Beyond Eye Tracking
Using user temperature, rating dials, and facial
analysis to understand the user experience
Jen Romano...
2
Client’s needs
•  Traditionally…
–  What works well
–  What needs help
3
Client’s needs
•  Traditionally…
–  What works well
–  What needs help
•  Measure the UX
Observations
Selection/click be...
4
Task efficiency and accuracy
Accuracy
Steps to
Complete
Task*
Time to
Complete
Task*
Users 10% 8 170 seconds
Admins 21% ...
Session observations
5
•  Observational click behavior
•  Facial expressions of frustration
•  Fidgeting and other observa...
6
Explicit
Post-task satisfaction questionnaires
Moderator follow up
In-session difficulty ratings
Verbal responses
Real-t...
Think aloud protocol
7
•  Rooted in cognitive psychology and the study of thinking
•  Makes explicit what is implicitly pr...
Satisfaction questionnaires & difficulty ratings
8
•  Assess users subjective satisfaction
•  Consistent questionnaire use...
9
Client’s needs
•  For this project…
–  What grabs attention?
–  What is engaging?
–  What is a turn off?
–  What about t...
A volunteer please
10
11
Client’s needs
•  For this project…
–  What grabs attention?
–  What is engaging?
–  What is a turn off?
–  What about ...
Implicit measures
12
•  Physiological responses are difficult to control
•  Implicit responses are unfiltered
•  Responses...
Why don’t we measure the implicit?
13
•  Very difficult, if even possible, to
communicate the subconscious.
•  Responses o...
Why should we measure the implicit?
14
•  Evaluates thought processes and emotions (not what the
participant tells you)
• ...
Why should we measure the implicit?
15
•  Evaluates thought processes and emotions (not what the
participant tells you)
• ...
16
Observations
Selection/click behavior
Ethnography
Time to complete task
Reaction time
Accuracy
Ability to complete task...
Two categories of implicit measures
17
BiometricsNeuroimaging
Neuroimaging metrics
18
•  Indirectly or directly
measures activity in the
brain.
•  Typically measures the
hemodynamic re...
Why don’t we collect neuroimaging measures?
19
•  Lots of resources
•  Expensive equipment
•  Complex analyses
•  Strict p...
Two categories of implicit measures
20
BiometricsNeuroimaging
Biometrics
21
•  Established in UX research
–  Eye Tracking
•  New to UX
–  Electrodermal Activity
•  Skin conductance res...
Eye Tracking
22
What is eye tracking
23
•  Observing and recording eye movements
as a participant interacts with a product
–  Allows us to...
Eye tracking today
24
Qualitative heat maps
25
•  Aggregate of fixation count or duration across participants
Example:
•  Participants have simi...
Qualitative gaze plots
26
•  Plot of fixations for a single participant
Example:
•  Participant fixates
back and forth
bet...
27
Example:
•  Participant has
repeated fixations in
the upper right hand
corner
•  Participant said that
he/she was looki...
Quantitative eye-tracking data
28
•  Quantitative data
–  Attention
•  Time to first fixation
–  Are users finding the imp...
Quantitative eye tracking
29
•  Break the page up into
separate “areas of interest” or
AOIs
•  Compare the fixation data
b...
Combining quantitative and qualitative data
30
•  Using multiple sources of data makes the evidence more
compelling
•  Exa...
Beyond eye tracking
31
•  Eye tracking is just one type of biometric measure
•  It tells us where participants are looking...
Facial expression analysis
32
33
Emotion Recognition Software
•  Real-time and continuous tracking of facial expressions
(Terzis, Moridis, Economides, 2...
34
Emotion Recognition Software
35
Emotion Recognition Software
Bringing biometrics to UX research
36
Electrodermal Activity
37
What is it?
38
•  Electrodermal activity (EDA)
encompasses skin conductance
responses and body
temperature.
•  Nerve fiber...
Who cares?
39
•  Skin conductance is an established measure of arousal
•  Arousal can indicate engagement, fear, frustrati...
EDA in UX research
40
•  EDA can indicate usability problems
•  Assess “good” and “bad” interfaces and compare biometrics ...
41
How do I do it?
•  The electrodes on an EDA sensor measure the resistance electricity faces
when traveling across the s...
The device that required the least amount of training
42
A less commonly used explicit measure:
Dial rating
43
Dial Rating
44
FMG Rating Dial
•  Continuous real-time feedback on videos and
commercials
•  Researcher can choose anchors...
Visa Video Ad
45
46
EDA data
System Time Movement Data Temperature Raw EDA Signal Event Marker
47
•  Tonic and phasic activity
–  Tonic activity is slow, state-based level of arousal
–  Phasic activity is a rapid, sti...
48
•  The phasic response begins 1-4 seconds after onset of stimulus
•  The signal is analyzed in discrete time intervals
...
49
Traditional Measures of Attention and Emotion
50
P
I found my mind
wandering while the
advertisement was on
While the
advertisement was
on, I found myself
thinking abou...
51
Explicit rating of emotion: Please indicate how much you experienced each of the following
while viewing the advertisem...
52
•  When?
–  When did minds start to wander?
–  When were people engaged?
•  What?
–  What did people focus on?
–  What ...
53
New Measures of Attention and Emotion
54
Traditional Likert-Scale Overall Rating
New Continuous Dial Rating
Visa Video Ad Example
Question: Please indicate how ...
55
1.6
1.65
1.7
1.75
1.8
1.85
1.9
1.95
2
2.05
2.1
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 2...
56
Traditional Likert-Scale Overall Rating
New Physiological Measure of Arousal
Visa Video Ad Example
Question: Please ind...
Artery Video Ad
57
Artery Video Ad Example: Traditional Measures
58
Traditional Likert-Scale Overall Rating
Question: Please indicate how muc...
Artery video example
59
Traditional Likert-Scale Overall Rating
New Continuous Dial Rating
Question: Please indicate how m...
-­‐1.2	
  
-­‐1	
  
-­‐0.8	
  
-­‐0.6	
  
-­‐0.4	
  
-­‐0.2	
  
0	
  
0.2	
  
0	
   1	
   2	
   3	
   4	
   5	
   6	
   7	...
Electrodermal activity: Artery video
61
Traditional Likert-Scale Overall Rating
New Physiological Measure of Arousal
Quest...
Electrodermal activity: Artery video
62
"...the	
  main	
  artery	
  
from	
  the	
  heart"	
  
"every	
  cigareWe	
  is	
...
1.6
1.65
1.7
1.75
1.8
1.85
1.9
1.95
2
2.05
2.1
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 2...
Continuous Dial Rating: Artery vs. Visa
64
-1.1
0.0
1.1
P1
P2
P3
P4
P5
P6
Mean
-1.2
-1
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0 1 2 3 4...
EDA advantages and disadvantages
65
•  Advantages
–  Continuous measure of
automatic physiological
response
–  Sensitive t...
The future of implicit measures
66
We need to be taking a collaborative approach
67
•  Disparate measures of physiological response can tell a cohesive story...
We need to be taking a collaborative approach
68
Combining implicit measures for meaningful insights
69
-1.100
0.000
1.100
•  Simulated pupil diameter data
•  Simulated he...
EDA: promising future
70
•  Promising results
–  When data is good, EDA provides continuous, “objective” arousal
measure
–...
71
•  Data Analyses
–  Compare to baseline – different baseline per person and per stimulus
–  How does pupil dilation dat...
Select your measure carefully
72
•  Where are participants dwelling on instructions and tasks?
–  Eye tracking
•  Which sp...
Not just about usability but also interaction
73
Interfaces that adjust based on affective state and workload
74
Video games that adapt to a user’s experience
75
Cognitive training programs that adjust to a person’s ability
76
But for UX…
77
Pushing our research further
78
•  There are lessons to be learned from neuromarketing
–  Neuromarketing researchers have ...
Issues to keep in mind
79
•  We want to mimic real-world experiences during a usability
study
•  Complex setup will confou...
Where do we go from here?
80
•  We need to:
–  Collaborate to move our
field forward
–  Share methods and
analysis protoco...
Thank you!
81
Jennifer Romano Bergstrom
jbergstrom@forsmarshgroup.com | @romanocog
Dan Berlin
dberlin@madpow.net | @bander...
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Beyond Eye Tracking: Using User Temperature, Rating Dials, and Facial Analysis to Understand the User Experience

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Dan Berlin, Jon Strohl, David Hawkins and I presented this at UXPA 2013. Eye tracking is well known and accepted in the UX community. Here we present preliminary evidence for the usefulness of adding electrodermal activity (EDA), continuous dial ratings, etc. to user experience research.

Published in: Technology, Business

Beyond Eye Tracking: Using User Temperature, Rating Dials, and Facial Analysis to Understand the User Experience

  1. 1. Beyond Eye Tracking Using user temperature, rating dials, and facial analysis to understand the user experience Jen Romano Bergstrom, Jon Strohl, David Hawkins Dan Berlin UXPA2013 | Washington, DC @romanocog @forsmarshgroup @banderlin
  2. 2. 2 Client’s needs •  Traditionally… –  What works well –  What needs help
  3. 3. 3 Client’s needs •  Traditionally… –  What works well –  What needs help •  Measure the UX Observations Selection/click behavior Contextual observations Time to complete taskReaction time AccuracyAbility to complete tasks
  4. 4. 4 Task efficiency and accuracy Accuracy Steps to Complete Task* Time to Complete Task* Users 10% 8 170 seconds Admins 21% 8.3 32 seconds All Participants 15% 8.2 101 seconds
  5. 5. Session observations 5 •  Observational click behavior •  Facial expressions of frustration •  Fidgeting and other observations of emotion Areas of the website that participants explored first.  
  6. 6. 6 Explicit Post-task satisfaction questionnaires Moderator follow up In-session difficulty ratings Verbal responses Real-time +/- dial Measure the UX by asking questions
  7. 7. Think aloud protocol 7 •  Rooted in cognitive psychology and the study of thinking •  Makes explicit what is implicitly present to participants •  Concurrent vs. retrospective “This  is  really  confusing!”  
  8. 8. Satisfaction questionnaires & difficulty ratings 8 •  Assess users subjective satisfaction •  Consistent questionnaire used across interfaces or customized for its features and capabilities •  Structured vs. unstructured Satisfaction Questionnaire Please circle the numbers that most appropriately reflect your impressions about using this Web-based instrument. terrible wonderful 1. Overall reaction to the Web site: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 not applicable confusing clear 2. Screen layouts: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 not applicable inconsistent consistent 3. Use of terminology throughout the Web site: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 not applicable inadequate adequate 4. Information displayed on the screens: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 not applicable illogical logical 5. Arrangement of information on the screen: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 not applicable never always 6. Tasks can be performed in a straight-forward manner: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 not applicable confusing clear 7. Organization of information on the site: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 not applicable impossible easy 8. Forward navigation: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 not applicable
  9. 9. 9 Client’s needs •  For this project… –  What grabs attention? –  What is engaging? –  What is a turn off? –  What about the videos? –  Good parts? Bad? –  Is green better than…?
  10. 10. A volunteer please 10
  11. 11. 11 Client’s needs •  For this project… –  What grabs attention? –  What is engaging? –  What is a turn off? –  What about the videos? –  Good parts? Bad? –  Is green better than…? Explicit Post-task satisfaction questionnaires Moderator follow up In-session difficulty ratings Verbal responses Real-time +/- dial Observations Selection/click behavior Contextual observations Time to complete taskReaction time AccuracyAbility to complete tasks
  12. 12. Implicit measures 12 •  Physiological responses are difficult to control •  Implicit responses are unfiltered •  Responses occur before explicit measures Definition: Underlying reactions (e.g., eye tracking, arousal) that people are unaware of, cannot control, or cannot express at a granular level Stimulus Implicit Responses Thought Processes Explicit Responses
  13. 13. Why don’t we measure the implicit? 13 •  Very difficult, if even possible, to communicate the subconscious. •  Responses occur in a very short time interval. •  A lot of noise in the signal •  Unfamiliar lexicon used in the literature. •  The technology is just beginning to become usable by a wider audience. •  Analyses appear overwhelmingly time consuming and complicated. •  It’s difficult to justify the ROI.
  14. 14. Why should we measure the implicit? 14 •  Evaluates thought processes and emotions (not what the participant tells you) •  Quantifiable data that goes beyond task performance •  Moment by moment interaction •  Cause and effect triggers •  Deeper insights
  15. 15. Why should we measure the implicit? 15 •  Evaluates thought processes and emotions (not what the participant tells you) •  Quantifiable data that goes beyond task performance •  Moment by moment interaction •  Cause and effect triggers •  Deeper insights Traditional research is good at explaining what people say and do, not what they think and feel.
  16. 16. 16 Observations Selection/click behavior Ethnography Time to complete task Reaction time Accuracy Ability to complete tasks The Complete UX Explicit Post-task satisfaction questionnaires Moderator follow up In-session difficulty ratings Verbal responses Real-time +/- dial Implicit Eye tracking Electrodermal activity (EDA) Behavioral analysis Pupil dilation Facial expression coding Implicit associations Linguistic analysis of verbalizations Heart rate variability
  17. 17. Two categories of implicit measures 17 BiometricsNeuroimaging
  18. 18. Neuroimaging metrics 18 •  Indirectly or directly measures activity in the brain. •  Typically measures the hemodynamic response or brain electrical activity. •  Examine what “people are thinking”
  19. 19. Why don’t we collect neuroimaging measures? 19 •  Lots of resources •  Expensive equipment •  Complex analyses •  Strict protocols •  Unnatural environment
  20. 20. Two categories of implicit measures 20 BiometricsNeuroimaging
  21. 21. Biometrics 21 •  Established in UX research –  Eye Tracking •  New to UX –  Electrodermal Activity •  Skin conductance response •  Body temperature –  Facial expression analysis –  Pupil dilation –  Heart rate variability –  Respiration –  Blood pressure
  22. 22. Eye Tracking 22
  23. 23. What is eye tracking 23 •  Observing and recording eye movements as a participant interacts with a product –  Allows us to gain deeper insight into how users perform tasks •  Allows UX researchers to collect objective behavioral data •  Doesn’t include observing pupil dilation, blink rate, or facial recognition Yesterday
  24. 24. Eye tracking today 24
  25. 25. Qualitative heat maps 25 •  Aggregate of fixation count or duration across participants Example: •  Participants have similar fixation counts across links •  Displays uncertainty of where to click to get started
  26. 26. Qualitative gaze plots 26 •  Plot of fixations for a single participant Example: •  Participant fixates back and forth between two different sections •  Displays uncertainty on how to use the sections •  The instructional paragraph did not facilitate web reading
  27. 27. 27 Example: •  Participant has repeated fixations in the upper right hand corner •  Participant said that he/she was looking for a search tool on the page •  The search tool was contained within a disappearing banner on the page Qualitative gaze plots
  28. 28. Quantitative eye-tracking data 28 •  Quantitative data –  Attention •  Time to first fixation –  Are users finding the important content quickly? •  Total number of fixations in an area of interest •  Percentages of fixations in an AOI compared to the total page –  Are users spending an inordinate amount of time looking at a single area? –  Processing •  Fixation duration –  Are users spending a long period of time in this area? –  Efficiency •  Repeat fixations –  Is information clear and presented efficiently?
  29. 29. Quantitative eye tracking 29 •  Break the page up into separate “areas of interest” or AOIs •  Compare the fixation data between important areas and less important ones –  Or compare data between designs Areas of Interest
  30. 30. Combining quantitative and qualitative data 30 •  Using multiple sources of data makes the evidence more compelling •  Example: “LAUNCH” was expected to be the most clicked •  Heat map supports the quantitative eye-tracking data
  31. 31. Beyond eye tracking 31 •  Eye tracking is just one type of biometric measure •  It tells us where participants are looking •  It does not tell us –  Emotional state –  Level of arousal –  Level of mental workload
  32. 32. Facial expression analysis 32
  33. 33. 33 Emotion Recognition Software •  Real-time and continuous tracking of facial expressions (Terzis, Moridis, Economides, 2010) •  Distinguishes between happy, angry, sad, surprised, scared, disgusted, and neutral –  Overall accuracy of 89%
  34. 34. 34 Emotion Recognition Software
  35. 35. 35 Emotion Recognition Software
  36. 36. Bringing biometrics to UX research 36
  37. 37. Electrodermal Activity 37
  38. 38. What is it? 38 •  Electrodermal activity (EDA) encompasses skin conductance responses and body temperature. •  Nerve fibers release sweat in response to a stimulus. •  Sweat facilitates the travel of an electrical signal. •  After a stimulus onset, glands return to a baseline status. •  Sweat secretion is related to sympathetic nervous system activity.
  39. 39. Who cares? 39 •  Skin conductance is an established measure of arousal •  Arousal can indicate engagement, fear, frustration, or other emotional changes •  Continuously measure changes in arousal throughout a test •  Establish bench marks and use them to compare previous iterations •  Determine if the design facilitated typical levels of arousal or if there were specific triggers
  40. 40. EDA in UX research 40 •  EDA can indicate usability problems •  Assess “good” and “bad” interfaces and compare biometrics (Ward & Marsden, 2002) •  “Bad” interface causes higher skin conductivity, lower blood volume, and increased pulse rate •  Assess frustration while playing a game (Lin and Hu, 2005)
  41. 41. 41 How do I do it? •  The electrodes on an EDA sensor measure the resistance electricity faces when traveling across the skin. •  Electrodes can be placed on three locations –  Best option - Palm –  Good option - Finger –  Acceptable option – Wrist •  Wired and wireless available EDA recording device & analysis software
  42. 42. The device that required the least amount of training 42
  43. 43. A less commonly used explicit measure: Dial rating 43
  44. 44. Dial Rating 44 FMG Rating Dial •  Continuous real-time feedback on videos and commercials •  Researcher can choose anchors for the ratings •  Tear dropped knob allows participant to remain focused on the video •  Time sensitive Position of dial Max position of dial Min position of dial Dial Recorder Software
  45. 45. Visa Video Ad 45
  46. 46. 46 EDA data System Time Movement Data Temperature Raw EDA Signal Event Marker
  47. 47. 47 •  Tonic and phasic activity –  Tonic activity is slow, state-based level of arousal –  Phasic activity is a rapid, stimulus based change in arousal •  EDA activity is long periods of gradual change with a series of peaks in activity. 2.6 2.8 3.0 0 4 8 11 15 19 23 26 30  µS Seconds Processing the EDA signal
  48. 48. 48 •  The phasic response begins 1-4 seconds after onset of stimulus •  The signal is analyzed in discrete time intervals •  The area under the curve is analyzed to determine changes 2.6 2.8 3.0 0 4 8 11 15 19 23 26 30  µS Seconds Response onset Returning to baseline Response onset Peak is delayed Analyzing EDA data
  49. 49. 49 Traditional Measures of Attention and Emotion
  50. 50. 50 P I found my mind wandering while the advertisement was on While the advertisement was on, I found myself thinking about other things I had a hard time keeping my mind on the advertisement Average P1 1 1 1 1.0 P2 1 2 1 1.3 P3 1 1 1 1.0 P4 3 3 3 3.0 P5 2 2 2 2.0 P6 2 2 2 2.0 Explicit rating of attention: Please indicate how much you agree with the following statements Response options: 1 (Not at all) | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 (Extremely)
  51. 51. 51 Explicit rating of emotion: Please indicate how much you experienced each of the following while viewing the advertisement P Amused, fun-loving, silly angry, irritated, or annoyed disgust, distaste, or revulsion guilty, repentant, or blameworthy inspired, uplifted, or elevated interested, alert, or curious joyful, glad, or happy sad, downheart ed, or unhappy scared, fearful, or afraid sympathy, concern, or compassion surprised, amazed, or astonished P1 2 1 1 1 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 P2 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 P3 4 1 1 1 2 3 3 1 1 1 2 P4 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 P5 4 1 1 1 3 4 4 1 1 1 1 P6 5 1 1 1 3 4 4 1 1 1 2 Response options: 1 (Not at all) | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 (Extremely)
  52. 52. 52 •  When? –  When did minds start to wander? –  When were people engaged? •  What? –  What did people focus on? –  What did people miss? –  What caused the negative/positive emotions? •  Was it something specific or overall? Unanswered Questions
  53. 53. 53 New Measures of Attention and Emotion
  54. 54. 54 Traditional Likert-Scale Overall Rating New Continuous Dial Rating Visa Video Ad Example Question: Please indicate how much you experienced each of the following while viewing the advertisement. Response options: Not At All | A little bit| Moderately | Quite a bit | Extremely P amused, fun- loving, or silly angry, irritated, or annoyed disgust, distaste, or revulsion guilty, repentant, or blameworthy inspired, uplifted, or elevated interested, alert, or curious joyful, glad, or happy sad, downhearted, or unhappy scared, fearful, or afraid sympathy, concern, or compassion surprised, amazed, or astonished P1 2 1 1 1 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 P2 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 P3 4 1 1 1 2 3 3 1 1 1 2 P4 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 P5 4 1 1 1 3 4 4 1 1 1 1 P6 5 1 1 1 3 4 4 1 1 1 2 -1.1 0.0 1.1 P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 Mean
  55. 55. 55 1.6 1.65 1.7 1.75 1.8 1.85 1.9 1.95 2 2.05 2.1 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Electrodermal Activity: Visa Video Ad You c a n p u t n o t e s h e r e , b u t i f y o u d o n ’ t i t w o n ’ t a p p e a r w h e n y o u p r e s e n t [music  only,  screen   change  from  bright  to   dark]   [drama<c  screen  change  to  black   with  white  words,  "without  the   worry  of  currency  exchange";   music  consistent]   [almost  falls  in  water]   [tail  end  of  previous  screen   which  appeared  for  several   seconds  and  then  change  to   first  men<on  of  brand]   [middle  of  second  screen   change—MUSIC  changes]   +   +   +   +   +   [music  change]   [scene  bright  and  beachy]   +  
  56. 56. 56 Traditional Likert-Scale Overall Rating New Physiological Measure of Arousal Visa Video Ad Example Question: Please indicate how much you experienced each of the following while viewing the advertisement. Response options: Not At All | A little bit| Moderately | Quite a bit | Extremely P amused, fun- loving, or silly angry, irritated, or annoyed disgust, distaste, or revulsion guilty, repentant, or blameworthy inspired, uplifted, or elevated interested, alert, or curious joyful, glad, or happy sad, downhearted, or unhappy scared, fearful, or afraid sympathy, concern, or compassion surprised, amazed, or astonished P1 2 1 1 1 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 P2 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 P3 4 1 1 1 2 3 3 1 1 1 2 P4 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 P5 4 1 1 1 3 4 4 1 1 1 1 P6 5 1 1 1 3 4 4 1 1 1 2 1.6 1.65 1.7 1.75 1.8 1.85 1.9 1.95 2 2.05 2.1 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
  57. 57. Artery Video Ad 57
  58. 58. Artery Video Ad Example: Traditional Measures 58 Traditional Likert-Scale Overall Rating Question: Please indicate how much you experienced each of the following while viewing the advertisement. Response options: Not At All | A little bit| Moderately | Quite a bit | Extremely P amused, fun- loving, or silly angry, irritated, or annoyed disgust, distaste, or revulsion guilty, repentant, or blameworthy inspired, uplifted, or elevated interested, alert, or curious joyful, glad, or happy sad, downhearted, or unhappy scared, fearful, or afraid sympathy, concern, or compassion surprised, amazed, or astonished P1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 P2 1 1 5 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 4 P3 3 1 3 1 1 2 1 1 1 3 3 P4 1 3 5 1 1 3 1 3 1 1 5 P5 1 1 3 1 1 3 1 2 1 1 1 P6 1 1 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3
  59. 59. Artery video example 59 Traditional Likert-Scale Overall Rating New Continuous Dial Rating Question: Please indicate how much you experienced each of the following while viewing the advertisement. Response options: Not At All | A little bit| Moderately | Quite a bit | Extremely P amused, fun- loving, or silly angry, irritated, or annoyed disgust, distaste, or revulsion guilty, repentant, or blameworthy inspired, uplifted, or elevated interested, alert, or curious joyful, glad, or happy sad, downhearted, or unhappy scared, fearful, or afraid sympathy, concern, or compassion surprised, amazed, or astonished P1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 P2 1 1 5 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 4 P3 3 1 3 1 1 2 1 1 1 3 3 P4 1 3 5 1 1 3 1 3 1 1 5 P5 1 1 3 1 1 3 1 2 1 1 1 P6 1 1 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 -­‐1.2   -­‐1   -­‐0.8   -­‐0.6   -­‐0.4   -­‐0.2   0   0.2   0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28   29   30   P2,  video  1   P3,  video  1   P4,  video  1   P5,  video  1   P6,  video  1   Mean  
  60. 60. -­‐1.2   -­‐1   -­‐0.8   -­‐0.6   -­‐0.4   -­‐0.2   0   0.2   0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28   29   30   P2,  video  1   P3,  video  1   P4,  video  1   P5,  video  1   P6,  video  1   Mean   Continuous dial rating: Artery video 60 [sound  of  rushing  air]   "this  much  was  found   stuck  to  the  aorta..."   "every  cigareWe  is   doing  you  damage"  
  61. 61. Electrodermal activity: Artery video 61 Traditional Likert-Scale Overall Rating New Physiological Measure of Arousal Question: Please indicate how much you experienced each of the following while viewing the advertisement. Response options: Not At All | A little bit| Moderately | Quite a bit | Extremely P amused, fun- loving, or silly angry, irritated, or annoyed disgust, distaste, or revulsion guilty, repentant, or blameworthy inspired, uplifted, or elevated interested, alert, or curious joyful, glad, or happy sad, downhearted, or unhappy scared, fearful, or afraid sympathy, concern, or compassion surprised, amazed, or astonished P1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 P2 1 1 5 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 4 P3 3 1 3 1 1 2 1 1 1 3 3 P4 1 3 5 1 1 3 1 3 1 1 5 P5 1 1 3 1 1 3 1 2 1 1 1 P6 1 1 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 Mean
  62. 62. Electrodermal activity: Artery video 62 "...the  main  artery   from  the  heart"   "every  cigareWe  is  doing   you  damage"   [voice,  pace  change]   "authorized  by  the   Australian  government"   "this  much  was  found   stuck  to  the  aorta..."   [sound  of  rushing  air]   [first  faWy  deposits   emerge]   +   +   +   +   +   +   “every  cigareWe  is   doing  you  damage  "   [sound  effect;  no  text]  “age  32“  [heartbeats]  [sound  of  crackling   embers]   +   +   +   +  
  63. 63. 1.6 1.65 1.7 1.75 1.8 1.85 1.9 1.95 2 2.05 2.1 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 EDA does not capture valence 63 You c a n p u t n o t e s h e r e , b u t i f y o u d o n ’ t i t w o n ’ t a p p e a r w h e n y o u p r e s e n t P1: Artery ad (Negative emotion) P1: Visa ad (Positive emotion)
  64. 64. Continuous Dial Rating: Artery vs. Visa 64 -1.1 0.0 1.1 P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 Mean -1.2 -1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 P2, video 1 P3, video 1 P4, video 1 P5, video 1 P6, video 1 Mean
  65. 65. EDA advantages and disadvantages 65 •  Advantages –  Continuous measure of automatic physiological response –  Sensitive to minor changes in arousal –  Informs order of magnitude •  Disadvantages –  Does not inform valence –  Peak of physiological response is slow –  Sometimes difficult to collect 0   0.5   1   1.5   2   2.5   Dial Eye Tracker EDA MeanIntrusivenessRating Debriefing question: On a scale of 1 to 5, how intrusive was ____ while you were trying to complete the tasks and watch videos? Dial: Two participants rated the dial as very intrusive (4): “I was having to concentrate on what my reaction was, not just have it.” “It’s not something I normally do, or something I do consciously.” EDA: Three participants rated the wrist band as moderately intrusive (3): “It was itchy.” “I had to remember not to move it.” “I didn’t know where to put it.”
  66. 66. The future of implicit measures 66
  67. 67. We need to be taking a collaborative approach 67 •  Disparate measures of physiological response can tell a cohesive story! •  By analyzing different streams of data we can uncover a very rich level of analysis.
  68. 68. We need to be taking a collaborative approach 68
  69. 69. Combining implicit measures for meaningful insights 69 -1.100 0.000 1.100 •  Simulated pupil diameter data •  Simulated heart rate variability data •  Simulated EDA data
  70. 70. EDA: promising future 70 •  Promising results –  When data is good, EDA provides continuous, “objective” arousal measure –  There is consistency between: •  The Likert scale and the continuous dial data •  Self-reported emotion overall and EDA data –  EDA provides additional data above and beyond self-report measures –  Most complete story can be told with a combination of measures.
  71. 71. 71 •  Data Analyses –  Compare to baseline – different baseline per person and per stimulus –  How does pupil dilation data compare with EDA? –  Reduce the intrusiveness ratings for all metrics Lessons learned •  Dial –  If ET is not used, allow participants to look at the dial when making responses –  Include simple practice task to increase familiarity •  Eye Tracker –  Instruct participants to visually search as if they were at home on their own computer •  EDA –  Improve quality of EDA data; explore equipment –  Provide a cushion/pad to rest arm –  Over-recruit
  72. 72. Select your measure carefully 72 •  Where are participants dwelling on instructions and tasks? –  Eye tracking •  Which specific elements on a page are particularly stressful? –  Eye tracking, EDA •  Which content is very engaging for the user? –  Eye tracking, EDA, satisfaction questions, debriefing interview •  Which design causes more stress on the user? –  EDA, debriefing interview
  73. 73. Not just about usability but also interaction 73
  74. 74. Interfaces that adjust based on affective state and workload 74
  75. 75. Video games that adapt to a user’s experience 75
  76. 76. Cognitive training programs that adjust to a person’s ability 76
  77. 77. But for UX… 77
  78. 78. Pushing our research further 78 •  There are lessons to be learned from neuromarketing –  Neuromarketing researchers have used EDA, heart rate variability and even fMRI and EEG in an attempt to determine how users experience an advertisement. •  UX has a different set of requirements –  To become more usable for practitioners, we need: •  Portable technology that can be taken when traveling •  Software that has a short learning curve •  Customizations that allow for sensors to be wrist mounted and more literature to substantiate the use of this sensor location •  Analysis protocols that can be completed in a short period of time.
  79. 79. Issues to keep in mind 79 •  We want to mimic real-world experiences during a usability study •  Complex setup will confound our experimental design •  Participant comfort is paramount •  Concurrent think-aloud vs. Retrospective think-aloud •  A talking participant is a distracted participant •  We always need to provide support for a ROI
  80. 80. Where do we go from here? 80 •  We need to: –  Collaborate to move our field forward –  Share methods and analysis protocols –  Empirically test our hypotheses –  Continually provide proof for ROI
  81. 81. Thank you! 81 Jennifer Romano Bergstrom jbergstrom@forsmarshgroup.com | @romanocog Dan Berlin dberlin@madpow.net | @banderlin Jon Strohl jstrohl@forsmarshgroup.com | @jonstrohl David Hawkins dhawkins@forsmarshgroup.com | @dHawk87 UXPA2013  |  Washington,  DC  

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