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Report on Rio+20 UNCSD 2012
Report on Rio+20 UNCSD 2012
Report on Rio+20 UNCSD 2012
Report on Rio+20 UNCSD 2012
Report on Rio+20 UNCSD 2012
Report on Rio+20 UNCSD 2012
Report on Rio+20 UNCSD 2012
Report on Rio+20 UNCSD 2012
Report on Rio+20 UNCSD 2012
Report on Rio+20 UNCSD 2012
Report on Rio+20 UNCSD 2012
Report on Rio+20 UNCSD 2012
Report on Rio+20 UNCSD 2012
Report on Rio+20 UNCSD 2012
Report on Rio+20 UNCSD 2012
Report on Rio+20 UNCSD 2012
Report on Rio+20 UNCSD 2012
Report on Rio+20 UNCSD 2012
Report on Rio+20 UNCSD 2012
Report on Rio+20 UNCSD 2012
Report on Rio+20 UNCSD 2012
Report on Rio+20 UNCSD 2012
Report on Rio+20 UNCSD 2012
Report on Rio+20 UNCSD 2012
Report on Rio+20 UNCSD 2012
Report on Rio+20 UNCSD 2012
Report on Rio+20 UNCSD 2012
Report on Rio+20 UNCSD 2012
Report on Rio+20 UNCSD 2012
Report on Rio+20 UNCSD 2012
Report on Rio+20 UNCSD 2012
Report on Rio+20 UNCSD 2012
Report on Rio+20 UNCSD 2012
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Report on Rio+20 UNCSD 2012

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Report on Rio+20 is a summary of the negotiations at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD) called "Rio+20" held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil June 20-22, 2012.

Report on Rio+20 is a summary of the negotiations at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD) called "Rio+20" held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil June 20-22, 2012.

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  • 1. Kyoto and Beyond Report on Rio+20 The 9th installment in an ongoing series on multilateral agreements related to climate changewww.isciences.com July 27, 2012
  • 2. Introduction Kyoto and Beyond is a series of presentations on the evolving international climate treaty process that began with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 1992. Report on Rio+20 is a summary of the negotiations that transpired at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD) called “Rio+20” in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil June 20-22, 2012. Other presentations in the Kyoto and Beyond series include*:  2008 Kyoto and Beyond  2011 Report on Cancun COP16  2009 Kyoto and Beyond, Update  2011 Road to Durban  2009 Report on Copenhagen COP15  2012 Report on Durban  2010 Road to Cancun COP16  2012 Road to Rio+20 * Available at http://www.isciences.com/spotlight/kyoto_and_beyond.html Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 2
  • 3. Contents Overview Outcome Document Action at the UN High-Level Session Action Outside of the UN Process Looking Ahead NOTE: This presentation includes hyperlinks to additional information indicated by underlined text. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 3
  • 4. Overview: Objectives Rio+20, the UN Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD), was held June 20-22, 2012 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.UNCSD was promoted as “The Future We Want” and its stated purpose was to set aglobal sustainability agenda for the coming decade. Objectives Themes Priority Areas  renew political commitment  Institutional Framework for  jobs, energy, cities, food,  assess progress Sustainable Development water, oceans, disasters  discuss emerging challenges  Green EconomyChina’s Sha Zukang was Secretary-General of the Conference and the ConferencePresident was host country Brazil’s President Dilma Rouseff. See also: www.uncsd2012.org Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 4
  • 5. Overview: Global ConditionsThe world has changed since Rio 1992. THE ECONOMY – tight purse strings for Mother Earth?  The dismal global economy in 2012, evidenced by the Eurozone crisis, may have upstaged Rio+20’s agenda and diverted some world leaders, including US President Barack Obama, to the G-20 summit in Mexico on June 18 instead.  G-20 is primarily an economic summit, but issues like climate change and a green economy (economic challenge/economic opportunity) have some traction. G-20 2012 recommitted to its 2009 declaration to phase out fossil fuel subsidies, but it did not (Credit: NOAA via Wikimedia Commons) establish targets or deadlines.THE ENVIRONMENT – a fate worse than debt? Average annual global temperature has increased 0.58 F (0.32 C) since 1992 based on 10-year running averages.* Global levels of CO2 climbed 10%, from nearly 358 ppm in April 1992 to 394 ppm April 2012.* Since 1992, natural disasters have killed 1.3 million people, affected 4.4 billion people worldwide, and cost $2 trillion in damages.** Since 1990, the worlds primary forest areas have decreased about 740 million acres (300 million hectares).** See also: G20 Leaders Declaration and Policy Commitments by G20 Members * US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ** United Nations Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 5
  • 6. Overview: Tracking UN Progress Historically, how effective has the official UN multilateral process been in addressing environmental and sustainability issues? In its 2012 Global Environmental Outlook Report 5, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) examined more than 500 internationally agreed-upon goals and objectives adopted at the 1992 Earth Summit and other conferences and found “significant progress” in just four areas:  eliminating chlorofluorocarbons that punched a hole in the Earths protective ozone layer,  the removal of lead from gasoline that caused human health problems,  improved access to clean water, and  boosting research to reduce ocean pollution. UNEP Global Environmental Outlook Report 5, 2012 Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 6
  • 7. Outcome Document: Evolution Text for Rio+20’s proposed action plan, "The Future We Want,” underwent a slow and contentious pre-Conference negotiating process. A preliminary draft was introduced Jan. 10, 2012 based on input from relevant stakeholders. Negotiations proceeded as scheduled at pre-Conference meetings where numerous and lengthy amendments were proposed. After an additional meeting to consider a Co-Chairs’ Suggested Text, negotiators still failed to produce a consensus document for Antonio de Aguiar Patriota, world leaders to approve June 20-22. Minister for Foreign Affairs of Brazil (Credit: UN Photo/Maria Elisa Franco) Editorial responsibility was handed over to Brazil, which holds the Presidency of Rio+20. Finally, on June 19 Brazil set forth a 50-page document for the Conference. Though the document is legally nonbinding, expectations were that any declaration by the Conference should succeed in clarifying goals for concrete policy steps. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 7
  • 8. Outcome Document: Unambitious The final text sidestepped targets, timelines, and roadmaps. In the final version of “The Future We Want” Brazil chose to strike text where no agreement could be reached. That, and the push for “Common But Differentiated Responsibilities” (CBDR) resulted in unambitious language which leaves specific goals, targets, and paths to individual countries. Brazil, India, and China – the most powerful of the “Group of 77,” a UN bloc of 77 developing nations – were prominent in shaping the proposal. Some critics claim that CBDR guided the tepid language and does not support concrete, measureable outcomes and universal responsibilities. “…the longest suicide note in history” – Kumi Naidoo, executive director, Greenpeace International Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 8
  • 9. Outcome Document: Backwards?“The Future We Want” inspired little enthusiasm and “…a step backward from previoussome severe criticism, especially from women’s rights agreements.” – Gro Harlem Brundtland, UNactivists who felt that it reversed progress. Special EnvoyThe words "reproductive rights" were deleted from the document after the Vaticanpersuaded some predominately Catholic and conservative Muslim countries to protest. Though the document committed to “reproductive health” it ignored the last twenty years of global progress in women’s reproductive rights since the Cairo Programme of Action 1994 and the Beijing Platform for Action 1995. US Secretary of State Hilary Rodham Clinton It also ignored the basic correlation between reproductive addresses UNCSD Plenary June 22, 2012 (Credit: UN Photo: Maria Elisa Franco) rights, population growth, and sustainability.US Secretary of State Clinton elicited applause when she assured that the US would workto ensure that women’s reproductive rights are respected in international agreements.See also: Transcript of Clinton’s address at Rio+20; and, What’s Good for Women is Good for the Environment Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 9
  • 10. Action at the UN: Overall Tenor With modest outcomes preordained by the document text, the daily narrative of UNCSD’s High-Level Conference sessions never reached an inspired crescendo. The three days of official sessions proceeded without drama, in contrast to late night huddles and last minute negotiations characteristic of other UN environmental conferences. Ban Ki-moon opened the Conference, 191 national representatives (Credit: UN Photo/Guilherme Costa) addressed the meeting, representatives from 9 Major Groups made statements, rapporteurs from the Sustainable Development Dialogue Days offered recommendations, and four round table discussions took place on implementation of Conference outcomes. On Friday June 22 at 8:41pm, Rio+20 – billed as the most important meeting in the history of our planet – quietly closed its doors. See also: Earth Negotiations Bulletin Vol. 27 No. 51 and UN Web TV archived videos at http://webtv.un.org/meetings-events/ Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 10
  • 11. Action at the UN: ObjectivesDid Rio+20 meet its stated purpose and objectives?The stated purpose was “to set a global sustainability agenda for the coming decade.” “The Future We Want” includes few deadlines for time-bound targets associated with agenda items. Few actionable items are articulated – instead, words like “encourage,” “reaffirm,” “acknowledge,” “urge,” and “recognize” are used.The stated objectives were to “renew political commitment, assess progress, anddiscuss emerging challenges.” Commitments were established as voluntary, not binding; Progress was assessed as “insufficient;” No agreements were reached on comprehensive mitigation to address emerging challenges. “An outcome that makes nobody happy.” – Sha Zukang, Rio+20 Secretary General Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 11
  • 12. Action at the UN: Green Economy Did Rio+20 succeed in its stated theme of charting a path to a “green economy in the context of poverty eradication and sustainable development”? “We affirm that there are different The definition of a “green economy” has come to be approaches, visions, models and tools known as economic engines that support sustainable available to each country, in accordance with its national circumstances and priorities … consumption and production and that lower green economy …should not be a rigid set of environmental impacts. rules.” – Paragraph 56 The Future We Want, June 19, 2012 Operationally the path to a green economy could be paved with: national policy options, sector-based roadmaps, international instruments of finance, an international knowledge-sharing platform, and global measures of progress. India and China, along with some African nations, successfully pushed back a proposal to set targets and timetables for a green economy, arguing that targets would lead to trade restrictions or other sanctions if developing countries did not move quickly enough. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 12
  • 13. Action at the UN: IFSD & UNEPDuring the Rio+20 discussions on the theme of InstitutionalFramework for Sustainable Development (IFSD) the role of UNEPwas strengthened, but UNEP was not upgraded to a specializedUN agency as some had advocated.The Rio+ 20 agreement will: establish universal membership in the Governing Council of UNEP; ensure stable and increased financial resources from the regular budget of the UN and from voluntary contributions; enhance UNEP’s voice by strengthening its engagement in key UN coordination bodies and empowering it to lead efforts in UN system wide environmental strategies. “We are committed to strengthening the role of the United Nations Environment Programme as the leading global environmental authority that sets the global environmental agenda …” – Paragraph 88 The Future We Want, June 19, 2012 Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 13
  • 14. Action at the UN: IFSD & CSDDiscussions on the theme of IFSD also established a “universal intergovernmentalhigh level political forum” to replace the Commission on SustainableDevelopment. “We decide to establish a universal intergovernmentalThe new forum will: high level political forum, building on the strengths, experiences, resources and inclusive participation have a format defined by an inclusive modalities of the Commission on Sustainable Development, and subsequently replacing the negotiation process under the UN General Commission.” – Paragraph 84 The Future We Want, June 19, 2012 Assembly; harmonize global SD efforts and eventually replace the Commission on Sustainable Development; encourage high-level system-wide participation of UN agencies; enhance the consultative role of Major Groups and other relevant stakeholders; strengthen the science-policy interface; convene in Fall 2014 at the 68th session of UN General Assembly. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 14
  • 15. Action at the UN: SDGs An “open working group” will begin creating Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) – a set of sustainability indicators – at the 67th UN General Assembly session Sept. 18-Dec.31, 2012. The SDGs: “We resolve to establish an inclusive and transparent  will be integrated in the UN intergovernmental process on SDGs that is open to all Development Agenda beyond 2015; stakeholders with a view to developing global sustainable development goals to be agreed by the  should not divert focus or effort from United Nations General Assembly.” – Paragraph 248 The Future We Want, June 19, 2012 achievement of the MDGs by 2015.  will be developed by a group of 30 representatives nominated by Member States through the five UN regional groups; the SDG working group will assemble by Fall 2012 and will submit its proposal in Fall 2014 at the 68th UNGA session. But many questions remain. Can nations agree on ambitious yet workable SDGs? Can the global development community handle two sets of goals? What if MDGs are not met by 2015? Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 15
  • 16. Action at the UN: Climate Change“The Future We Want” reinforced “common but differentiated responsibilities”in its reference to climate change. “We recall that UNFCCC provides that Parties should protect the climate system for the benefit of present and future generations of humankind on the basis ofWhile text in the Rio+20 declaration urged equity and in accordance with their common butParties to build upon UNFCCC progress at differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities.”Durban, it also reinforced CBDR, contrasting – Paragraph 191 The Future We Want, June 19, 2012with Durban’s movement toward shared “We urge Parties to the UNFCCC and Parties to theclimate responsibilities. Kyoto Protocol to fully implement their commitments, as well as decisions adopted under those agreements.The Durban Platform noted that both developed In this regard, we will build upon the progress achieved including at the most recent COP-17/CMP7 in Durban.”and developing nations will have to negotiate a – Paragraph 192 The Future We Want, June 19, 2012treaty, a “legal instrument or legal outcome” by2015 that will reduce carbon emissions. “Also decides to launch a process to develop a protocol, another legal instrument or a legal outcome under the Convention applicable to all Parties…” – Item 2, The Durban Platform for Enhanced Action, Dec. 10, 2011 Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 16
  • 17. Action at the UN: Climate ChangeThough “The Future We Want” supported the phase-out of HFCs, that pledgemay already have been compromised or delayed at a recent meeting on theMontreal Protocol. “We recognize that the phase-out of ozone depleting substance (ODS) is resulting in a rapid increase in theHFC (hydrofluorocarbons) have broadly replaced use and release of high global warming potential hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) to the environment. WeCFCs (chlorofluorocarbons), which were banned support a gradual phase-down in the consumption andunder the highly successful Montreal Protocol to production of HFCs.” – Paragraph 222 The Future We Want, June 19, 2012protect the ozone layer.Although better for the ozone layer, HFCs have a greater global warming effect thanCO2 by a factor of 460-9100. Called ‘super greenhouse gases’ HFCs are used inrefrigeration or air-conditioning units.At a recent meeting in Bangkok on the Montreal Protocol (July 27-30, 2012) a proposal toadd HFCs to the Protocol was supported by the US, Micronesia, Mexico, Canada, and theEU, but contested by Brazil, China, and India who advocate addressing it through theUNFCCC. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 17
  • 18. Action at the UN: Other Issues Progress on other issues was desultory and without transformational movement. Corporate Sustainability Reporting Companies are encouraged “to consider integrating sustainability information in their reporting cycle,” but there is no report-or-explain clause requiring them to do so or to explain if they do not. (The Future We Want Paragraph 47) GDP+ The UN Statistical Commission is charged with launching a program to develop GDP+, a broader measure of progress to complement GDP. (The Future We Want Paragraph 38) Financing An intergovernmental process under the UN General Assembly will “assess financing needs” and propose options on a Sustainable Development Financing Strategy, to be implemented by 2014. (The Future We Want Paragraphs 255-256.) Technology Transfer “Relevant UN agencies” are requested “to identify options for a facilitation mechanism” for tech transfer, after which the UN Secretary General will make recommendations to the 67th Session of the UN General Assembly, Sept. 2012. (The Future We Want Paragraph 273) Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 18
  • 19. Action Outside of the UN Process Voluntary actions outside of the formal UNCSD process demonstrated more vigor and resolve than the official meetings. The convergence at Rio offered an opportunity for sustainable development interests to galvanize, exchange ideas, and merge actions in the hope of effecting change beyond borders. Among the emerging trends was the rise of multi- stakeholder coalitions pushing to affect change. (Credit: Aliencow via Wikimedia Commons) Though lacking the scale of high-level governments, diverse coalitions of businesses, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), civil society groups, universities and others used Rio to push sustainability efforts forward. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 19
  • 20. Action Outside: SE4ALLBan Ki-moon’s “Sustainable Energy for All” (SE4ALL) initiativereceived strong support from influential global sectors, incontrast to its weak endorsement in the Rio declaration.The UN declaration afforded SE4ALL just a single paragraph whichomitted objectives and the 2030 target date, and included opt-out (Credit: UN)language: “prioritized according to their specific challenges…” 2030 SE4ALL Objectives:  Ensure universal access to modern energy services, “We recognize that countries’ activities in broader energy-related issues are of great  Double the global rate of importance and are prioritized according to their specific challenges, capacities and improvement of energy efficiency, circumstances, including energy mix.”  Double the share of – Paragraph 129 The Future We Want, June 19, 2012 renewable energy in the global energy mix.In contrast, the six largest multilateral development banks pledged $30 billion, investorsand corporations pledged $50 billion, and the US announced its US-Africa Clean EnergyFinance Initiative, among other governmental and private commitments. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 20
  • 21. Action Outside: “Natural Capital”“Natural capital accounting” – valuation of the stock of ecosystems thatprovides a renewable flow of goods and services – received support fromcorporate and banking sectors. Major multi-national corporations agreed to develop a methodology to assign value to natural systems (forests, freshwater and marine) in the Valuing Natural Capital Initiative. (Credit: Wikimedia Commons) The financial sector committed to work towards integrating natural capital criteria into financial products and services in the Natural Capital Declaration. Several countries have agreed to create "natural capital accounting" rules including the United States, Britain, France and Germany, though China and Brazil declined. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 21
  • 22. Action Outside: Other Initiatives Sustainabililty “Friends of Rio+20,” a coalition of international business, scientific and civil society leaders, asked government leaders to engage them in sustainable development issues by: designing economies for sustainable development and SD goals for post-2015 and creating national and regional policies and frameworks to accelerate delivery of SD goals; and, enabling multi-country and multi-stakeholder coalitions of actors, including national and sub-national governments, to undertake explicit sets of actions now and in the near term to help achieve these goals. SD Education The Higher Education Sustainability Initiative for Rio+20 was signed by 257 educational institutions in 52 countries who have agreed to support teaching sustainable development concepts and "ensuring that they form a part of the core curriculum across all disciplines.” Water Forty-five major companies representing hundreds of billions of dollars in annual revenue called for greater action by Governments "to achieve global water security. These major companies endorse the U.N.s Global Compact CEO Water Mandate, an initiative designed to assist companies in the development, implementation, and disclosure of water sustainability policies and practices. Transportation The Asian Development Bank and seven other multilateral lenders will provide more than $175 billion to improve transportation in developing countries over the next 10 years. The pledge to fund loans and grants is intended for all transport but will increasingly go to sustainable transport. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 22
  • 23. Action In & Out: CommitmentsSeveral online registries have evolved to record sustainability commitmentsmade by governments, civil society and the private sector.In the absence of a binding multilateral agreement, thesecommitments are evidence of some actionable targets, andrepresent a “bottom-up” direction in movement instead of“top-down” state-centric. (Credit: NRDC)The digital platforms for commitments may also help increase accountability andtransparency. The Cloud of Commitments, Natural Resources Defense Council (http://www.cloudofcommitments.org/) Voluntary Commitments, UNCSD (http://www.uncsd2012.org/rio20/allcommitments.html Business.un.org, UN http://business.un.org/en/browse/commitments Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 23
  • 24. Action In & Out: Opinions ”If current trends continue, if current patterns of production and consumption of natural resources prevail and cannot be reversed and ‘decoupled’, “…although I think all the individual initiatives then governments will preside over unprecedented by companies and partnerships are interesting, levels of damage and degradation.” they don’t deliver the scale that is necessary to address the global challenges we face on Achim Steiner, UNEP Executive Director sustainability.” Yvo DeBoer, former UNFCCC chair “We should be thinking about harnessing the power of the market.” Hilary Rodham Clinton, US Secretary of State “I would like to applaud developing“…our collective capacity to destroy the planets life-support systems countries in particular, as they signedis unprecedented. Yet the consequences of our individual actions are the document in the absence of anytypically so far removed from our daily awareness that we can go promise of financial support fromright over the cliff without even knowing it.“ developed countries.” Jeffrey Sachs, Director, Columbia University’s Earth Institute Dilma Rouseff, President of Brazil “Those who have failed you, Mr. Sha, are the “The ‘green economy’ promoted by the governments, not the CEOs, not the NGOs.” United Nations Rio+20 summit is a form of new colonialism.” José María Figueres, former president of Costa Rica Evo Morales, President of Bolivia Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 24
  • 25. Looking Ahead Clearly, Rio+20 did not deliver a roadmap to sustainable development. Still, in a “bottom-up” approach actors outside of the UN multilateral process found ways to generate commitments through initiatives built by public/private partnerships. What’s Next? Nov. 26-Dec.7, 2012: COP18 Doha, Qatar 18th Session of the Conference of the But without multilateral agreements can any initiative Parties to the United Nations Framework reach necessary scale and pace? And, what will happen Convention on Climate Change and the 8th Session of the Conference of the Parties between now and 2013 when final review of MDGs occurs serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the and transition to SDGs begins? Kyoto ProtocolWatch for future installments of ISciences’ “Kyoto and Beyond” series athttp://www.isciences.com/spotlight/kyoto_and_beyond.html. “Nature does not wait. Nature does not negotiate with human beings.“ – Ban Ki-Moon, UN Secretary-General Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 25
  • 26. Sources Asahi Shibun, The. June 18, 2012. Rio+20 REPORT (3): Summaries of statements by delegation leaders. Asia and Japan Watch by The Asahi Shibun. http://ajw.asahi.com/article/economy/environment/AJ201207180050 Barnette, Jennifer. July 25, 2012, 2:45pm. Disproving the Tragedy of the Commons: Rio+20 Sustainable Development Commitments. 3blmedia, blog. http://3blmedia.com/theCSRfeed/Disproving-Tragedy- Commons-Rio20-Sustainable-Development-Commitments Bernama.com Malaysian National News Agency. June 22, 2012 13:23pm. Protests Overshadow Rio+20 UN Summit. http://www.bernama.com.my/bernama/v6/newsworld.php?id=674919 Borenstein, Seth. June 20, 2012. Rio 20 years later: Pollution up, forests down. Yahoo! News. http://news.yahoo.com/rio-20-years-later-pollution-forests-down-155149984.html Business.un.org. Commitments. http://business.un.org/en/browse/commitments Chen, Sharon. June 20, 2012 8:00am ET. Development Banks Pledge $175 Billion for Transport at Rio+20. Bloomberg.com. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2012-06-20/development-banks-pledge-175-billion-for- transport-at-rio-20.html Circle of Blue. June 22, 2012. Countdown to Rio/Friends of Rio+20 Step Forward and Speak Out. http://www.circleofblue.org/waternews/2012/world/countdown-to- rio/?utm_source=Circle+of+Blue+WaterNews+%26+Alerts&utm_campaign=4fc45d276f- Weekly_Water_News_July_6_20127_6_2012&utm_medium=email Clinton, Hilary Rodham. June 22, 2012. Remarks at the UN Conference on Sustainable Development Plenary, Rio de Janeiro. US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/secretary/rm/2012/06/193910.htm Cloud of Commitments.org. Action and Accountability at the Rio+20 Summit. http://www.cloudofcommitments.org/ Confino, Jo. June 22, 2012, 07:18 EDT. Rio+20: the Earth Summit diaries, Friday 22 June. The Guardian UK. http://www.guardian.co.uk/sustainable-business/rio-20-earth-summit-diary-22-june1?newsfeed=true Eilperin, Julie. June 22, 2012. Rio Plus 20 Earth Summit ends in nonbinding declaration with moderate goals. Washington Post online. http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/rio20-earth-summit- results-in-nonbinding-declaration-with-moderate-goals/2012/06/22/gJQA7kpMvV_story_1.html Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 26
  • 27. Sources Environmental Leader. June 18, 2012. Rio+20: Coke, Unilever, Other Giants Lead Natural Capital Initiative; Plus a Summit Business News Roundup. http://www.environmentalleader.com/2012/06/18/rio20-coke-unilever- other-giants-lead-natural-capital-initiative-plus-a-summit-business-news-roundup/ Ford, Liz and Jonathan Watts. June 21, 2012. UNDP reveals template for human sustainability index at Rio+20. The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/2012/jun/21/undp-human-sustainability-index- rio20?intcmp=239 Fortin, Jacey. June 21, 2012. Who Ruined Rio+20? Sustainable Growth Summit Disappoints the World. International Business Times. http://www.ibtimes.com/articles/354790/20120621/rio-20-sustainability- summit-future-draft-weak.htm Global Reporting Initiative. June 19, 2012. Corporate sustainability reporting one of the main outcomes of Rio+20? https://www.globalreporting.org/information/news-and-press-center/Pages/Sustainability-reporting-now- firm-outcome-issue-of-Rio+20.aspx Greener Ideal. July 17, 2012. Rio+20: The Bad and the Good. Greener Ideal. http://www.greenerideal.com/politics/0717-rio20/ Harris, Richard. June 23, 2012. Rio+20 Summit Sustains Little More Than Sentiment. NPR. http://www.npr.org/2012/06/23/155619036/rio-20-doesnt-get-further-than-vague-declaration Hawley, Charles. June 21, 2012. Rio+20 Has Become the Summit of Futility. Spiegel Online International. http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/widespread-criticism-of-rio-environment-summit-a-840181.html Hirschfeld, Daniela. June 22, 2012. Universities agree to take action on sustainability. SciDev Net. http://www.scidev.net/en/science-and-innovation-policy/science-at-rio-20/news/universities-agree-to-take- action-on-sustainability.html Ighobor, Kingsley. July 23, 2012, 1pm. Rio summit keeps African hope alive. AfricaNews.com (via Africa Renewal). http://www.africanews.com/site/Rio_summit_keeps_African_hopes_alive/list_messages/42024 Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 27
  • 28. Sources International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) Reporting Services. June 20, 2012. Sustainable Human Development Index to Measure “Future We Want.” http://uncsd.iisd.org/news/sustainable-human- development-index-to-measure-future-we-want/ International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) Reporting Services. June 22, 2012. Earth Negotiations Bulletin Vol. 27 No. 50. http://www.iisd.ca/download/pdf/enb2750e.pdf International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) Reporting Services. July 30, 2012. Earth Negotiations Bulletin Vol. 19 No. 87, pps 8, 13. http://www.iisd.ca/download/pdf/enb2750e.pdf IRIN News. June 20, 2012. Rio+20: Battles won and lost. http://www.irinnews.org/Report/95691/RIO-20-Battles- won-and-lost Irwin, Aisling. June 25, 2012. Africa: Scientists Criticise Lack of Urgency in Rio+20 Accord. allAfrica.com, SciDev.net. http://allafrica.com/stories/201206251056.html James, Adam, Andrew Light, and Gwynne Taraska. June 22, 2012, 5:48 pm. How The Rio+20 Text Could Have Been Stronger. ThinkProgress, Climate Progress. http://thinkprogress.org/climate/2012/06/22/504929/how-the- rio20-text-could-have-been-stronger/ Kaye, Leon. June 21, 2012. Rio+20 Update: Brazil, Denmark, France And South Africa Lead Call For Sustainability Reporting. TriplePundit. http://www.triplepundit.com/2012/06/rio20-update-friends-of-paragraph-47- integrated-reporting-brazil-denmark-france-south-africa/?dhiti=1 Lacey, Stephen. June 22, 2012, 12:24pm. Amidst Disappoinment At Rio+20, Hillary Clinton Tries To Weave A Positive Message. ThinkProgress, ClimateProgress. http://thinkprogress.org/climate/2012/06/22/504411/amidst-disappoinment-at-rio20-hillary-clinton-tries-to- weave-a-positive-message/ Lacey, Stephen. June 25, 2012 10:33am. Perspectives from Rio: ‘ We Cannot Conflate The Negotiations With What Is Actually Happening On The Ground. Think Progress. http://thinkprogress.org/climate/2012/06/25/504984/perspectives-from-rio20-we-cannot-conflate-the- negotiations-with-what-is-actually-happening-on-the-ground/ Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 28
  • 29. Sources LaFranchi, Howard. June 22, 2012. Rio+20 earth summit: Why Hillary Clinton won applause for statement on women. Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/Foreign-Policy/2012/0622/Rio-20-earth- summit-Why-Hillary-Clinton-won-applause-for-statement-on-women Leape, Jim. June 24, 2012. Its Happening, but Not in Rio. New York Times online, The Opinion Pages. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/25/opinion/action-is-happening-but-not-in-rio.html?_r=1 Light, Andrew and Rebecca Lefton. June 14, 2012 4:39pm. The Road to Rio Goes Through Mexico: Connecting the G-20 Summit to the Rio+20 Conference. Think Progress. http://thinkprogress.org/climate/2012/06/14/499867/the-road-to-rio-goes-through-mexico-connecting-the- g-20-summit-to-the-rio20-conference/ MacEachern, Diane. July 2, 2012 2:30pm. Women Leave Rio+20 Motivated to Galvanize Sustainability Around Family Planning and Reproductive Rights. Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/diane- maceachern/women-leave-rio-plus-20_b_1637885.html Mackness, Jo. June 26, 2012. How accountants can save the world - - maybe. GreenBiz.com. http://www.greenbiz.com/blog/2012/06/26/rio-20-accountants-save-world McDonald, Mark. June 24, 2012, 12:09am. U.N. Report from Rio on Environment a ‘Suicide Note.’ International Herald Tribune. http://rendezvous.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/06/24/u-n-report-from-rio-on-environment-a- suicide-note/ Meyer, Alden. June 19, 2012, 1:41pm. Climate Conversations – Rio+20: Too Little, Too Late? AlertNet. http://www.trust.org/alertnet/blogs/climate-conversations/rio20-too-little-too-late Monbiot, George. June 22, 2012. Rio+20 draft text is 283 paragraphs of fluff. The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/georgemonbiot/2012/jun/22/rio-20-earth-summit-brazil Morales, Alex, and Reed Landberg. June 18, 2012. UN Envoys Close to Deal on Energy, Sustainability Goals. BloombergBusinessWeek. http://www.businessweek.com/printer/articles/106360?type=bloomberg Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 29
  • 30. Sources Otto, Betsy. June 28, 2012. Rio+20 in the Rear View: Companies Call for Better Water Governance. WRI Insights, World Resources Institute. http://insights.wri.org/aqueduct/2012/06/rio20-rear-view-companies-call-better- water-governance Parnell, John. July 30, 2012. Brazil, China and India become first countries to break Rio+20 pledges with HFC ban block. Responding to Climate Change (RTCC). http://www.rtcc.org/policy/brazil-china-and-india-become- first-countries-to-break-rio20-pledges-with-hfc-ban-block/ Pope, Carl. June 22, 2012 8:33am. Rio Minus: The End of Post Cold-War Treaty Making? Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/carl-pope/rio20-summit_b_1617122.html?utm_hp_ref=rio20 Ramdas, Kavita N. October 2010. What’s Good for Women is Good for the Planet. Global Leaders Council for Reproductive Health Aspen Institute. http://www.plannedparenthood.org/ppaustin/files/Texas%20Capital%20Region/Whats_Good_For_Women_ KavitaArticle.pdf Reuters. June 19, 2012 9:02pm, updated June 20, 2012 4:57pm. Rio+20 Draft Agreement Agreed Upon, Labeled ‘Weak.’ Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/06/20/rio-20-draft- agreement_n_1610811.html Rimmer, Matthew. June 26, 2012, 12:00pm. Rio+20: Who owns the Green Economy? Fraser Coast Chronicle. http://www.frasercoastchronicle.com.au/story/2012/06/26/rio20-who-owns-green-economy/ Russell, George. June 20, 2012. Godfather of Global Green Thinking Steps Out of Shadows at Rio+20. FoxNews.com. http://www.foxnews.com/world/2012/06/20/godfather-global-green-thinking-steps-out- shadows-at-rio-20/ Sullivan, Colin. June 22, 2012. Rio+20: Side agreements pitched as the real meat behind Earth Summit. E&E News, E&E Publishing, LLC. http://www.eenews.net/public/eenewspm/2012/06/22/1 Sustainable Energy for All. June 21, 2012. FACT SHEET: SUSTAINABLE ENERGY FOR ALL COMMITMENTS - HIGHLIGHTS FOR RIO +20. http://www.sustainableenergyforall.org/news/item/114-fact-sheet-rio- commitments Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 30
  • 31. Sources Taraskya Gwynne. June 22, 2012, 3:52pm. UN’s Sustainable Energy for All Initiative Gets a Boost At Troubled Rio Summit. Think Progress, Climate Progress. http://thinkprogress.org/climate/2012/06/22/504886/uns- sustainable-energy-for-all-initiative-gets-a-boost-at-troubled-rio-summit Tatalovid, Mido. June 25, 2012. UNESCO to set up UN science advisory board. SciDev Net. http://www.scidev.net/en/science-and-innovation-policy/science-at-rio-20/news/unesco-to-set-up-un- science-advisory-board.html UN Webcast, United Nations Web TV. *Search: “Rio+20+. http://webtv.un.org/meetings-events/ United Nations Environment Programme. June 6, 2012. Global Environmental Outlook 5 Final Outlook Tables (Progress Towards Goals.) http://www.unep.org/geo/pdfs/geo5/Progress_towards_goals.pdf United Nations Environment Programme News Centre. June 6, 2012. World Remains on Unsustainable Track Despite Hundreds of Internationally Agreed Goals and Objectives. http://www.unep.org/newscentre/Default.aspx?DocumentID=2688&ArticleID=9158&l=en United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Accessed July 13, 2012. Beyond 2012, Overview. http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/beyond2015.shtml US Dept. of State. June 19, 2012. Special Envoy for Climate Change Todd Stern at the Rio+20 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2012/06/193538.htm Vaughan, Adam. June 20, 2012, 12:54 EDT. Rio+20 Summit: Opening day live blog. The Guardian UK. http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/blog/2012/jun/20/rio-20-earth-summit-live-blog Vidal, John. June 7, 2012, 11:05 EDT. Many treaties to save the earth but where’s the will to implement them? The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/blog/2012/jun/07/earth-treaties-environmental- agreements Webber, Rebecca. June 18, 2012. What Rio+20 means for foreign aid. devex. http://www.devex.com/en/news/what-to-expect-out-of-rio- 20/78459?mkt_tok=3RkMMJWWfF9wsRoiuqrJZKXonjHpfsX54ussXqSxlMI%2F0ER3fOvrPUfGjI4DTcJrI%2FqLAz ICFpZo2FFcH%2FaQZA%3D%3D Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 31
  • 32. Sources Weiss, Kenneth R. June 22, 2012, 10:41pm. U.N. sustainability summit ends with $513 billion in pledges. Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/world/la-fg-rio-conference- 20120623,0,4962459.story Weiss, Kenneth R. June 19, 2012, 10:41pm. Rio+20 environment conference gearing up in Brazil. Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/world/la-fg-brazil-global-summit- 20120619,0,7734439.story Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 32
  • 33. Citation When referencing this slide show please use the following citation. ISCIENCES, L.L.C. Report on Rio+20. A slideshow; 9th installment in the series Kyoto and Beyond – the Evolution of Multilateral Agreements on Climate Change. July 27, 2012. Ann Arbor, Michigan. www.isciences.com. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 33

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