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Livelihood assessment, decision-making and institutions in the Uganda smallholder pig value chain: Results from descriptive analyses

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Presented by Emily Ouma at the Workshop on In-depth smallholder pig value chain assessment and preliminary identification of best-bet interventions, Kampala, 9-11 April 2013 …

Presented by Emily Ouma at the Workshop on In-depth smallholder pig value chain assessment and preliminary identification of best-bet interventions, Kampala, 9-11 April 2013

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  • 1. The forms of retail business included sale of “chapatti”, firewood, silverfish, and vegetables especially tomatoes and amaranths
  • 1. Indicate that highest rank=1
  • April and December: Traders purchase pigs from farmers at relatively good prices.June-July – localized demand since coffee income is received.
  • GomaNamwendwa – pig income control by men due to family headship.Income control, largely a shared responsibility.In a no. of R-R domains, pig income decisions are made by men.In Goma – Men are the decision makers (head of household).
  • In locations where men indicate pig income control as a man’s domain, the women groups indicate it as a shared responsibility.Women, indicate that they are the main decision-makers – the enterprise is theirs and they are the ones who make decisions.
  • Most of the activities indicated as shared responsibility.Start of the enterprise and pig feeding.
  • 1. According to the women – most of the activities are done by them, apart from a few instances whenthe responsibility is shared.
  • 1. Amount of leisure time
  • Farmers’ membership to groups and willingness to join such groups was used to proxy social capital as it is an important avenue for accessing resources among resource-poor communities. Some of the farmers were members of pig producer groups especially those in the rural-urban and urban-urban value chains although in some rural-rural value chains especially in Bugulumbya, a number of pig producers belonged to such groups, which were largely supported by VEDCO. In Kabonera there was a large pig farmers group. In Katwe-Butego, there was a women pig farmers group known as AkwataEmpola women’s group.
  • In some sites, e.g. Kitayunjwa, few farmers belonged to groups. Implying either non-existence of such initiatives or unwillingness to work as a group.Relatively high proportion of farmers belonged to a farmer group (coffee groups/coffee associations). Women membership also relatively comparable to men.In Kyampisi, there was BuwanguziBuntaba Farmers group, which diversified into many activities including cattle, pig, goat and poultry production in addition to providing catering services.
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    • 1. Livelihood assessment, decision-makingand institutions in the Uganda smallholderpig value chainResults from descriptive analysesEmily Ouma“Workshop: In-depth smallholder pig value chain assessment and preliminaryidentification of best-bet interventions, Kampala, 9-11 April 2013”
    • 2. Outline Sources of livelihood. Crops grown and control by gender. Pattern of agricultural and pig income. Pig income control and decision-making. Decision-making: pig enterpriseactivities. Social capital. Institutions on livestock(inc; pigs) and agricultural VC.
    • 3. Common sources of livelihoodMen Pig production – 25 villages Crop production (coffee/pineapple)– 28 Other livestock (cattle/poultry) – 28villages Retail business – 20 villages Construction work – 16 villagesNew livelihood activities becomingcommon in some sub-counties• “Boda boda” riding.• Brick-making.• Mobile money business.WomenRetail business – 31 villagesPig production – 30 villagesCrop production (banana, maize)–28 villagesOther livestock (poultry) – 29 villagesCraft-making – 17 villagesCasual labor – 8 villagesNew livelihood activitiesbecoming common in some sub-countiesSalon and tailoring businessCharcoal burningAlcohol brewing
    • 4. Livelihood source ranking –contribution to household income: MenonlyRural-RuralRural-UrbanUrban-UrbanLivelihoodsourceKkingoKyanamukakaKitayunjwaNamwendwaBugulumbyaNtenjeruKaboneraKyampisiKimanya-KyabakuzaKatwe-ButegoNyendo-SsenyangeMukonoTCGomaCrop production 2.0 1.0 1.5 1.0 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.5 1.0 1.0 5.0 3.0Pig production 1.0 2.5 1.5 2.0 1.0 2.0 2.5 2.5 1.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 4.0Other livestock 3.0 3.0 2.0 2.5 2.3 3.0 4.0 4.0 3.0 3.0 4.0 1.0 5.0Construction N/A N/A 3.5 4.0 3.0 4.0 6.0 4.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 2.0Pig and crop production ranked highest in all V-C domains apart from Mukono TC and Goma.Mukono TC – other livestock especially poultry. Goma and other urban VC– important role ofnon agricultural activities.Mean rankings of livelihood sources (1=highest rank)
    • 5. Livelihood source ranking – contributionto household income: Women onlyMean rankings of livelihood sources (1=highest rank)Rural-RuralRural-UrbanUrban-UrbanLivelihoodsource KkingoKyanamukakaKitayunjwaNamwendwaBugulumbyaNtenjeruKaboneraKyampisiKimanya-KyabakuzaKatwe-ButegoNyendo-SsenyangeMukonoTCGomaRetail business 4.0 3.8 3.0 N/A 3.7 4.5 3.3 3.6 3.5 2.7 3.3 3.0 3.0Crop production 2.0 2.0 1.0 2.0 1.0 1.3 1.0 1.3 2.0 3.5 2.5 2.0 N/APig production 1.0 1.7 2.5 3.0 2.0 1.7 1.5 2.0 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.0 1.0Other livestock 1.3 2.0 2.5 1.5 2.0 1.7 1.5 2.0 1.0 1.0 N/A 1.0 1.0Pig and poultry production ranked highest by women in the urban-urban value chImportant role of crop production in the rural-rural and rural-urban value chains.
    • 6. Crops grown and productionobjectiveCrop No. ofvillagesObjective ofproductionGender of maindecision makerBanana 24 Food/Cash Men/womenBeans 28 Food WomenCassava 16 Food WomenCoffee 14 Cash MenMaize 25 Food/Cash MenSugarcane 2 Cash MenSweetpotatoes24 Food WomenCash crops largely in men’s domain, while food crops are largely controlled by w
    • 7. Pattern of agricultural income051015202530Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov DecIndexofagriculturalincomePattern of agricultural income, Masaka districtKaboneraKatwe ButegoKkingoKyanamukakaNyendo SenyangeCoffee harvest and sales Coffee harvest and sales051015202530Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov DecIndexofagriculturalncomePattern of agricultural income, Kamuli districtBugulumbyaNamwendwaKitayunjwaCoffee, maize, bean and rice harvest
    • 8. Pattern of agricultural income02468101214161820Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov DecIndexofagriculturalincomePattern of agricultural income, Mukono districtMukono TCGomaKyampisiNtenjeruCoffee incomeNo clear pattern apart from November, general rise in agricultural income –coffee.Other peaks associated with bananas and maize income.
    • 9. Income from pigs051015202530354045Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov DecIndexofpigincomePattern of pig income, Kamuli districtBugulumbyaNamwendwaKitayunjwaLocaldemandX-mas051015202530354045Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov DecIndexofpigincomePattern of pig income, Mukono districtMukono TCGomaKyampisiNtenjeruX-masMartyrs day inNamugongoEasterEaster
    • 10. Income from pigs0102030405060Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov DecIndexofpigincomePattern of pig income, Masaka districtKaboneraKatwe ButegoKimanya KyabakuzaKkingoKyanamukakaNyendo SenyangeX-masLocal demandEaster
    • 11. Pig income control anddecision making050 5069310 012224025010010050 503169100 100897860751000020406080100KkingoKyanamukakaKitayunjwaNamwendwaBugulumbyaNtenjeruKaboneraKyampisiKimanya-KyabakuzaKatwe-ButegoNyendo-SsenyangeMukonoTCGomaProportionofrespondents(%)#REF! #REF! #REF!Men groups
    • 12. Pig income control anddecision makingWomen groups3 013 132 3 0 0 0 0 0 313302563732823332002188941006325909572776780100760020406080100KkingoKyanamukakaKitayunjwaNamwendwaBugulumbyaNtenjeruKaboneraKyampisiKimanya-KyabakuzaKatwe-ButegoNyendo-SsenyangeMukonoTCGomaProportionofrespondents(%)#REF! #REF! #REF!
    • 13. Other pig enterprise activitiesand decision-making36 372139 36 39 3731 29645769605460 63696804 101111 0 5020406080100 InputpurchaseLaborhiringStartofpigenterprisePigbreedsPigfeedingPigslaughteringSalesoutletsforpigs/pigletsPigsalesPigletsalesProportionofrespondents(%)#REF! #REF! #REF!Men group
    • 14. PerceptionsMen group- “The enterprisebenefits the whole family. Sincethe man has to go out to lookfor money, women are left athome to take care of the pigs.On the other hand, the menknow the market opportunitiesbetter since they interact widelyand have to take theresponsibility of marketing”.
    • 15. Other pig enterprise activitiesand decision-makingWomen group3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 221 20 20 21 20 19 19 20 2077 78 78 77 78 79 79 78 78020406080100InputpurchaseLaborhiringStartofpigenterprisePigbreedsPigfeedingPigslaughteringSalesoutletsforpigs/pigletsPigsalesPigletsalesProportionofrespondents(%)#REF! #REF! #REF!
    • 16. Activity clock – Men6.00a.m.2.00p.m.10.00p.m.8.00p.m.6.00p.m.1.00p.m.11.00a.m. Mix feeds for pigs andthereafter go for agro-trading orother income generatingactivities such as “boda-boda”7.00a.m.Sleep
    • 17. Activity clock - Women6.00a.m.10.00p.m.8.00p.m.4.00p.m.2.00p.m.7.00a.m.Farming, collect animalfeed, firewood andfamily food(vegetables) andbanana leaves; othermerchandisingactivities12.00p.m.6.00p.m.SleepImplication of women’s time constraints: Extension and interventions.How much time do they have available?, How time-consuming and labor-intensive are theinnovations, How far can they travel for trainings?
    • 18. Membership to pig producergroups020406080100KkingoKyanamukakaKitayunjwaNamwendwaBugulumbyaNtenjeruKaboneraKyampisiKimanya-KyabakuzaKatwe-ButegoNyendo-SsenyangeMukonoTCGomaProportionofrespondents(%)Men Women
    • 19. Institutions working with thecommunities on livestock andagriculture VCValue chain domain typeUrban-Urban Rural-Urban Rural-RuralMasaka district(i) Katwe-Butego: NAADS(ii) Kimanya-Kyabakuza:NAADS &BRAC(iii) Nyendo-Ssenyange:NAADSMukono district(i) Goma: AMCALL &NAADS(ii) Mukono Town Council:BRAC & BiyinzikaDevelopment GroupMasaka district(i) Kabonera:BRAC, FINCA &World VisionMukono district(i) Kyampisi:FHU, NAADS andTujja SACCOMasaka district(i) Kyanamukaka: World Vision &NAADS(ii) Kkingo: CO-SAVE & WorldVisionMukono district(i) Ntenjeru: Katosi Women’sTrustKamuli district(i) Bugulumbya: NAADS &VEDCO(ii) Namwendwa: UNAFA & BRAC(iii) Kitayunjwa: NAADS
    • 20. Example of institutional rankings– venn diagrams
    • 21. Summary Important role of pigs as a source oflivelihood – especially for women in UU. Contribution of crops and other livestock(cattle and poultry) to household income. Gendered differences in pig enterprisedecision-making and labor burden. Social capital – not developed in somelocations. Limited existence of pig farmer groupscompared to crops. Willingness toparticipate in such initiatives is high. Existence of institutions working on pigvalue chains – potential for collaboration toimprove the VC.
    • 22. Thank you

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