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Designing a Successful Eye-Tracking Study UPA 2008

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Designing a Successful Eye-Tracking Study UPA 2008

  1. 1. Designing a Successful Eye Tracking Usability Study Step-by-Step Andrew Schall Senior Usability Specialist Human Factors International UPA 2008, Baltimore, MD Thursday, June 19 th 2008 Anne Washington Ph.D. Candidate George Washington University
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Eye tracking 101 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How does it work? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What can it do for you? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Designing a study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test plan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Planning a study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lab configuration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recruiting participants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conducting a study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderating techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Notetaking methods </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Eye Tracking Past
  4. 4. Eye Tracking Today
  5. 5. Eye Tracking Technology Today <ul><li>Highly accurate </li></ul><ul><li>Short calibration time </li></ul><ul><li>Completely non-intrusive </li></ul><ul><li>Less training required </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate results </li></ul>
  6. 6. How Eye Tracking Works
  7. 7. How the Eye Tracker Locates Your Eyes Cornea Iris Pupil Near-infrared light
  8. 8. Fixations are Mapped to Points On-screen X Y
  9. 9. Need a Volunteer
  10. 10. What Can Eye Tracking Tell Us?
  11. 12. Courtesy of Bunnyfoot by way of Future Now
  12. 13. Can we get them to change where they look?
  13. 14. Validating the Redesign
  14. 15. What are users interested in (or not interested in)?
  15. 16. What are users interested in (or not interested in)?
  16. 18. Where are my users looking? <ul><li>Discover where users look most of the time, and where they look the least </li></ul><ul><li>Discover where they look initially upon page load </li></ul><ul><li>Discover where they look during a given task </li></ul>
  17. 19. Testing Design Effectiveness <ul><li>Get real-time design feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Test visual hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Compare different versions of a design </li></ul><ul><li>Understand what attracts (or distracts) users </li></ul>
  18. 20. When are my users confused? <ul><li>Indications that your users might be confused: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent regressions of the same area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lots of seemingly random eye movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Looking in places that do not help in task completion </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. How quickly do they learn?
  20. 22. Measuring efficiency Average Fixation Count Before After
  21. 23. What Can Eye Tracking Do for You? <ul><li>Observe what attracts users </li></ul><ul><li>Understand what causes confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Watch as users learn to use your interface </li></ul>
  22. 24. Planning for Analysis ^ Ahead
  23. 25. Eye Tracking Produces lots of Raw Data
  24. 26. Replay the Videos
  25. 27. Plot Where & When They Looked
  26. 28. Categorize the Areas for Analysis
  27. 29. Aggregate Where People Looked
  28. 30. Understand the Analysis Tools <ul><li>Eye tracking raw data is scary and overwhelming </li></ul><ul><li>Use software tools to visualize the data and help with analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Know the limitations of the analysis software </li></ul><ul><li>Think about how you will use the visualizations </li></ul>
  29. 31. Creating the Plan
  30. 32. Adding to the Researcher’s Toolbox <ul><li>Eye tracking is not a standalone activity </li></ul><ul><li>Study must have clear objectives and goals </li></ul><ul><li>Plan ahead on how eye-tracking results will be used </li></ul><ul><li>Use as part of an iterative design process </li></ul>
  31. 33. Designing the Test <ul><li>The tee up </li></ul><ul><li>Short period of open exploration </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-determined tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Retrospective think-aloud between tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Participant & team debriefing </li></ul>
  32. 34. Using a Pre-task Question What are some of the things that go into your decision when you are looking for a seminar for continuing education credit?
  33. 35. Designing Task Instructions Find a seminar that you would like to enroll in. Enroll in a seminar available this week in San Jose on the topic of taking depositions.
  34. 36. Using Retrospective Think-aloud I noticed that you looked at _____several times… When you were looking for _____ you didn’t seem to notice _____ ? What were your impressions of that task?
  35. 37. End of Session Team Debriefing
  36. 38. Run a Pilot Test <ul><li>Test the study procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Test your data collection/notetaking methods </li></ul><ul><li>Test the amount of time estimated for each part of the session </li></ul><ul><li>Test for any hardware/software problems </li></ul><ul><li>If possible, pilot with someone who is not part of your team </li></ul>
  37. 39. Making it Happen
  38. 40. Eye Tracking Lab Configurations
  39. 41. How Many Participants? How many people do you need for consistent & reliable results?
  40. 42. 1 Participant (Low Validity) Images courtesy of www.realeyes.it
  41. 43. Participants (Low Validity) 2
  42. 44. Participants (Low Validity) 3
  43. 45. 4 Participants (Low Validity)
  44. 46. Participants (Low Validity) 5
  45. 47. Participants (Low Validity) 8
  46. 48. 10 Participants (Low Validity)
  47. 49. 12 Participants (Low Validity)
  48. 50. 15 Participants (Medium Validity)
  49. 51. 17 Participants (Medium Validity)
  50. 52. 20 Participants (Medium Validity)
  51. 53. 22 Participants (Medium Validity)
  52. 54. 25 Participants (Medium Validity)
  53. 55. 27 Participants (Medium Validity)
  54. 56. 30 Participants (High Validity)
  55. 57. 32 Participants (High Validity)
  56. 58. 35 Participants (High Validity)
  57. 59. 37 Participants (High Validity)
  58. 60. 40 Participants (High Validity)
  59. 61. 42 Participants (High Validity)
  60. 62. 45 Participants (High Validity)
  61. 63. 47 Participants (High Validity)
  62. 64. 53 Participants (High Validity)
  63. 65. Some claim 8 people are enough to analyze visual attention…
  64. 66. 8 people Sample A
  65. 67. Sample B 8 people
  66. 68. Sample C 8 people
  67. 69. Sample D 8 people
  68. 70. Sample E 8 people
  69. 71. What about a sample of 15 people?
  70. 72. 15 people Sample A
  71. 73. Sample B 15 people
  72. 74. Sample C 15 people
  73. 75. Sample D 15 people
  74. 76. What about samples of 30?
  75. 77. Sample A 30 people
  76. 78. Sample B 30 people
  77. 79. Sample C 30 people
  78. 80. So what does that mean?
  79. 81. Qualitative, informal, formative Quantitative, statistically significant, summative > 30 > 30 > 15 < 15
  80. 82. Don’t Recruit These People
  81. 83. Conducting the Session
  82. 84. Listen
  83. 85. Observe
  84. 86. Ask
  85. 87. Calibration Sequence
  86. 88. Be Sure Your Data is Collected Accurately Good Calibration Poor Calibration
  87. 89. Checking the Eye Tracking Status Good lock on both eyes Unable to track eyes Lock on one eye
  88. 90. Note-taking Strategies Task 1 Watch an animation that demonstrates how a wind turbine works. Left navigation Top navigation Center links Feature box Task Where initially looked Comments Participant quickly glanced at feature boxes but didn’t notice the one about wind power Task 2 Find out which team won this year’s Solar Decathlon. Left navigation Top navigation Center links Feature box Participant quickly noticed and clicked on the Solar Decathlon link in the top navigation
  89. 91. Need a Volunteer
  90. 92. Vs .
  91. 94. What Do you Tell the Participant? <ul><li>Explain to the participant that you need to calibrate the eye tracker to their eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Tell them to look at the series of dots that will appear on the screen </li></ul><ul><li>If the calibration does not take the first time, ask the participant to look at the dots again </li></ul>Replace this slide with an audience participation activity. Have the volunteer be the participant
  92. 95. Positioning the Participant Replace this slide with an audience participation activity. Have the participant demonstrate some of the movements that can affect the eye tracker
  93. 96. Pre-task Question What are some of the things that go into your decision when you are looking for a course or seminar for continuing education credit? Replace this slide with an audience participation activity. Ask the participant the pre-task question.
  94. 97. Task Instructions Enroll in a seminar available in San Jose on June 9 on the topic of taking depositions. Find a seminar that you would like to enroll in. Replace this slide with an audience participation activity. Ask the participant to perform the task.
  95. 98. Eye Tracking Takeaways <ul><li>Understand the limitations of the technology </li></ul><ul><li>Plan ahead on how you will use the data </li></ul><ul><li>Steer clear of potentially bad participants </li></ul><ul><li>Follow Listen, Observe, Ask Moderating Technique </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor the eye tracking status </li></ul><ul><li>Always perform a pilot test </li></ul>
  96. 99. Eye Tracking Resources <ul><li>Facebook Group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eye Tracking for Research and Design </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Poynter Institute </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eyetrack.poynter.org </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eye Tracking Research & Applications Symposium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.e-t-r-a.org </li></ul></ul>
  97. 100. But…We Don’t Have an Eye-tracker
  98. 101. Q & A
  99. 102. Thank You Andrew Schall [email_address] Anne Washington [email_address]
  100. 103. Room Layout – Conference Room Participant Note-taker Moderator
  101. 104. Room Layout – Traditional UT Lab Participant Note-taker Moderator
  102. 105. Room Layout – HFI Baltimore Lab Participant Note-taker Moderator

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