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 PRESENTED BY-
 VANDANA DHOUNDIYAL
 The United Nation Conference on Environment and
Development (UNCED) , also known as the Earth
Summit was a major United Nation Conference held
in Rio de Janeiro from 3rd to 14th June, 1992,
wherein more than 150 governments participated.
 This was the largest UN conference ever held and it
put the world on a path of sustainable development
which aim at meeting the needs of the present
without compromising the ability of future
generations to meet their own needs .
 The Earth Summit forced the people worldwide to re-
think how their lives affect natural environment and
resources and to confront a new environment that
determines the surroundings in which they live.
 In 2012 the United Nation Conference on
sustainable development was also held in
Rio, and is only commonly called Rio + 20
or Rio Earth Summit 2012.
 172 Govt. participated, with 116 sending
their heads or Govt.
 Some 2400 representative of non-
governmental organizations ,(NGOs) attend
with 17000 people at the parallel NGO
“Global Form” who had consultative status
 Systematic scrutiny of pattern of production –
particularly the production of toxic components
, such as lead in gasoline , or poisonous waste
including radio active chemicals .
 Alternative sources of energy to replace the use
of fossil fuels which are linked to Global
Climate change
 New Reliance on public transportations system
in order to reduce vehicle emissions congestion
in cities and the health problems caused by
polluted air and smoke
 The growing scarcity of water
 The Earth summit resulted in the following documents
1. Rio declaration on environment and development
A series of principles defining the rights and
responsibilities of states in this area.
2. Agenda 21
A comprehensive blue print for global actions to affect the
transition to sustainable development.
3. Forest Principles
A set of principles to support the sustainable management
of forests wildlife.
4.Two Legally binding conventions
(a) Convention on biological diversity
(b) Framework convention on climate change ( UNFCC)
(c) United Nation Convention to combat desertification
 Short document produce at 1992 UNCED/
Earth summit
 Consists of 27 principle intended to guide
future sustainable development around the
world
 The Earth Summit was inspired and guided by
a remarkable document of 1987, i.e.,
Brundtland report.
 According to principle 1 of the Declaration,
human beings are at the centre of concerns for
sustainable development . They are entitled to a
healthy and productive life in harmony with
nature.
 Principle 2 of the declaration puts the duty on the
states that while they are exploiting their own
resources pursuant to their own environmental
and development policies, it is their
responsibility to ensure that their activities do
not cause damage to the environment of other
states.
 According to principle 3, “ the right to
development must be fulfilled so as to equitably
meet developmental and environmental needs of
present and future generations.” Thus, the
concept of “inter- generational rights” has
been recognized in this principle.
 It is further provided in principle 4 that in order
to achieve sustainable development,
environmental protection shall constitute an
integral part of the development process and
cannot be considered in isolation from it.
 Eradication of poverty is considered as an indispensable
requirement for sustainable development in principle 5 of
the Declaration and all States and all people are required
to co-operate in this essential task. This principle is of
particular advantage to the developing countries which
face the problem of poverty.
 It may mentioned here that our former Prime Minister
Mrs. Indira Gandhi while speaking at the Stockholm
Conference had said: “Of all the pollutants we face, the
worst is poverty. We want more development” The Rio
Declaration has taken cognizance of the fact that in order
to achieve sustainable development, eradication of
poverty is indispensable and thus developmental process
and environmental protection must go on
simultaneously.
 In principle 8 of the Declaration it is provided
that in order to achieve sustainable development
and a higher quality of life for all people, States
should reduce and eliminate unsustainable
patterns of production and consumption .
 Principle 9 call for an international transfer of
the scientific knowledge needed for sustainable
development.
 Principle 10 recognizes the fact that
environmental issues are best handled with the
participation of all concerned citizens, at the
relevant level.
 It is well established fact that law is a regulator
of human conduct. Therefore, principle 11
requires the States to enact effective
environmental legislation .
 Principle 13 says that the States shall develop
national law regarding liability and
compensation for the victims of pollution and
other environmental damage.
 Principle 12 requires the States to cooperate to
promote a supportive and open international
economic system that would lead to economic
growth and sustainable development in all
countries, to better address the problems of
environmental degradation .
 The “precautionary principle” has been incorporated
in principle 15 according to which where there are
threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of
full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason
for postponing cost effective measures to prevent
environmental degradation.
 The “Polluter Pays Principle” has ben incorporated in
principle 16 which provides that national authorities
should endeavour to promote the
internationalization of environmental cost and the
use of economic instruments, taking into account the
approach that the polluter should , in principle, bear
the cost of pollution , with due regard to the public
interest and without distorting international trade
and investment.
 The need of having environmental impact
assessment (EIA) for proposed activities, that
are likely to have a significant adverse impact on
the environment , has been recognized in
principle 17 of the Declaration.
 Principle 24 provides that warfare is inherently
destructive of sustainable development. States
shall therefore respect international law
providing protection for the environment in
times of armed conflict and co-operate in its
further development, as necessary.
 Principles 25 provides that “peace,
development and environmental protection
are interdependent and indivisible” .
 And lastly , principle 27 says that States
and people shall co-operate in good faith and
in a spirit of partnership in the fulfillment of
the principles embodied in the Declaration
and in the further development of
international law in the field of sustainable
development.
Rio Declaration

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Rio Declaration

  • 1.  PRESENTED BY-  VANDANA DHOUNDIYAL
  • 2.  The United Nation Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) , also known as the Earth Summit was a major United Nation Conference held in Rio de Janeiro from 3rd to 14th June, 1992, wherein more than 150 governments participated.  This was the largest UN conference ever held and it put the world on a path of sustainable development which aim at meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs .  The Earth Summit forced the people worldwide to re- think how their lives affect natural environment and resources and to confront a new environment that determines the surroundings in which they live.
  • 3.  In 2012 the United Nation Conference on sustainable development was also held in Rio, and is only commonly called Rio + 20 or Rio Earth Summit 2012.  172 Govt. participated, with 116 sending their heads or Govt.  Some 2400 representative of non- governmental organizations ,(NGOs) attend with 17000 people at the parallel NGO “Global Form” who had consultative status
  • 4.  Systematic scrutiny of pattern of production – particularly the production of toxic components , such as lead in gasoline , or poisonous waste including radio active chemicals .  Alternative sources of energy to replace the use of fossil fuels which are linked to Global Climate change  New Reliance on public transportations system in order to reduce vehicle emissions congestion in cities and the health problems caused by polluted air and smoke  The growing scarcity of water
  • 5.  The Earth summit resulted in the following documents 1. Rio declaration on environment and development A series of principles defining the rights and responsibilities of states in this area. 2. Agenda 21 A comprehensive blue print for global actions to affect the transition to sustainable development. 3. Forest Principles A set of principles to support the sustainable management of forests wildlife. 4.Two Legally binding conventions (a) Convention on biological diversity (b) Framework convention on climate change ( UNFCC) (c) United Nation Convention to combat desertification
  • 6.  Short document produce at 1992 UNCED/ Earth summit  Consists of 27 principle intended to guide future sustainable development around the world  The Earth Summit was inspired and guided by a remarkable document of 1987, i.e., Brundtland report.
  • 7.  According to principle 1 of the Declaration, human beings are at the centre of concerns for sustainable development . They are entitled to a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature.  Principle 2 of the declaration puts the duty on the states that while they are exploiting their own resources pursuant to their own environmental and development policies, it is their responsibility to ensure that their activities do not cause damage to the environment of other states.
  • 8.  According to principle 3, “ the right to development must be fulfilled so as to equitably meet developmental and environmental needs of present and future generations.” Thus, the concept of “inter- generational rights” has been recognized in this principle.  It is further provided in principle 4 that in order to achieve sustainable development, environmental protection shall constitute an integral part of the development process and cannot be considered in isolation from it.
  • 9.  Eradication of poverty is considered as an indispensable requirement for sustainable development in principle 5 of the Declaration and all States and all people are required to co-operate in this essential task. This principle is of particular advantage to the developing countries which face the problem of poverty.  It may mentioned here that our former Prime Minister Mrs. Indira Gandhi while speaking at the Stockholm Conference had said: “Of all the pollutants we face, the worst is poverty. We want more development” The Rio Declaration has taken cognizance of the fact that in order to achieve sustainable development, eradication of poverty is indispensable and thus developmental process and environmental protection must go on simultaneously.
  • 10.  In principle 8 of the Declaration it is provided that in order to achieve sustainable development and a higher quality of life for all people, States should reduce and eliminate unsustainable patterns of production and consumption .  Principle 9 call for an international transfer of the scientific knowledge needed for sustainable development.  Principle 10 recognizes the fact that environmental issues are best handled with the participation of all concerned citizens, at the relevant level.
  • 11.  It is well established fact that law is a regulator of human conduct. Therefore, principle 11 requires the States to enact effective environmental legislation .  Principle 13 says that the States shall develop national law regarding liability and compensation for the victims of pollution and other environmental damage.  Principle 12 requires the States to cooperate to promote a supportive and open international economic system that would lead to economic growth and sustainable development in all countries, to better address the problems of environmental degradation .
  • 12.  The “precautionary principle” has been incorporated in principle 15 according to which where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost effective measures to prevent environmental degradation.  The “Polluter Pays Principle” has ben incorporated in principle 16 which provides that national authorities should endeavour to promote the internationalization of environmental cost and the use of economic instruments, taking into account the approach that the polluter should , in principle, bear the cost of pollution , with due regard to the public interest and without distorting international trade and investment.
  • 13.  The need of having environmental impact assessment (EIA) for proposed activities, that are likely to have a significant adverse impact on the environment , has been recognized in principle 17 of the Declaration.  Principle 24 provides that warfare is inherently destructive of sustainable development. States shall therefore respect international law providing protection for the environment in times of armed conflict and co-operate in its further development, as necessary.
  • 14.  Principles 25 provides that “peace, development and environmental protection are interdependent and indivisible” .  And lastly , principle 27 says that States and people shall co-operate in good faith and in a spirit of partnership in the fulfillment of the principles embodied in the Declaration and in the further development of international law in the field of sustainable development.