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Forage needs in pig value chains: The Ugandan case
Danilo Pezo
Workshop on forage and fodder tree selection for future cha...
Outline of the presentation
 Supply and demand of livestock products: some
projections
 Pig production systems in Uganda...
Livestock Production to 2050:
TRENDS
GLOBAL TRENDS: The Livestock
Revolution
• Livestock demand and
production are increas...
Changes in per capita consumption of pork in Africa
and Southeast Asia
FAOSTAT Gateway, 2015
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
1975 1980 ...
% change in consumption of animal products:
2000–2030
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
Milk Beef Mutton Pork Poultry
meat
Eggs
Chi...
Projections of livestock production increases at global
level: 2000–2050
 In half a century, total livestock
commodity pr...
Changes in cattle and pig population in Africa
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
Milions
Cat...
% change in production of animal products:
2000–2030
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
Milk Beef Mutton Pork Poultry
meat
Eggs
Chin...
Monogastric production systems in Africa
are in rapid transition to industrial
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%...
Trajectories of growth for the livestock sector
Strong growth
Intensifying and making
increasingly market
oriented, often
...
Farm
Systems:
Breeding
Growing/Fattening
Inputs and
Services
Pig breeder
Vet / Animal Prod
extension services
Agrovet / fe...
Constraints in smallholder pig production systems
in Sub-Saharan Africa
Feeds and feeding (Seasonality, poor
quality of fe...
Constraints in smallholder pig production systems
in Sub-Saharan Africa
Technology transfer bias (mostly focused on
males,...
Management Systems
Semi-intensive/Intensive**
Tethered
Scavenging
Opportunitiesforplanted
forages
**In large scale intensi...
Type of management, as a function of value chain
domain in three districts of Uganda
Pig management
Rural – rural
(n = 170...
Feeding Strategies - Seasonality
Relative availability of feeds along the year in smallholder
pig farms in Mukono
Ouma et ...
Feeding Strategies - Diversity
Types of feeds used in different periods of the year in Kamuli
Ouma et al, 2014
Use of fodder sources in smallholder pig systems in
Uganda, as a function of VC domain
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Amaranthus Bana...
Use of fodder sources in smallholder pig systems in
Uganda, as a function of animal category
ILRI/SPVCD, unpublished data
Labor distribution for feed collection
Pezo et al, 2014
How to incorporate forage crops in smallholder
pig systems in Uganda?
 Planting forages – Limited land
(Rural: 1.4 – 3.3 ...
Nutritive value of crop residues used for feeding pigs
Fraction/
Nutrient
Sweet potato
vines*
Cassava
leaves*
Cocoyam
leav...
Nutritive value of some legumes for feeding pigs
Species
CP
%
Tannins
g kg-1 DM
Lysine
g kg-1 DM
Methionine
g kg-1 DM
Degr...
Other tropical forages evaluated for pig feeding
 Trichantera gigantea (Ly et al., 2001; Leterme et al., 2005)
 Morus al...
Nutritional limitations while using forages for pigs
 High fiber content, limits voluntary intake
 Low energy density, a...
The presentation has a Creative Commons licence. You are free to re-use or distribute this work, provided credit is
given ...
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Forage needs in pig value chains: The Ugandan case

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Presented by Danilo Pezo at the Workshop on Forage and Fodder Tree Selection for Future Challenges—Linking Genebanks to Forage Use, ILRI, Addis Ababa, 16-20 March 2015

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Forage needs in pig value chains: The Ugandan case

  1. 1. Forage needs in pig value chains: The Ugandan case Danilo Pezo Workshop on forage and fodder tree selection for future challenges — Linking genebanks to forage use, Addis Ababa, 16-20 March 2015
  2. 2. Outline of the presentation  Supply and demand of livestock products: some projections  Pig production systems in Uganda  Feeding strategies in smallholder pig farms in Uganda  How to incorporate forage crops in smallholder pig systems in Uganda?  Nutritional limitations while using forages for pig feeding
  3. 3. Livestock Production to 2050: TRENDS GLOBAL TRENDS: The Livestock Revolution • Livestock demand and production are increasing rapidly in developing countries, and will continue to rise (with some differences for commodities) • Global per capita consumption 2% in meat, 61% milk, • 2000 less consumption of ASF in Africa than EC, but in 2050 this will be reversed J. Smith, 2014
  4. 4. Changes in per capita consumption of pork in Africa and Southeast Asia FAOSTAT Gateway, 2015 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 kg/year Per capita consumption of pork Uganda Southern Eastern Southeast Asia
  5. 5. % change in consumption of animal products: 2000–2030 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Milk Beef Mutton Pork Poultry meat Eggs China Russia Brazil India SSA High income 843% % J. Smith, 2014
  6. 6. Projections of livestock production increases at global level: 2000–2050  In half a century, total livestock commodity production is projected to increase by 92%:  + 106% for monogastric meat (pig and poultry) and poultry eggs  + 88% for ruminant meat (cow, sheep, goat, camel, water buffalo)  + 85% for milk  With large regional differences Herrero et al. 2014
  7. 7. Changes in cattle and pig population in Africa 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Milions Cattle population Eastern Africa Africa 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Millions Pig population Eastern Africa Africa FAOSTAT Gateway, 2015
  8. 8. % change in production of animal products: 2000–2030 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Milk Beef Mutton Pork Poultry meat Eggs China Russia Brazil India SSA High income % J. Smith, 2014
  9. 9. Monogastric production systems in Africa are in rapid transition to industrial 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 2000 2050 2000 2050 2000 2050 smallholder industrial Europe Latin America Africa/Middle East Herrero et al. 2014 Over 30% of African monogastric production will still be smallholder in 2050
  10. 10. Trajectories of growth for the livestock sector Strong growth Intensifying and making increasingly market oriented, often transforming smallholder systems Fragile growth Where remoteness, marginal land resources or agro climatic vulnerability restricts intensification High growth with externalities Intensified livestock systems with diverse challenges, including the environment and human health J. Smith, 2014
  11. 11. Farm Systems: Breeding Growing/Fattening Inputs and Services Pig breeder Vet / Animal Prod extension services Agrovet / feed shop owners Feed manufacturers and suppliers Transporters of inputs Post-farm Live-pig traders Transporters Slaughterers Pork Butchers Pork processors- large and medium Supermarkets/ restaurants Consumers Actors in a typical pork value chain
  12. 12. Constraints in smallholder pig production systems in Sub-Saharan Africa Feeds and feeding (Seasonality, poor quality of feeds) Disease control measurements (parasites, viral & bacterial infections) Genetics & breeding (Inbreeding, poor quality animals) Husbandry and management (deficient corrals, if available) Poor management of excreta (pollution, could lead to social conflicts) Human and Cultural Capitals Pezo and Waiswa, 2012
  13. 13. Constraints in smallholder pig production systems in Sub-Saharan Africa Technology transfer bias (mostly focused on males, although women manage the pigs) Limited knowledge on new options for improving productivity and profit Poor access to information services (technology, markets) Absence of organizational strategies to achieve economies of scale Sector largely ignored by policy makers Limited access to credit Social & Financial Capitals Pezo and Waiswa, 2012
  14. 14. Management Systems Semi-intensive/Intensive** Tethered Scavenging Opportunitiesforplanted forages **In large scale intensive (industrial) systems MAY BE NOT
  15. 15. Type of management, as a function of value chain domain in three districts of Uganda Pig management Rural – rural (n = 170) Rural- urban (n = 90) Urban- urban (n = 80) Tethering 66 40 13 Housed Housed raised floor 5 6 25 Housed not raised floor 16 37 61 Free-range/Scavenging 17 18 1 Ouma et al, 2014
  16. 16. Feeding Strategies - Seasonality Relative availability of feeds along the year in smallholder pig farms in Mukono Ouma et al, 2014
  17. 17. Feeding Strategies - Diversity Types of feeds used in different periods of the year in Kamuli Ouma et al, 2014
  18. 18. Use of fodder sources in smallholder pig systems in Uganda, as a function of VC domain 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Amaranthus Banana peels Cassava leaves Elephant grass Fruit peels Other grasses Sweet potato vines Yam leaves RR RU UU and weeds ILRI/SPVCD, unpublished data
  19. 19. Use of fodder sources in smallholder pig systems in Uganda, as a function of animal category ILRI/SPVCD, unpublished data
  20. 20. Labor distribution for feed collection Pezo et al, 2014
  21. 21. How to incorporate forage crops in smallholder pig systems in Uganda?  Planting forages – Limited land (Rural: 1.4 – 3.3 acres; Urban: 1.4 – 1.8 acres; most don’t have area dedicated to forages) Forages have to be inter-cropped or as hedgerows  For what group of animals? • Breeding stock, less for growers, & fatteners • NOT for piglets and weaners (limited intake and fiber digestion capacity)  Which forages should we focus? Those with at least similar quality than the crop residues commonly used. Those able to produce when crop residues are not available.
  22. 22. Nutritive value of crop residues used for feeding pigs Fraction/ Nutrient Sweet potato vines* Cassava leaves* Cocoyam leaves* Amaranthus spp.** CP, % 16.5 24.9 24.4 19.9 DE, MJ kg-1 DM 12.7 12.4 10.4 11.3 Ca, g/kg-1 9.5 11.9 3.3 3.2 P, g/kg-1 2.9 3.7 5.6 2.5 Methionine, % CP 1.1 1.0 ? ? Lysine, % CP 3.6 ? ? ? Anti-quality factor Tannins, anti- trypsin factor Hydrocyanic glucoside Oxalate saponins *Feedipedia, 2015; **ILRI/SPVCD unpublished data
  23. 23. Nutritive value of some legumes for feeding pigs Species CP % Tannins g kg-1 DM Lysine g kg-1 DM Methionine g kg-1 DM Degradability % Cratylia argentea 25.7 7.6 14.3 4.2 38.6 Leucaena diversifolia 23.6 49.4 13.2 3.7 41.9 Clitoria ternatea 19.0 5.0 8.4 2.9 --** Lablab purpureus 20.3 7.8 8.5 2.6 --** Vigna unguiculata 24.3 1.8 8.5 2.5 52.1 Heinritz et al., 2012 ** Not available, but could be around 50%
  24. 24. Other tropical forages evaluated for pig feeding  Trichantera gigantea (Ly et al., 2001; Leterme et al., 2005)  Morus alba (Leterme et al., 2005; Chiv Phiny et al., 2003; Chiv Phiny et al., 2010; Ty Chhay et al., 2010; Ly & Pok Samkol, 2014  Desmanthus virgatus (Ly & Pok Samkol, 2001)  D. velutinum, F. macrophylla, Cannavalia brasiliensis, Centrosema brasilianum, S. guyanensis (Heinritz et al., 2012)
  25. 25. Nutritional limitations while using forages for pigs  High fiber content, limits voluntary intake  Low energy density, along with limited gut capacity does not allow pigs to cover energy requirements  Requirement of essential amino acids by pigs  Presence of toxic or inhibitory factors  Lectins in soybean and Amaranthus cruentus  Tannins in several legumes (herbaceous and shrubs)  Saponins in B. brizantha, B. decumbens, Amaranthus hypochondriacus  Phytates and oxalates in S. sphacelata, Vigna unguiculata, Lablab purpureus. Kabirizzi & Zzewa, 2014
  26. 26. The presentation has a Creative Commons licence. You are free to re-use or distribute this work, provided credit is given to ILRI. better lives through livestock ilri.org Thank you!

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