Report on Copenhagen COP15 is a summary of events that transpired in Dec. 2009 at the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties (COP15) including drafting of the Copenhagen Accord and subsequent public discourse.
Kyoto and BeyondReport on Copenhagen Company LOGOwww.isciences.com June, 2010
Introduction Kyoto and Beyond is a series of presentations that provide information concerning the evolving international climate treaty process that began with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Report on Copenhagen is a summary of events that transpired in Dec 2009 at the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties (COP15), including the drafting of the Copenhagen Accord and subsequent public discourse.For entire series go to:http://www.isciences.com/spotlight/kyoto_and_beyond.html
Contents1 The Kyoto Protocol 2 COP15 and the Copenhagen Accord 3 Reactions to COP15 4 Steps toward COP165 2010 Timeline
The Kyoto ProtocolThe convocation of nations in Copenhagen to address a future climate agreement is the 15th in a series of meetings resulting from the UNFCCCThe first formal international climate agreement requiring limits to fossil fuel emissions is the Kyoto Protocol which is currently in force. For more on the UNFCCC see slide 51.
Kyoto Protocol BackgroundThe Protocol is a multilateral agreement aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Developed countries were assigned limits on emissions relative to 1990, and targets vary by nation.The Protocol was signed by 84 countries and ratified by nearly all who signed. The US did not ratify. Countries who ratified are now bound by Protocol requirements.The Protocol, part of the UNFCCC, has been in force since 2005. The first commitment period ends 2012 and no binding framework has been established post-2012.Four Conference of the Parties have taken place since the Protocol entered into force. Each COP has been accompanied by a CMP, a meeting specific to the Protocol.For more on Conference of the Parties and CMP see slides 22 & 23.
Kyoto Protocol Emissions Updates Developed countries were assigned limits on emissions relative to 1990 levels and targets vary by nation. This table from UNFCCC data shows progress made in emissions reductions as of 2009.Image credit: UNFCCC
Kyoto Protocol Emissions UpdatesThe Climate Scorecard below shows an interpretation of theperformance of key nations (known as the G8) with respectto meeting the terms of the Protocol.For specificinformation on eachcountry, click onthe country flags Source: World Wildlife Foundation/Allianz http://www.worldwildlife.org/climate/policy/g8-scorecard.html
COP15: OverviewThe most recent Conference of the Parties was COP15 inCopenhagen, Denmark Dec 7-18, 2009. COP15 was particularly significant due to an increasing international push for new binding climate change legislature. The focus of COP15 was on attempting to draft new legislation and deciding if goals set by the Kyoto Protocol should continue post-2012. Image credit: Wikimedia CommonsTime was also spent improving the cleandevelopment mechanism and draftingdecisions on adaptation, technology, andcapacity building.Click here to view the schedule of COP15
COP15: Details What was expected What actually happenedFinding a new commitment phase for the No binding framework was created; noKyoto Protocol that includes emissions obligations on developing countries toreductions from developing countries. make cuts.Lowering the target temperature rise The 2C target temperature prevailed duefrom 2C to 1.5C to protect the least to the high cost associated with the .5Cdeveloped nations and smallest islands decrease (trillions of dollars perfrom disappearing. industrialized nation).Forming an agreement on how to avoid The goal of reducing global CO2catastrophic temperature increases by emissions by 50% (80% for2050. industrialized nations) was dropped.Forming a method for developing No mechanisms put in place to mobilizecountries to receive aid and funding $100 billion by 2020 to aid developingtowards reducing emissions levels. countries. No decisions were made as toCreating an accountability mechanism to which developed countries would provideensure funding occurs. funding.Forming a new legally binding The Copenhagen Accord was createdagreement. separately from COP15. Not legally binding.
The Copenhagen AccordIt became apparent that the COP15 process wasfloundering, and during the last days of COP15 the CopenhagenAccord evolved. The Copenhagen Accord was the result of an independent action of the U.S., China, Brazil, India, and South Africa. The meeting, as well as the drafting of the accord, were not an official part of COP15. The process was controversial due to the limitedImage credit: Wikimedia Commons international involvement.Some countries that were excluded from the process renouncedthe Accord. These include Venezuela, Bolivia, Cuba, andNicaragua.
Contents of the Copenhagen Accord NOTE: No specificSets a goal limiting the increase in A emissions reductionsEarth‟s average temperature to 2degrees Celsius from pre-industrial have been set and thelevels; process yet to be established. Accord is not legally binding.States that Annex I countries of the BProtocol should further strengthen theirefforts to meet targets set by the Protocol.Funding will be provided to developing countries for Clowering emissions from deforestation and forestdegradation, and for adaptation and technologydevelopment and transfer.Copenhagen Green Climate Fund will be the operator of Dfinances to help developing countries conduct activitiesrelated to mitigation. Click here to view the entire Copenhagen Accord
Outcome COP15 did not achieve its objective which was to establish an agreement subsequent to the Kyoto Protocol. However, on the last day, December 18th, it did acknowledge the Accord as aImage credit: Wikimedia Commons means to move the process forward.The Copenhagen Accord is not legally binding, but allowsfor nations to submit voluntary commitments. While theAccord initially raised controversy, there has beenincreasing acceptance. As of January 2010, 124 countrieswere engaged in some form of voluntary commitment.The Accord is currently viewed as a declaration thatexpresses an intent to act on climate change.
Supportive Reactions to COP15 “We‟ve come a long way but we have “We have made a start. I believe that much further to go.” -Barack Obama, US what we need to follow up on quickly is President ensuring a legally binding outcome.” - Gordon Brown, UK Prime Minister“Given where we started andthe expectations for thisconference, anything less than “The meeting has had a positivea legally binding and agreed result, everyone should be happy.outcome falls far short of the After negotiations both sidesmark. On the other hand… have managed to preserve theirperhaps the bar was set too bottom line. For the Chinese thishigh and the fact that there‟s was our sovereignty and ournow a deal… perhaps gives us national interest.” -Xie Zhenhua,something to hang our hat on.” Head of China’s Delegation-John Ahse, Chair of KyotoProtocol Talks“The leaders of a small number of key “The Copenhagen Accord is no substitutecountries…worked to identify a politically for a real-deal treaty, but world leadersfeasible path forward. Their roadmap, became personally acquainted with thedespite its flaws, offers a possible tough issues, directly and seriouslyfoundation for progress…Unlike Kyoto, negotiating for the first time…” -Kellythis accord establishes a framework for Sims Gallagher, Professor of Energy andinvolving key, rapidly growing developing Environmental Policy at The Fletchercountries” -Robert Stavins, Professor at Schoolthe Harvard Kennedy School
Unsupportive Reactions to COP 15 “Anything above 1.5 Degrees, the “It‟s very disappointing, I would say, but Maldives and many small islands and it is not a failure…We have a big job low-lying islands would vanish. It is ahead to avoid climate change through for this reason that we tried very effective emissions reduction targets and hard during the course of the last this was not done here.” -Sergio Serra, two days to have 1.5 degrees in the Brazil’s Climate Change Ambassador document. I am so sorry that this was blatantly obstructed by big- emitting countries.” - Mohamed Nasheed, Maldives’ President “It looks like we are being offered 30 pieces of silver to“I will not hide my betray our people and ourdisappointment regarding the future.” -Ian Fry, Tuvalu’s Leadnon-binding nature of the Negotiatoragreement here. In that respectthe document falls far short ofour expectations” -Jose ManuelBarroso, EU CommissionPresident “Copenhagen has been an abject failure. Justice has not been done. By delaying “The draft text asks Africa to sign a action, rich countries have condemned suicide pact, an incineration pact in millions of the world‟s poorest people to order to maintain the economic hunger, suffering and loss of life as climate dominance of a few countries” - change accelerates. The blame for this Lumumba Stanislaus Di-Aping, Head of disastrous outcome is squarely on the G-77 Group developed nations.” - Nnimmo Bassey, Friends of the Earth International Click here to view other reactions
COP15: Limited Progress The general consensus of attending parties was that COP15 was unsuccessful. In the coming months, countries will work towards finding an agreement on new binding legislation.Image credit: Wikimedia Commons Many feel it will be necessary to provide more detail in the Accord to increase transparency to rebuild trust. There is talk of creating a global climate fund to service developing nations. This may create balance between the developed and developing nations.
Steps Toward COP16November 29 – December 10, 2010 in Cancun, MexicoFurther talks necessary beforeCOP 16 in order to reach alegislative agreement. Forums and TalksEmissions pledges notlarge enough. Neednew program tostrengthen pledges. Click stepped text Strengthening Emissions Pledges for further details on each step.Execute progress trackingsystems for developedcountries. Create fordeveloping countries. Progress Tracking SystemDetails on finance,forests,adaptation,technology. Improving Details of the Accord
2010 Timeline Key 9th Meeting of the Date Set Second Enforcement International Branch of the Conference on Compliance Proposed Date Climate Change Committee Decoding the Bonn Climate Bonn Climate World Energy Copenhagen Change Talks Change Talks – Congress inAccord Event on Second Round Montreal Capitol Hill January | February | March | April | May | June | July | August | September | October | November | December Address by Yvo de Boer at Petersberg Climate Dialogue Mexico’s COP16 in Proposed Cancun, Mexico 20th Meeting of the Additional Climate Speech by Yvo de Joint Change Meeting Boer at Public Implementation Hearing on Climate Supervisory Change Committee G20 Climate Meetings in Seoul The World’s People’s Conference on Climate Change in Bolivia Click on events for further information and supporting documents
Concluding Statement Article 2 of the UNFCCC calls for the stabilization of atmospheric GHG concentrations at levels that “preventdangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.” The UNFCCC/Kyoto/Copenhagen processcontinues as nations attempt to meet this objective. We plan to provide updates and links to important documents when COP16 and other notable events occur.
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CitationWhen referencing this slideshow please use the following citation:ISCIENCES, L.L.C. Report on Cancun COP16. A slideshow; 4th installment in the series: Beyond Copenhagen. February 1, 2011. Ann Arbor, Michigan. www.isciences.com.
AppendixThe following slides provide support for information presented in the preceding slides.