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Referencing citation

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Referencing citation

  1. 1. Hari Prasad Kaphle Assistant Professor PU
  2. 2. What is referencing?  Referencing is a standardized way of acknowledging the sources of information and ideas that you have used in your assignments and which allows the sources to be identified.
  3. 3. What is referencing?  It is a method used to demonstrate to your readers that you have conducted a thorough and appropriate literature search, and carried out appropriate reading.  With all referencing styles, there are two parts to referencing: citing, and the reference list.
  4. 4. Why reference?  Referencing is important to avoid plagiarism, to verify quotations and to enable readers to follow up what you have written and more fully understand the cited author’s work.  If you do not acknowledge another writer's work or ideas, you could be accused of plagiarism.
  5. 5. Why reference?  Accurate referencing is commensurate with good academic practice and enhances the presentation of your work: it shows that your writing is based on knowledge and informed by appropriate academic reading.  You will ensure that anyone reading your work can trace the sources you have used in the development of your work, and give you credit for your research efforts and quality.
  6. 6. Steps in referencing  Record the full bibliographic details and relevant page numbers of the source from which information is taken.  Punctuation marks and spaces in the reference list and citations are very important. Follow the punctuation and spacing exactly.  Insert the citation at the appropriate place in the text of your document.  Include a reference list that includes all in-text citations at the end of your document.
  7. 7. Reference list and bibliography  A reference list contains details only of those works cited in the text of the document. (e.g.. book, journal article, pamphlet, internet site, cassette tape or film).  A bibliography lists sources not cited in the text but which are relevant to the subject and consulted during preparation of report.
  8. 8. Reference list and bibliography  A reference list should appear at the end of your report with the entries listed numerically and in the same order that they have been cited in the text.  A bibliography is a separate list from the reference list and should be arranged alphabetically by author in the Vancouver style.
  9. 9. What should we reference?  Print and electronic books;  Print and electronic journal articles;  WebPages;  Emails;  DVDs, videos, films, CD-ROMs & audio tape recordings;  Newspapers;  Conference papers;  Papers or data published in a repository;  Pamphlets;
  10. 10. What should we reference?  Government reports/White papers  Radio/TV/internet broadcasts  Personal communication;  Interviews (if this is a personal interview, you must always ask permission of the interviewee before using such material); and,  Theses and other unpublished work.
  11. 11. Referencing Software  Endnote  Reference Manager
  12. 12. What is plagiarism?  Plagiarism is the intentional use of someone else’s ideas, words or concepts in your assignment work/ thesis/dissertation report.  The best way to avoid being accused of plagiarism is to acknowledge the resources upon which you have based your ideas.
  13. 13. What is plagiarism?  Plagiarism most commonly exists in four ways.  The first is when the work submitted or presented was done by someone other than the one submitting the work.  Secondly, if the whole work, such as an essay, is copied from some other source.
  14. 14. What is plagiarism?  A third type of plagiarism is when parts of the work are taken from another source and no reference is made to the original author.  Finally, if a student submits or presents work in one course which has also been submitted in another course and has not sought approval from the course coordinator to do so, this is also plagiarism.
  15. 15. What is citing?  When, in your work, you have used an idea from a book, journal article, etc. you must acknowledge this in your text. This is referred to as 'citing'.
  16. 16. How to cite: citing references in the body of your text  Each piece of work which is cited in your text should have a unique number, assigned in the order of citation.  If, in your text, you cite a piece of work more than once, the same citation number should be used.  Write the number as superscript.
  17. 17. Citing one piece of work  Recent research1 indicates that the number of duplicate papers being published is increasing.
  18. 18. Citing more than one piece of work at the same time  If you want to cite several pieces of work in the same sentence, you will need to include the citation number for each piece of work.  A hyphen should be used to link numbers which are inclusive, and a comma used where numbers are not consecutive.  Several studies 6-9,13,15 have examined the effect of congestion charging in urban areas.
  19. 19. Citing a direct quotation  If a direct quote from a book, article etc., is used you must:  Use single quotation marks (double quotation marks are usually used for quoting direct speech); and,  State the page number.  It has been emphasised2 (p 1) that carers of diabetes sufferers 'require perseverance and an understanding of humanity'.  Duplication of charts, diagrams, pictures etc., should be treated as direct quotes and cited as described above.
  20. 20. Citing the author's name  You can use the author's name in your text, but you must insert the citation number as well.  As emphasized by Watkins2(p1) carers of diabetes sufferers 'require perseverance and an understanding of humanity'
  21. 21. Citing more than one author's name in your text  If there is more than one author use 'et al' after the first author.  Simons et al3 (p4) state that the principle of effective stress is 'imperfectly known and understood by many practicing engineers'.
  22. 22. Citing from works with no obvious author  If you need to cite a piece of work which does not have an obvious author, you should use what is called a 'corporate' author.  The Department of Health5 recently estimated the number of dementia sufferers in the UK at 570000. or  The number of dementia sufferers in the UK has been recently estimated at 5700005.
  23. 23. Tips on good quotation practice  Quotations longer than two lines should be inserted as a separate, indented paragraph.  Smith4 (p11) summarizes the importance of mathematics to society and the knowledge economy, stating that: 'Mathematics provides a powerful universal language and intellectual toolkit for abstraction, generalization and synthesis. It is the language of science and technology. It enables us to probe the natural universe and to develop new technologies that have helped us control and master our environment, and change societal expectations and standards of living.'
  24. 24. Tips on good quotation practice  you want to insert a long quotation (over two lines) but do not to want include all of the text, you can remove the unnecessary text and replace with ' . . . ' .  As summarized by Smith4 (p 11): 'Mathematics provides a powerful universal language and intellectual toolkit for abstraction, generalization and synthesis . . . It enables us to probe the natural universe and to develop new technologies that have helped us control and master our environment, and change societal expectations and standards of living.'
  25. 25. How to write a reference list?  The list should be in numerical order with each number matching and referring to the one in the text;  The list should be at the end of your work; and,  Books, paper or electronic journal articles, etc., are written in a particular format that must be followed
  26. 26. Books: print Author(s) – Family name and initials, Multiple authors separated by a comma. Title of book. Edition of book if later than 1st ed. Place of Publication: Publisher Name; Year of Publication.  Simons NE, Menzies B, Matthews M. A Short Course in Soil and Rock Slope Engineering. London: Thomas Telford Publishing; 2001.
  27. 27. Books: electronic  Simons NE, Menzies B, Matthews M. A Short Course in Soil and Rock Slope Engineering. London: Thomas Telford Publishing; 2001[cited 2008 Jun 18]. Available from: bwww.myilibrary.com?ID=93941
  28. 28. Journal Articles  Author(s) – Family name and initials. Title of article. Title of journal – abbreviated Publication year, month, day (month & day only if available); volume(issue):pages.  Skalsky K, Yahav D, Bishara J, Pitlik S, Leibovici L, Paul M. Treatment of human brucellosis: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ. 2008 Mar 29;336(7646):701-4. 
  29. 29. Electronic article  Lemanek K. Adherence issues in the medical management of asthma. J Pediatr Psychol [Internet]. 1990; 15(4):437-58[cited 2010 Apr 22]. Available from: http://jpepsy.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/15/4/437
  30. 30. Conference papers  Author(s) of paper – Family name and initials. Title of paper. In: Editor(s) Family name and initials, editor(s). Title of conference; Date of conference; Place of conference. Place of publication: Publisher’s name; Year of publication. p. Page numbers.  Bengtsson S, Solheim BG. Enforcement of data protection, privacy and security in medical informatics. In: Lun KC. Degoulet P. Piemme TE, Reinhoff O, editors. MEDINFO 92. Proceedings of the 7th World Congress on Medical Informatics; 1992 Sep 6-10; Geneva, Switzerland. Amsterdam: North Holland; 1992. P. 1561-5
  31. 31. Reports and other Government publications  Author(s). Title of report. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication – year month if applicable. Total number of pages if applicable e.g.. 24 p. Report No.: (if applicable).  Page E, Harney JM. Health hazard evaluation report. Cincinnati (OH): National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (US); 2001 Feb. 24 p. Report No.:HETA2000-0139-2824
  32. 32. Thesis  Printed Thesis: Author. Thesis title [type of thesis]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year.  Kay JG. Intracellular cytokine trafficking and phagocytosis in macrophages [PhD thesis]. St Lucia, Qld: University of Queensland; 2007.
  33. 33. Online Thesis  Pahl KM. Preventing anxiety and promoting social and emotional strength in early childhood: an investigation of aetiological risk factors [PhD thesis]. St Lucia, Qld: University of Queensland; 2009 [cited 2010 Mar 24]. Available from: University of Queensland Library E-Reserve
  34. 34. Tables, Figures, Images, Appendices  Journal example: Enter your normal journal reference followed by: space Table/Figure/Appendix Number of table/figure/appendix from original source, Title of table/figure/image/appendix from original source; p. Page number of table/figure/appendix from original source.  Smith J, Lipsitch M, Almond JW. Vaccine production, distribution, access, and uptake. Lancet 2011;378(9789):428-438. Table 1, Examples of vaccine classes and associated industrial challenges; p. 429.
  35. 35. Tables, Figures, Images, Appendices  Book example: Enter your normal book reference followed by: space Table/Figure/Appendix Number of table/figure/appendix from original source, Title of table/figure/image/appendix from original source; p. Page number of table/figure/appendix from original source.  Hong S. Wireless: From Marconi’s black-box to the Audion. London, England. MIT Press; 2001. Figure 1.5, Marconi’s grounded antenna; p. 21.
  36. 36. Thank You!

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