students should be able to:<br />Discuss the role of leadership in an organization<br />Assess the impact of different styles of leadership on organizational behaviour.<br />
  3. 3. Leadership <br />Traits model<br />
  4. 4. Trait model<br />The trait model is based on the observed characteristics of leaders. The model identify four traits that are shared by most successful leaders.<br />Intelligence<br />Maturity and breadth<br />Inner motivation and achievement drive<br />Employee-centred<br />
  5. 5. Traits Model<br />Intelligence – leaders tend to have somewhat higher intelligence than their subordinates.<br />Maturity and breadth – leaders tend to be emotionally mature and have a broad range of interests.<br />Inner motivation – leader want to accomplish things. <br />Employee-centred leaders are able to work effectively with employees in a variety of ways.<br />
  6. 6. Criticism of the traits model<br />Traits model does not identify consistent patterns among successful leaders.<br />It relates physical characteristics to effective leadership. Most of which are related to the situational demands that significantly affect a leader’s effectiveness. e.g. leaders in the military.<br />
  7. 7. Behavioural model<br />leadership<br />
  8. 8. Behavioural models<br />Behavioural models focus on what leader actually do and how they do it. These model show the leaders achieve their goals in two ways:<br />By having task-centred relationships with members which are focused on the quality and quantity of work accomplished.<br />By being considerate and supportive of members’ attempts to achieve personal goals.<br />
  9. 9. Ohio State University leadership model<br />This research was conducted in the 1940s with the objective of identifying leadership behaviours that are important for attaining team and organizational goals.<br />The findings highlighted two important dimensions of leadership behaviour:<br />Consideration <br />Initiating structures<br />
  10. 10. Consideration dimension<br />The extent to which leaders have job relationship characterized by:<br />mutual trust<br />two-way communication<br />respect for employees’ ideas<br />Respect for employees’ feeling<br />High consideration – psychological closeness between leader and subordinate<br />Low consideration – greater psychological distance and a more impersonal leader<br />
  11. 11. Initiating structure dimension (1)<br />The extent to which a leader define and structure their roles and their subordinates’ to accomplish the organizational goals. <br />Leaders concern with this dimension emphasize the following:<br />Planning to give direction<br />Communicate information<br />Use schedules<br />Maintain standards of performance<br />
  12. 12. Initiating structure dimension (2)<br />High degree of initiating structure is concerned with accomplishing tasks by giving directions and expecting them to be followed.<br />Leaders who emphasize initiating structure generally improve productivity in the short-term.<br />The study shows that leaders who rank high in initiating structure and low in consideration generally have large numbers of grievances, absenteeism, and high turnover rates.<br />
  13. 13. Contingency Model<br />Hersey and Blanchard’s situational model<br />
  14. 14. Hersey and Blanchard’s situational model<br /> Hersey and Blanchard’s situational model is based on the relationship (supportive) and the task (directive) behaviour that a leader provides in a given situation. <br />Relationship behaviour is the extent to which the leaders listen, provide support and encouragement and involve workers in decision-making.<br />Task behaviour is the extent to which leaders give instructions, direction and closely supervise their subordinates<br />
  15. 15. Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory<br />high<br />Participating <br />Followers able, unwilling, insecure<br />Selling<br />Followers unable, willing, confident<br />This model suggests that leaders adjust their styles. They do so contingently and relative to the task readiness of the follower.<br />Readiness refers to how able and willing or confident followers are to perform tasks<br />Participating behaviours<br />Delegating<br />Followers able, willing, confident<br />Telling<br />Followers unable, unwilling insecure<br />low<br />Task behaviours<br />low<br />high<br /><ul><li>Telling – providing specific instructions and closely supervise performance
  16. 16. Selling – explain your decisions and provide opportunities for clarification
  17. 17. Participating – share ideas and facilitate in making decisions
  18. 18. Delegating – turn over responsibilities for decision and implementation</li></li></ul><li>Implications of Hersey and Blanchard’s model<br />The readiness level of employees must the checked in order for the leader to determine which style is suitable.<br />
  19. 19. Criticism<br />It is possible in a team situation to have members at different readiness levels. How does a leader adequately adjust to the readiness level of each member.<br />

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