Transit Oriented Development : Environmental Imperative, Business Opportunity

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Presentation to world bank meeting of Chinese officials

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Transit Oriented Development : Environmental Imperative, Business Opportunity

  1. 1. Transit Oriented Development : Environmental Imperative, Business Opportunity Robert T. Dunphy Transportation Consultant Instructor, Georgetown University World Bank Program – China Delegates December 15, 2011
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>TOD defined and challenges in US </li></ul><ul><li>Remaking the image of transit </li></ul><ul><li>Making the Case </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation vs development </li></ul><ul><li>Principles for TOD </li></ul><ul><li>Successes and Failures </li></ul>
  3. 3. Names? <ul><li>transit-oriented development (TOD) </li></ul><ul><li>transit village </li></ul><ul><li>Smart growth </li></ul>Not TAD TOD
  4. 4. What is TOD? <ul><li>Most definitions include: </li></ul><ul><li>strong transit connection (designed to facilitate use of transit) </li></ul><ul><li>moderate to high density </li></ul><ul><li>mixed use </li></ul><ul><li>pedestrian-oriented </li></ul>Development Transit
  5. 5. US - Development Transit Disconnect <ul><li>Then </li></ul><ul><li>Now </li></ul>
  6. 6. Population Growth and Commute Share Major US Transit Cities ~ 2000 - 2009
  7. 7. Transit share in U.S. High growth Cities
  8. 8. What do we mean by transit?
  9. 10. Or?
  10. 11. Transit – Non User’s View
  11. 12. Urban Transit: Often unattractive
  12. 13. Remaking the Image of Transit <ul><ul><li>Ride/Comfort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shelter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed/Reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. The Transit Conundrum <ul><li>“ A STUDY BY THE AMERICAN PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION ASSOCIATION REVEALS THAT 98 PERCENT OF AMERICANS SUPPORT THE USE OF MASS TRANSIT BY OTHERS”. THE ONION </li></ul>&quot;Take The Bus... I'll Be Glad You Did.&quot;
  14. 15. Reinvesting in Transit: Chicago
  15. 16. New York
  16. 17. Making the Case <ul><li>Transit will work here </li></ul><ul><li>Transit Oriented Development will work here </li></ul>
  17. 18. Why Do It? <ul><li>Doing Good </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports Transit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces sprawl </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Doing Well </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Profitable, new market </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Global impacts <ul><li>Energy security, peak oil </li></ul><ul><li>Land consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change </li></ul>
  19. 20. Development Does Not Happen Just Because of the Transit <ul><li>It Takes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incentives (possibly) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Transportation Perspective <ul><li>Urban Development - Good </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Builds transit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Options to Driving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves real estate values </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conventional Suburban Development - Bad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive driving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transit difficult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard to walk </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Development Perspective <ul><li>Urban MXD Hard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes longer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unproven Market, Hi Risk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conventional Suburban </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to do, cheap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where the Growth is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few Opponents </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. The Transit Market The Real Estate Market Principles for Transit Oriented Development
  23. 24. Make It Better with a Vision <ul><li>Agreement on growth plans among citizens, developers, officials </li></ul><ul><li>Helps public and private investments to work together </li></ul>
  24. 25. Kendall, Miami
  25. 26. Green Infrastructure – Regional vision
  26. 27. Partner with Private Sector <ul><li>Combine strengths to achieve better projects: </li></ul><ul><li>Transit agencies: land, transit </li></ul><ul><li>Local governments: planning, land assemblage, infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Private developers: land ownership, real estate experience, financing – Keep them happy </li></ul>
  27. 28. Mid-Pike Massing Diagram <ul><li>Old Georgetown Road </li></ul><ul><li>Hoya Street </li></ul><ul><li>Mon trose Parkway </li></ul>
  28. 29. Think Development When Thinking Transit <ul><li>Transit to connect nodes of activity </li></ul><ul><li>Transit-supportive densities, mix of uses, attractive places </li></ul><ul><li>Cheap transit routes create poor development options </li></ul>
  29. 30. Downtown Plano, Texas
  30. 31. Get the Parking Right
  31. 32. Get the Parking Right <ul><li>     Move </li></ul><ul><li>     Share </li></ul><ul><li>     Deck </li></ul><ul><li>     Wrap </li></ul>
  32. 33. Make Buses a Great Idea
  33. 34. Boston Silver Line
  34. 35. Curitiba, Brazil <ul><li>Extensive coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Fast service </li></ul><ul><li>Affordable </li></ul>
  35. 36. Develop Affordable Housing
  36. 37. Principles <ul><li>Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>Think Development </li></ul><ul><li>Parking </li></ul><ul><li>Buses </li></ul><ul><li>Housing </li></ul>
  37. 39. Transforming the Nassau Hub “America’s First Suburb” <ul><li>Levittown, New York </li></ul>
  38. 40. <ul><li>Leading commercial center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major malls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 colleges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>residential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>coliseum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disconnected suburban pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Redesign - urban, connected </li></ul><ul><li>redeveloping the coliseum </li></ul>Source: RPA, Neighborhood Network Nassau Hub – an early suburban success
  39. 41. The promise ''a vision for a new suburbia‘‘ <ul><li>Create a central axis for the government, shopping, college and medical complex. </li></ul><ul><li>High-paying jobs and expanded tax base while preserving neighborhoods </li></ul><ul><li>revenue-producing growth reduces property taxes </li></ul><ul><li>''This is Suozzi Land, (a grandiose plan when we can’t maintain what we have” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peter Schmitt, Nassau County Legislature </li></ul></ul>
  40. 43. Nassau Coliseum Redevelopment <ul><li>2007 - Team chosen to redevelop land around Nassau Coliseum. </li></ul><ul><li>The developer's vision - big for Long Island: high rise housing, office, and attractions. </li></ul><ul><li>Town scaled back height and density to &quot;preserve suburban character” </li></ul><ul><li>Without a few dense nodes, the Island's continued economic growth will be at risk. </li></ul>
  41. 44. Revitalizing a Suburban strip – Arlington, VA <ul><li>Declining corridor </li></ul><ul><li>Retail losses </li></ul><ul><li>Lumber yards </li></ul><ul><li>Pawn Shops </li></ul><ul><li>Oil Tanks </li></ul>Rosslyn, VA
  42. 45. Arlington – Concept Plan <ul><li>Relocate Transit </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster Development </li></ul>
  43. 46. Rosslyn Ballston Land Use Plan
  44. 48. Citizen Vision Plan <ul><li>Significant growth inevitable. All land redevelopable </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t repeat Rosslyn mistakes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Density half Rosslyn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance, emphasize retail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early attention to amenities, architectural quality, pedestrian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 acres of parks in each bulls eye </li></ul></ul>
  45. 50. <ul><li>The Ridership Payoff </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced Development = Balanced Flows </li></ul><ul><li>39% of residents use transit to commute </li></ul><ul><li>~ 2/3 access by “non-motorized transport” </li></ul>
  46. 51. Source: Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments
  47. 53. Tour notes <ul><li>Rosslyn </li></ul><ul><li>Ballston </li></ul><ul><li>Court House </li></ul><ul><li>Clarendon </li></ul>
  48. 54. TOD without transit Victorian Gardens, CA
  49. 55. Making Projects Attractive to Developers <ul><li>Good transit - top of the food chain </li></ul><ul><li>Be clear about what you are looking for </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t stifle creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t be greedy </li></ul><ul><li>Make transit part of the solution </li></ul><ul><li>Even if no transit (now), much of the desired qualities possible </li></ul>
  50. 56. Fred Dock Robert Cervero Maureen McAvey Doug Porter Bob Dunphy
  51. 57. Thanks! Robert T. Dunphy 202-603-9907

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