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Plagiarism and Referencing
Plagiarism <ul><li>Refers to the practice of using another writer’s ideas or observations and presenting them as your own ...
Plagiarism <ul><ul><li>direct quotations are not used but materials is paraphrased or summarised in such a way that it sub...
Example <ul><li>NOT PLAGIARISM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Human resource planning is important because an organisation’s effe...
Example <ul><li>NOT PLAGIARISM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human resource planning is important because if organisations do not ...
Example <ul><li>NOT PLAGIARISM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If organisations are to function as well as possible, they need to ma...
Example <ul><li>PLAGIARISM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If organisations are to function as well as possible, they need to make s...
Plagiarism - Conclusion <ul><li>Cheating is totally unacceptable in university work.  </li></ul><ul><li>In written work su...
Purpose of referencing <ul><li>Allow readers of the document to find the original source and learn more about some aspect ...
Purpose of referencing <ul><li>Provide theoretical support or evidence for statements or conclusions made by the writer </...
When to provide referencing <ul><li>Direct quotation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When another writer’s work is quoted verbatim (...
When to provide referencing <ul><li>Controversial information, opinions or data that an informed reader might challenge </...
Harvard System <ul><li>Must include two sections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In-text reference ( acknowledgement in the main bod...
In-text references <ul><li>An in-text reference includes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The surname(s) of the author(s) of the work...
In-text references  <ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>According to Smith, Brown and Adam (1999) it was suggested that...
In-text references <ul><li>The page number must be included in the reference when directly quoting a block of text or when...
In-text references <ul><li>When a work has two authors, both surnames should be included in every citation </li></ul><ul><...
In-text references <ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It has been recently revealed that zebras are not native to Afric...
General issues <ul><li>Newspapers example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A new American president has been elected ( Star  22 Febru...
General issues <ul><li>Publication date not available </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Then use ‘no date’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
General issues <ul><li>Citation for sources other than the original </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In general, students must make a...
General issues <ul><li>Tables and figures either extracted or taken whole </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be preceded by  Source: </...
List of references  (Paper based sources) <ul><li>Information require to identify book in a list of references </li></ul><...
List of references  (Paper based sources) <ul><ul><li>Book  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
List of references  (Paper based sources) <ul><li>Indirect quotation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When a source is quoted in the ...
List of references  (Paper based sources) <ul><li>Information required to identify journal articles in a list of reference...
List of references  (Paper based sources) <ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frost, F. et al. 1993. Greening and growin...
List of references  (Paper based sources) <ul><li>Sponsoring organisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes a specific autho...
Electronic Referencing Method <ul><li>In-text referencing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to paper based source if author or...
List of references (Electronic sources) <ul><li>CD ROM – book </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cl...
<ul><li>Database – journal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anderson, H. 2000. Turning intranets ...
List of references  (Electronic sources) <ul><li>Internet sites (author and date available) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example:...
List of references  (Electronic sources <ul><li>Internet sites (author and date not available) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examp...
Reference used <ul><li>Summers J & Brett S 2006,  Communication skills handbook,  2 nd  edition, John Wiley and Sons, Aust...
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Plagiarism and referencing[1]

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Transcript of "Plagiarism and referencing[1]"

  1. 1. Plagiarism and Referencing
  2. 2. Plagiarism <ul><li>Refers to the practice of using another writer’s ideas or observations and presenting them as your own </li></ul><ul><li>It occurs when </li></ul><ul><ul><li>blocks of texts (paragraphs, sentences, a single sentence or a significant part of a single sentence) are copied directly but are not enclosed in quotation marks and appropriately referenced </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Plagiarism <ul><ul><li>direct quotations are not used but materials is paraphrased or summarised in such a way that it substantially reflects ideas taken from another author’s work, and the source of the material is not appropriately referenced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>an idea that appear in printed or electronic form has been used or developed without reference being made to the person responsible for that idea </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Example <ul><li>NOT PLAGIARISM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Human resource planning is important because an organisation’s effectiveness depends on having the right people in the right jobs at the right times’ (Stone 1998, p.49). If an organisation does not … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PLAGIARISM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human resource planning is important because an organisation’s effectiveness depends on having the right people in the right jobs at the right times. If an organisation does not … </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Example <ul><li>NOT PLAGIARISM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human resource planning is important because if organisations do not have the best people in appropriate jobs at a time when they are needed then they are likely to have serious shortfall (Stone 1998). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PLAGIARISM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human resource planning is important because organisations need to have appropriate people in appropriate jobs at a time when they are needed. If an organisations do not … </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Example <ul><li>NOT PLAGIARISM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If organisations are to function as well as possible, they need to make sure that staff are available to fill jobs when the need arises (Stone 1998). If they do not ensure this … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As Stone (1998) states, if organisations are to function as well as possible, they need to make sure that staff are available to fill jobs when the need arises. If they do not ensure this … </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Example <ul><li>PLAGIARISM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If organisations are to function as well as possible, they need to make sure that staff are available to fill jobs when the need arises. If they do not ensure this … </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Plagiarism - Conclusion <ul><li>Cheating is totally unacceptable in university work. </li></ul><ul><li>In written work submitted for assessment in most universities, plagiarism may not only lead to assignment failure but also to serious formal proceedings under the university’s academic regulations (refer to your student guide book) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Purpose of referencing <ul><li>Allow readers of the document to find the original source and learn more about some aspect that the author may have mentioned only briefly in the document </li></ul><ul><li>Properly record information sources so that author can find the original sources of the information used to develop the document should he or she choose to do so at a later time </li></ul>
  10. 10. Purpose of referencing <ul><li>Provide theoretical support or evidence for statements or conclusions made by the writer </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge the intellectual property of others and thus avoid the possibly of the author being accused of plagiarism </li></ul>
  11. 11. When to provide referencing <ul><li>Direct quotation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When another writer’s work is quoted verbatim (word for word) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Paraphrasing or summarising </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideas or data obtained from another writers – even if the wording or context has been changed </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. When to provide referencing <ul><li>Controversial information, opinions or data that an informed reader might challenge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>William (1967) stated that Australia was discovered by European in 1522 but … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tables, figures, diagrams and appendices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When statistical data, diagrams or illustrations are either taken whole or adapted from another source </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Harvard System <ul><li>Must include two sections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In-text reference ( acknowledgement in the main body of the document) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A corresponding entry in the list of reference </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. In-text references <ul><li>An in-text reference includes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The surname(s) of the author(s) of the work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The year the work was published (where appropriate) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The page number(s) where the cited information can be found in the publication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Note: </li></ul><ul><li>A page number is required if you are referring to a direct quotation or to figures/ data produced in a research project. </li></ul>
  15. 15. In-text references <ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>According to Smith, Brown and Adam (1999) it was suggested that marketing is the key functional area of any business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In a recent research report by Smith, Brown and Adam (1999), it was suggested that marketing is the key functional area of any business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing is the key functional area of any business (Smith, Brown and Adam, 1999) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. In-text references <ul><li>The page number must be included in the reference when directly quoting a block of text or when including statistical data from the source </li></ul><ul><li>Notation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘p. ??’ for a single page </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘pp. ??’ for two or more pages </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. In-text references <ul><li>When a work has two authors, both surnames should be included in every citation </li></ul><ul><li>eg (Van Emden and Easteal, 1987) </li></ul><ul><li>When there are more than three authors, only first author’s surname need to be included followed by et al. </li></ul><ul><li>eg (Smith et al. 1993) </li></ul>
  18. 18. In-text references <ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It has been recently revealed that zebras are not native to Africa (Hichell and Williams, 2002)… Hichell and Williams (2002) now contend that zebras originated in Iceland. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network technologies have become increasingly complex in recent times (Cook, Burger and Brown, 2000). Local area networks are now very common (Samson et al. 2002) </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. General issues <ul><li>Newspapers example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A new American president has been elected ( Star 22 February 2001, p.12)…. However in the Sun Review (23 February 2001, p.23) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anonymous work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In case where the author’s name is not available, use sponsoring organisation. If both not available then use ‘Anon’ </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. General issues <ul><li>Publication date not available </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Then use ‘no date’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It seems that technology has encouraged people to … (Mores, no date) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. General issues <ul><li>Citation for sources other than the original </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In general, students must make an attempt to locate the original source of a quotation. However, there may be instance where the original source is inaccessible for some reasons, then the indirect quote is permissible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stallings and Stevensons, 1987 (in Chappal 2000, p. 23) defined a digital signal as “……………” </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. General issues <ul><li>Tables and figures either extracted or taken whole </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be preceded by Source: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be enclosed in parentheses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Source: Edwards et al. 2000, p.67) </li></ul></ul>Animal Population (1990) Population (2000) Zebra 300,000 250,000 Lion 60,000 68,000
  23. 23. List of references (Paper based sources) <ul><li>Information require to identify book in a list of references </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Author(s) or editor(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Year of publication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Title, in italics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Series and individual volume number (if any) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Edition number, if it is a 2nd or later edition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place of publication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publisher </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. List of references (Paper based sources) <ul><ul><li>Book </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smyth, H. and Blackwood, T. 1994. Strategic planning. 2nd ed. London: Prentice Hall </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Book chapter or one contribution in a book consisting of contributions of different authors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easton, G. 1992. Foreign market entry. In Alexson, B. and Easton, G. (eds). 1994. Industrial Networks. London: Prentice Hall. pp 45 - 47 </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. List of references (Paper based sources) <ul><li>Indirect quotation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When a source is quoted in the text but that source is not original source of quotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Galvin, P. 2002. Electronic Principles. London : Prentice Hall Quoted in Stallings, W. 2002. Business data communications, 2 nd edition, New York: Macmillan College Publishing Company. p.23 </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. List of references (Paper based sources) <ul><li>Information required to identify journal articles in a list of references </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Author(s) of the article </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Year of publication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Title of the article </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Title of the journal, in italics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part or issue number, or month of publication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inclusive page numbers </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. List of references (Paper based sources) <ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frost, F. et al. 1993. Greening and growing: the role of government. Journal of General Management. 18(4), pp.57-59. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. List of references (Paper based sources) <ul><li>Sponsoring organisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes a specific author is not known. In this case, the sponsoring organisation may be used </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Austrade. 2001. Exporting of services comes into focus. Business Review Weekly. 17 September: p.1 </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Electronic Referencing Method <ul><li>In-text referencing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to paper based source if author or sponsoring organisation is known </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both unknown then include </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Anon, 2003) </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. List of references (Electronic sources) <ul><li>CD ROM – book </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clark, M.K. 2000. Birds of Australia . Financial Times [CD-ROM]. Available from: The Financial Times. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Database – journal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anderson, H. 2000. Turning intranets into strategic marketing weapons. Network World, [Online] 14(4): p.4. Available from http:// www.emeraldinsight.com [Assessed on 20 March 2003] </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. List of references (Electronic sources) <ul><li>Internet sites (author and date available) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lee, M.T. 2000. Guidelines for citing references and electronic sources of information [Online]. Available from World Wide Web: URL: http://www.eliz.tased.edu.au/refs.htm [Assessed on 18th July, 2009] </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. List of references (Electronic sources <ul><li>Internet sites (author and date not available) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guidelines for citing references and electronic sources of information, n.d. [Online]. Available from World Wide Web: URL: http:// www.eliz.tased.edu.au/refs.htm [Assessed on 18th July, 2009] </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Reference used <ul><li>Summers J & Brett S 2006, Communication skills handbook, 2 nd edition, John Wiley and Sons, Australia </li></ul>
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