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Usability Technical Workshop
UX Testing
Usability VS UX
Usability Metrics
Test Design, Participant Recruitment
and Running the Test
Data Analysis and Reflective Design
Process (Success Rate)
What is it with the Fork?
Usability
Cutlery Function
Design
UX and Usability Workshop Southampton Solent University
Emotional aspect of the Fork
No..! It is how cool the Fork is.
…….
What about modernity and
colours….
Or maybe creativity …………
I only care about functionality…..
No….. it is about complexity …
Is this even a fork …
Things are about to get worse?!!!
Go ahead, be in a hurry. Never wait for your food to cool down
ever again.
Which fork defines the best
usability
Usability of a product is the extent, to which it can
be used by a certain user, to achieve effectively,
efficiently and satisfyingly certain goals in a certain
context.
Usability
ISO 9241 definition
The effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction with
which specified users achieve specified goals in
particular environments.
Usability
Effectiveness: the accuracy and completeness with
which specified users can achieve specified goals in
particular environments
Efficiency: the resources expended in relation to the
accuracy and completeness of goals achieved
Satisfaction: the comfort and acceptability of the work
system to its users and other people affected by its use
Utility = whether it provides the features you need.
Usability = how easy & pleasant these features are to use.
Useful = usability + utility.
Utility & Usability
involves a person's behaviours,
attitudes, and emotions about
using a particular product,
system or service. User
experience includes the
practical, experiential,
affective, meaningful and
valuable aspects of human–
computer interaction and
product ownership.
UX
UX and Usability Workshop Southampton Solent University
Usability Why?
• Track progress between releases. You cannot fine-tune your methodology unless you
know how well you're doing.
• Assess your competitive position. Are you better or worse than other
companies? Where are you better or worse?
• Make a Stop/Go decision before launch. Is the design good enough to release to an
unsuspecting world?
• Create bonus plans for design managers and higher-level executives. For example, you
can determine bonus amounts for development project leaders based on how many
customer-support calls or emails their products generated during the year.
Usability is the measure of the quality of a user's experience
when interacting with a product or system - whether a web site,
software application, mobile technology, or any user-operated
device.
UX and Usability Workshop Southampton Solent University
UX and Usability Workshop Southampton Solent University
UX and Usability Workshop Southampton Solent University
Final Year Project:
How usability could fit within your theoretical framework
Why and how to test
Why?
• Some projects are inherently
HCI based, and as pat of
your Software Development
Life Cycle, you have to test
your digital artefacts.
• Other projects would benefit
from UX and Usability testing.
How ?
Inductive VS Deductive
Inductive
Something in mind
(We don’t care subjective or objective/ Yours or
others, we only care about that it is in your mind and
you think is problematic )
Formulate
(Hypotheses – Assumptions)
Cause and effect
philosophical concept of causality
Observe / Test
Confirmation
Something in mind
(We don’t care subjective or objective/ Yours or
others, we only care about that it is in your mind and
you think it is problematic )
Formulate
(Hypotheses – Assumptions)
Cause and effect
philosophical concept of causality
Observe / Test
Confirmation
Inductive
Deductive
Something in mind
Formulate
(Hypotheses – Assumption)
Cause and effect
philosophical concept of causality
Observe
Confirmation
Pattern
How Inductive/Deductive thing fits into Usability testing
and my final year project?
Project Objectives
Project Evaluation
Test Metrics
Test
Confirm
Test
Test Metrics
Project Evaluation
Project Objectives
Confirm
Inductive Deductive
Test Design
1- Define you test design metrics?
What do you want to test?
2- Define your Success Rate in the
context of Usability?
3- Construct Test Tasks?
4- Define your subject base?
Demographic characteristics of your Users
Test Design Metrics
1. Layout: Inability to detect something users need
to find; Aesthetic problems; Unnecessary
Information.
2. Terminology: Unable to understand the
terminology.
3. Feedback: User does not receive relevant
feedback or it is inconsistent with what the user
expects.
4. Comprehension: Inability to understand the
instructions given to users on the site.
5. Data Entry: Problems with entering information.
6. Navigation: Problems with finding users way
around the test site/system/software.
How to Measure
It is easy to specify usability metrics, but hard to collect them.
Typically, usability is measured relative to users' performance on a
given set of test tasks. The most basic measures are based on
the definition of usability as a quality metric:
Success rate (whether users can perform the task at all)
• The time a task requires.
• The error rate.
• Users' subjective satisfaction.
Success Rate
1. Layout: Inability to detect something users need to find; Aesthetic
problems; Unnecessary Information.
2. Terminology: Unable to understand the terminology.
3. Feedback: User does not receive relevant feedback or it is inconsistent
with what the user expects.
4. Comprehension: Inability to understand the instructions given to users on
the site.
5. Data Entry: Problems with entering information.
6. Navigation: Problems with finding users way around the test
site/system/software.
Success rate (whether users can perform the task
at all)
• The time a task requires.
• The error rate.
• Users' subjective satisfaction.
Comparing Two Designs
To illustrate quantitative results, we can look at those recently posted by
Macromedia from its usability study of a Flash site, aimed at showing that Flash is
not necessarily bad. Basically, Macromedia took a design, redesigned it according
to a set of usability guidelines, and tested both versions with a group of users. Here
are the results:
Measuring Success
•Task 1: relative score 200% (improvement of 100%).
•Task 2: relative score 500% (improvement of 400%).
•Task 3: relative score 113% (improvement of 13%).
•Task 4: relative score 350% (improvement of 250%).
Measuring Success
Test Task
1. Layout
2. Terminology
3. Feedback
4. Comprehension
5. Data Entry
6. Navigation
Success rate (whether users can perform the task at all)
1. The time a task requires.
2. The error rate.
3. Users' subjective satisfaction.
1- Test one usability metric
2- Four tasks maximum
3- Predefined benchmark :
Number of steps
Time Required
UX and Usability Workshop Southampton Solent University
UX and Usability Workshop Southampton Solent University
UX and Usability Workshop Southampton Solent University
Layout
Layout
Terminology
Navigation
Navigation
Test Task
1. Layout
2. Terminology
3. Feedback
4. Comprehension
5. Data Entry
6. Navigation
Success rate (whether users can perform the task at all)
1. The time a task requires.
2. The error rate.
3. Users' subjective satisfaction.
1- Four tasks maximum
2- Test one usability metric only
3- Have a Predefined benchmark
- Number of steps
- Time Required
- 5 Participants at most
- Subjects should be typical user of the system, or
possess interests with the domain.
- Make a list (Names, Time and Contact details)
Consent Forms
UX and Usability Workshop Southampton Solent University
Running the test
Pilot Testing
Prior to conducting a usability test, make sure you have all of your materials, consents and documentation prepared and
checked. It is important to pilot test equipment and materials with a volunteer participant. Run the pilot test 10 – 15 minutes
prior to the first test session so that you have time to deal with any technical issues, or change the scenarios or other materials if
necessary.
The pilot test allows you to:
1. Test the equipment
2. Provides practice for the facilitator and note-takers
3. Get a good sense whether your questions and scenarios are clear to the participant
4. Make any last minute adjustments
Testing Techniques
• Concurrent Think Aloud (CTA) is used to understand participants’ thoughts as they
interact with a product by having them think aloud while they work. The goal is to encourage
participants to keep a running stream of consciousness as they work.
• Retrospective Think Aloud (RTA), the moderator asks participants to retrace their
steps when the session is complete. Often participants watch a video replay of their actions,
which may or may not contain eye-gaze patterns.
• Concurrent Probing (CP) requires that as participants work on tasks—when they say
something interesting or do something unique, the researcher asks follow-up questions.
• Retrospective Probing (RP) requires waiting until the session is complete and then
asking questions about the participant’s thoughts and actions. Researchers often use RP in
conjunction with other methods—as the participant makes comments or actions, the
researcher takes notes and follows up with additional questions at the end of the session.
Testing Techniques
• Concurrent Think Aloud (CTA) is used to understand
participants’ thoughts as they interact with a product by
having them think aloud while they work. The goal is to
encourage participants to keep a running stream of
consciousness as they work.
• Retrospective Probing (RP) requires waiting until the
session is complete and then asking questions about the
participant’s thoughts and actions. Researchers often use RP
in conjunction with other methods—as the participant makes
comments or actions, the researcher takes notes and follows
up with additional questions at the end of the session.
Running the test
Running the test
• 1- Run Tobi studio 3.21
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tpLUkKN
3AWE
Tobi Studio 3.2
UX and Usability Workshop Southampton Solent University
Project  Test
UX and Usability Workshop Southampton Solent University
UX and Usability Workshop Southampton Solent University
UX and Usability Workshop Southampton Solent University
UX and Usability Workshop Southampton Solent University
Project  Test  Participant
UX and Usability Workshop Southampton Solent University
Celebrating
UX and Usability Workshop Southampton Solent University
Remember
Tobi uses Internet
Explorer with
specific adds-on
to collect browser
data
UX and Usability Workshop Southampton Solent University
UX and Usability Workshop Southampton Solent University
UX and Usability Workshop Southampton Solent University
Best Practices
1. Treat participants with respect and make them feel comfortable.
2. Remember that you are testing the site not the users. Help them understand that they are
helping us test the prototype or Web site.
3. Remain neutral – you are there to listen and watch. If the participant asks a question, reply with
“What do you think?” or “I am interested in what you would do.”
4. Do not jump in and help participants immediately and do not lead the participant. If the
participant gives up and asks for help, you must decide whether to end the scenario, give a hint,
or give more substantial help.
5. The team should decide how much of a hint you will give and how long you will allow the
participants to work on a scenario when they are clearly going down an unproductive path.
6. Take good notes. Note-takers should capture what the participant did in as much detail as
possible as well as what they say (in their words). The better the notes are that are taken
during the session, the easier the analysis will be.
7. Measure both performance and subjective (preference) metrics. People's performance and
preference do not always match. Often users will perform poorly but their subjective ratings are
very high. Conversely, they may perform well but subjective ratings are very low.
1. Performance measures include: success, time, errors, etc.
2. Subjective measures UX include: user's self reported satisfaction and comfort ratings
Thank you
Q & A

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UX and Usability Workshop Southampton Solent University

  • 1. Usability Technical Workshop UX Testing Usability VS UX Usability Metrics Test Design, Participant Recruitment and Running the Test Data Analysis and Reflective Design Process (Success Rate)
  • 2. What is it with the Fork?
  • 6. No..! It is how cool the Fork is. …….
  • 7. What about modernity and colours….
  • 8. Or maybe creativity …………
  • 9. I only care about functionality…..
  • 10. No….. it is about complexity … Is this even a fork …
  • 11. Things are about to get worse?!!! Go ahead, be in a hurry. Never wait for your food to cool down ever again.
  • 12. Which fork defines the best usability
  • 13. Usability of a product is the extent, to which it can be used by a certain user, to achieve effectively, efficiently and satisfyingly certain goals in a certain context. Usability ISO 9241 definition
  • 14. The effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction with which specified users achieve specified goals in particular environments. Usability Effectiveness: the accuracy and completeness with which specified users can achieve specified goals in particular environments Efficiency: the resources expended in relation to the accuracy and completeness of goals achieved Satisfaction: the comfort and acceptability of the work system to its users and other people affected by its use
  • 15. Utility = whether it provides the features you need. Usability = how easy & pleasant these features are to use. Useful = usability + utility. Utility & Usability
  • 16. involves a person's behaviours, attitudes, and emotions about using a particular product, system or service. User experience includes the practical, experiential, affective, meaningful and valuable aspects of human– computer interaction and product ownership. UX
  • 18. Usability Why? • Track progress between releases. You cannot fine-tune your methodology unless you know how well you're doing. • Assess your competitive position. Are you better or worse than other companies? Where are you better or worse? • Make a Stop/Go decision before launch. Is the design good enough to release to an unsuspecting world? • Create bonus plans for design managers and higher-level executives. For example, you can determine bonus amounts for development project leaders based on how many customer-support calls or emails their products generated during the year. Usability is the measure of the quality of a user's experience when interacting with a product or system - whether a web site, software application, mobile technology, or any user-operated device.
  • 22. Final Year Project: How usability could fit within your theoretical framework
  • 23. Why and how to test
  • 24. Why? • Some projects are inherently HCI based, and as pat of your Software Development Life Cycle, you have to test your digital artefacts. • Other projects would benefit from UX and Usability testing.
  • 25. How ? Inductive VS Deductive
  • 26. Inductive Something in mind (We don’t care subjective or objective/ Yours or others, we only care about that it is in your mind and you think is problematic ) Formulate (Hypotheses – Assumptions) Cause and effect philosophical concept of causality Observe / Test Confirmation
  • 27. Something in mind (We don’t care subjective or objective/ Yours or others, we only care about that it is in your mind and you think it is problematic ) Formulate (Hypotheses – Assumptions) Cause and effect philosophical concept of causality Observe / Test Confirmation Inductive
  • 28. Deductive Something in mind Formulate (Hypotheses – Assumption) Cause and effect philosophical concept of causality Observe Confirmation Pattern
  • 29. How Inductive/Deductive thing fits into Usability testing and my final year project? Project Objectives Project Evaluation Test Metrics Test Confirm Test Test Metrics Project Evaluation Project Objectives Confirm Inductive Deductive
  • 30. Test Design 1- Define you test design metrics? What do you want to test? 2- Define your Success Rate in the context of Usability? 3- Construct Test Tasks? 4- Define your subject base? Demographic characteristics of your Users
  • 31. Test Design Metrics 1. Layout: Inability to detect something users need to find; Aesthetic problems; Unnecessary Information. 2. Terminology: Unable to understand the terminology. 3. Feedback: User does not receive relevant feedback or it is inconsistent with what the user expects. 4. Comprehension: Inability to understand the instructions given to users on the site. 5. Data Entry: Problems with entering information. 6. Navigation: Problems with finding users way around the test site/system/software.
  • 32. How to Measure It is easy to specify usability metrics, but hard to collect them. Typically, usability is measured relative to users' performance on a given set of test tasks. The most basic measures are based on the definition of usability as a quality metric: Success rate (whether users can perform the task at all) • The time a task requires. • The error rate. • Users' subjective satisfaction.
  • 33. Success Rate 1. Layout: Inability to detect something users need to find; Aesthetic problems; Unnecessary Information. 2. Terminology: Unable to understand the terminology. 3. Feedback: User does not receive relevant feedback or it is inconsistent with what the user expects. 4. Comprehension: Inability to understand the instructions given to users on the site. 5. Data Entry: Problems with entering information. 6. Navigation: Problems with finding users way around the test site/system/software. Success rate (whether users can perform the task at all) • The time a task requires. • The error rate. • Users' subjective satisfaction.
  • 34. Comparing Two Designs To illustrate quantitative results, we can look at those recently posted by Macromedia from its usability study of a Flash site, aimed at showing that Flash is not necessarily bad. Basically, Macromedia took a design, redesigned it according to a set of usability guidelines, and tested both versions with a group of users. Here are the results: Measuring Success
  • 35. •Task 1: relative score 200% (improvement of 100%). •Task 2: relative score 500% (improvement of 400%). •Task 3: relative score 113% (improvement of 13%). •Task 4: relative score 350% (improvement of 250%). Measuring Success
  • 36. Test Task 1. Layout 2. Terminology 3. Feedback 4. Comprehension 5. Data Entry 6. Navigation Success rate (whether users can perform the task at all) 1. The time a task requires. 2. The error rate. 3. Users' subjective satisfaction. 1- Test one usability metric 2- Four tasks maximum 3- Predefined benchmark : Number of steps Time Required
  • 41. Test Task 1. Layout 2. Terminology 3. Feedback 4. Comprehension 5. Data Entry 6. Navigation Success rate (whether users can perform the task at all) 1. The time a task requires. 2. The error rate. 3. Users' subjective satisfaction. 1- Four tasks maximum 2- Test one usability metric only 3- Have a Predefined benchmark - Number of steps - Time Required - 5 Participants at most - Subjects should be typical user of the system, or possess interests with the domain. - Make a list (Names, Time and Contact details)
  • 44. Running the test Pilot Testing Prior to conducting a usability test, make sure you have all of your materials, consents and documentation prepared and checked. It is important to pilot test equipment and materials with a volunteer participant. Run the pilot test 10 – 15 minutes prior to the first test session so that you have time to deal with any technical issues, or change the scenarios or other materials if necessary. The pilot test allows you to: 1. Test the equipment 2. Provides practice for the facilitator and note-takers 3. Get a good sense whether your questions and scenarios are clear to the participant 4. Make any last minute adjustments
  • 45. Testing Techniques • Concurrent Think Aloud (CTA) is used to understand participants’ thoughts as they interact with a product by having them think aloud while they work. The goal is to encourage participants to keep a running stream of consciousness as they work. • Retrospective Think Aloud (RTA), the moderator asks participants to retrace their steps when the session is complete. Often participants watch a video replay of their actions, which may or may not contain eye-gaze patterns. • Concurrent Probing (CP) requires that as participants work on tasks—when they say something interesting or do something unique, the researcher asks follow-up questions. • Retrospective Probing (RP) requires waiting until the session is complete and then asking questions about the participant’s thoughts and actions. Researchers often use RP in conjunction with other methods—as the participant makes comments or actions, the researcher takes notes and follows up with additional questions at the end of the session.
  • 46. Testing Techniques • Concurrent Think Aloud (CTA) is used to understand participants’ thoughts as they interact with a product by having them think aloud while they work. The goal is to encourage participants to keep a running stream of consciousness as they work. • Retrospective Probing (RP) requires waiting until the session is complete and then asking questions about the participant’s thoughts and actions. Researchers often use RP in conjunction with other methods—as the participant makes comments or actions, the researcher takes notes and follows up with additional questions at the end of the session.
  • 48. Running the test • 1- Run Tobi studio 3.21 • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tpLUkKN 3AWE
  • 56. Project  Test  Participant
  • 60. Remember Tobi uses Internet Explorer with specific adds-on to collect browser data
  • 64. Best Practices 1. Treat participants with respect and make them feel comfortable. 2. Remember that you are testing the site not the users. Help them understand that they are helping us test the prototype or Web site. 3. Remain neutral – you are there to listen and watch. If the participant asks a question, reply with “What do you think?” or “I am interested in what you would do.” 4. Do not jump in and help participants immediately and do not lead the participant. If the participant gives up and asks for help, you must decide whether to end the scenario, give a hint, or give more substantial help. 5. The team should decide how much of a hint you will give and how long you will allow the participants to work on a scenario when they are clearly going down an unproductive path. 6. Take good notes. Note-takers should capture what the participant did in as much detail as possible as well as what they say (in their words). The better the notes are that are taken during the session, the easier the analysis will be. 7. Measure both performance and subjective (preference) metrics. People's performance and preference do not always match. Often users will perform poorly but their subjective ratings are very high. Conversely, they may perform well but subjective ratings are very low. 1. Performance measures include: success, time, errors, etc. 2. Subjective measures UX include: user's self reported satisfaction and comfort ratings