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[2012.11] A Study on the Future Sustainability of Sejong City
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[2012.11] A Study on the Future Sustainability of Sejong City


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Focusing on the implementation of Transit-Oriented Development

Focusing on the implementation of Transit-Oriented Development

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  • 1. A Study on the future Sustainability of Sejong city, South Korea Focusing on implementation of Transit-Oriented Development Jeongmuk Kang
  • 3. 1. Background Global Warming and Climate Change • by 0.74 °C over the past hundred years. • Natural disasters (Floods, Tsunami, Hurricane etc.) Growing Population and Urbanization • More than 7 billion people on Earth. • Urban population 50.9 % (today) 56.6 % (2025) 68.7 % (2050) • By 2030, cities will be responsible for 73 % of the world’s energy use • To avert the worst impacts from Climate Change, CO2 emission must be cut by 50% (IPCC). The role of transportation • Transport: 19% energy use and 23% energy-related CO2 emission • CO2 emissions from transportation sector would be able to be cut by up to 65% by 2050 (Greene et al., 2011).
  • 4. 1.1 Spread of transport networks The Industrial Revolution (1850s ~) • The introduction of steam engines • Higher economic productivity & transportation capability • The change of the structure of city • Colonization 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 1650 1700 1750 1801 1851 1901 1911 1951 2001 2006 2011 PopulationinLondon x100000 Year X6
  • 5. — 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 UrbanPopulationx100000 Year Europe Asia Africa World Urban World Total 1.2 Rapid urbanization in Asia Post World War II era (1950s ~) • The independence of colonized countries in Asia and Africa & transfer of manufacturing industries to Asia • Economic growth, population growth, and rapid urbanization • By 2050, they accommodate 75% of the urban population in Earth
  • 6. 1.3 Urban congestions and New Urbanism New Urbanism (the late 20th ~) • Attention to Urban transport • The expansion of railway networks in Western countries • Automobile-oriented development in developing world. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Railline(Totalroute-km)x10000 Year United States Euro area Russian China India South Africa Korea, Rep. Turkey Malaysia
  • 7. 1.4 Decentralization & balanced national development • In developing country, increase of 1,000 urban population → 1,500-2,000 additional trips each day (TRL, 1992) • Severe congestion and deterioration, in particular the capital cities of developing countries. → Decentralization by creating new cities in developing countries
  • 8. 1.4 Decentralization & balanced national development Sejong city, South Korea (2030)Putrajaya city, Malaysia (2012) Location of PUTRAJAYA city Source: Moser (2010) Location of SEJONG city Source: MACCA (2007)
  • 9. 1.5 Urban Transform with Transit- Oriented Development • Mass transport system in low cost with Bus Rapid Transit in Latin America Curitiba (Brazil), Bogota (Colombia) • TOD was conceptualized in North America in the early 90’s Transit-Oriented Development is typically defined as more compact development within easy walking distance of transit stations that contains a mix of uses such as housing, jobs, shops, restaurants and entertainment. TOD is really about creating walkable, sustainable communities for people of all ages and incomes and providing more transportation and housing choices (Center for Transit-Oriented Development, 2007, p2).
  • 10. 2 Aim of the study to assess the future urban sustainability of Sejong city by analyzing first the Master Plan of the construction of the city, and second its implementation with a focus on the expected role of Transit-Oriented Development in particular looking at BRT. • What sorts of sustainable aspects will Sejong have? • What are shortcomings of planned city? • What would the influence of TOD on Sejong’s urban sustainability be?
  • 11. 3 Methodology • Databases by international organizations • Inventory Analysis of Sejong city – PEBOSCA framework based on the Master Plan of the construction of Sejong • Shortcomings of planned city – Field trip to the project area of Sejong city – Review of the articles regarding the current situation of Putrajaya • Expected role of TOD in Sejong – Review of the Master Plan of BRT System in Sejong – Review of proceeding researches on transport and urban related issues
  • 12. RESULT
  • 13. 1 Inventory Analysis SEJONG city in brief
  • 14. Major features of the city Zonal Planning • Six functional cores • Connected by BRT • Central portion is reserved Multi core structure of Sejong and public transport axis (plan) Source: MACCA (2011) Decentralization concept of Sejong Source: MACCA
  • 15. Major features of the city Mixed communities • Easy to access to essential & daily services • Traditional market place in plaza → Frequent contact within community members The city without 5 things • No utility poles, garbage, private walls, advertising signboards and curb parking • Common Utility Ducts (CUD)
  • 16. 2.1 The shortcomings of Sejong Small-size generation from renewable sources • Central bike path → Increased number of wild animals killed on the road • Small sized dams → Harmful effect on aquatic ecosystems Restoration of the river basin • Attempts to plan the nature → Unsustainable way of restoration • Low effectiveness of eco-park and bike path
  • 17. 2.2 The Shortcomings of Putrajaya Lack of ‘Green’ • Lots of glass materials on buildings in average 30°C • Low density • Lack of green shade – too hot for walking and cycling Lack of mobility • Delay of planned urban rail system & Inefficient bus network → Invasion of automobile and illegal curb parking Formalized structure of Putrajaya Source: King (2007)
  • 18. 3.1 TOD in Sejong Inner Circular BRT axes • Highly prioritized for BRT • BRT links all the functional zones • Easy access to BRT station (with in 20 min by walking, cycling, and community buses) • 70% of the whole transport Outer ring for automobiles • Optimized for automobile users Route of inner circular public transport axis (plan) Source: MACCA (2011)
  • 19. 3.1 TOD in Sejong Transit Transfer Center • Three types of transfer centers – Parking-Oriented (5) – Public Transport (Each BRT station) – Terminal type (the South and the North) Green networks • Auxiliary function of Public transport Locations of parking-oriented transit center Source: Bae et al. (2008) Bicycle roads installing diagram Source: MACCA (2007)
  • 20. 3.2 System analysis on the influence of TOD
  • 21. Automobile traffic control Broader roads & free curb parking spaces even lower the functionality of roads • Free parking → Additional travel → more use of fuel and CO2 emission. • Calculation by Shoup (1997) By automobiles cruising for a free parking space in Westood, central portion of the Westside of Los Angels, over a year 47,000 gallons of gasoline & 728 tons of CO2 = two round trip to the moon • Free curb parking → subsidizing only for automobile users in cash → returns congested roads & polluted urban atmosphere
  • 22. Automobile traffic control • Thus, curb parking should be limited and charged in a certain level → lead people switch their transportation mode to public transportation or green modes 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 $0 $1 $2 $3 $4 $5 $6 Commutermodeshare Price of Parking at work ($/day) Drive sole Carpool Transit Estimated commuter mode share in accordance with price of parking at work Source: Estimated from Willson (1992)
  • 23. Optimization of public transport The more buses, the less CO2 emission? • The importance of the ridership (No. of passengers in a vehicle) • Public transit fails at energy efficiency without ridership. • From the calculation of the US case If the road factor (Avg. no. of passengers) of Transit bus changes from 9.2 to 10.2 → Energy consumption per passenger decrease from 2,781 to 2,524
  • 24. Optimization of public transport The more passenger in a vehicle, the higher energy efficiency • Not only the public transport system but also the policies leading people to use public transport should be accompanied. • in Portland, US 2,547 → 2,087 through TOD program over 5 years
  • 25. Mixed land-use High fluctuation of ridership of public transportation • Single Central Business District (CBD) surrounded by residential area → Commuter trains are full during rush hour, but empty during daytime. Hard to expect more than average one-fifth full of transit vehicle (Nusca, 2010). • Mixed land use pattern → almost the same relationship as high-density development with increased transit ridership (Sung and Oh 2011).
  • 26. Improvement of walking environment Revitalization of economy of local businesses → Increased and prolonged foot traffic on the street Increase of property and income taxes → Increase of actual value of real estates → Increase of taxable income for local government Transport not only is a key factor in modern economies, but also plays an important role for the individual happiness. Optimization of transport system is crucial to meet increasing demands and sustainable development (Duarte et al, 2010, p.30).
  • 28. Discussion Positive influences on the sustainability of city
  • 29. Discussion • Sejong’s future aspects for urban sustainability → Urban problems on transportation and mobility in Putrajaya → Sejong’s actions in accordance with TOD on circular-shape of urban structure would prevent the potential urban problems Weaknesses of this study • Controversial over the feasibility of analysis on the Master Plan of the city • Possible Inefficiency caused from the split of government units • Environmental issues
  • 30. Conclusion Better option for developing world • The implementation of TOD and transport policies is expected to systemically relieve urban traffic problems and positively influence to the environment, economy, and the social sustainability of the city in the future. TOD would be deemed to be a better option for existing cities and is quite necessary for newly developing planned cities in Asia and Africa.
  • 31. Thank you