Historical Development Contributions for OB Plato F.W.Taylor Aristotle Elton Mayo Confusius Douglas McGregor Nicolas Machiavelli Human Capital Adam Smith OB Models Max Weber
Plato’s view on Society Work -The Republic Essence of Leadership Categorized society to 3 souls 1.Peasants - Foundation of society 2.Warriors - Rep. Spirit & Courage 3.Philosopher King -Guide society by reason
Aristotle Contribution to Psychology-Para Psychic Idea On society 1.Plant Soul - Nutrition 2.Animal Soul - Basic sensation, desire 3.Human Soul - Reason Self Actualisation , id &ego
Confusius’s Ethic & leadership Leader as North star Leader Will be the center and rest orient around him Ethic – Choosing right or wrong, increases moral value of a person.
Nicolo Machiavelli Organisational power & politics Good Bad Monarchy - Tyranny Aristocrats - oligarchy Democracy - Anarchy
Adam Smith- Div. of Labour Organisation & society would reap from division of labour. Exp: pin manufacturing 10- group - 48000/day 10-indivduals - 10/day
Max Weber – Theory of authority Three Authority 1.Traditional – Rule passed down by heredity (Feudalism, Patrimonialism) 2.Charismatic – Inspiring others 3.Legal relational - Obedience to law irrespective of authority
Max weber – Rationality 1. Practical Rationality – Accepts reality merely calculates to deal with them. 2. Theoretical Rationality - Effort to master reality by abstract concept rather through action.
Rationality contd. 3.Substantive rationality - Orders actions into pattern through cluster of values 4.Formal rationality - Calculation of means and ends
F.W.Taylor – Scientific managent Principles 1.Selecting methods based on scientific study 2.Train &develop employee. 3.Detailed supervision &instructing of worker’s work 4.Divide work equally between managers and workers.
F.W.Taylor contd Introduced time study Drawbacks : • Considered as dehumanizing. • Failed to say about feedback.
Elton mayo- Hawthorne study Summary of Hawthorne study, • Feeling of importance had high motivational value. • Physical and financial incentives had little value. • People will form group this can be used by management to benefit the organisation
Douglas McGregor Theory X Theory Y Average employee is Employees will do what lazy, dislikes work, and is good for the will try to do as little as organization when possible. committed. Manager’s task is to When initiative work supervise closely and planned by manager control employees workers would participate through reward and initiatively. punishment.
Human capital Investing in it result in increased productivity and customer satisfaction. Recently, Social capital- who you know( network friends ) Psychological capital – who you are(confidence,hope,who you can become)
OB Models By Keith Davis and Newstrom are: 1) Autocratic 2) Custodial 3) Supportive 4) Collegial