Roles of Assessment in Classroom Instruction

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Roles of Assessment in Classroom Instruction
also in making Instructional Decisions

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Roles of Assessment in Classroom Instruction

  1. 1. Roles of Assessment in Classroom Instruction
  2. 2. Title • “Teaching and Learning are reciprocal processes that depend on and affect one another (Swearingen 2002 and Kellough, 1999).” • The assessment component of instructional processes deals with the learning progress of the students and the teacher’s effectiveness in imparting knowledge to the students.
  3. 3. Title • Assessment enhances learning in the instructional processes if the result provides feedbacks to both students and teachers. • The information obtained from the assessment is used to evaluate the teaching methodologies and strategies of the teacher.
  4. 4. Title • It is also used to make teaching decisions. • The result of assessment is used to diagnose the learning problems of the students.
  5. 5. The Four Roles of Assessment used in Instructional Process
  6. 6. Beginning of Instruction This kind of assessment is concerned with the entry performance and typically focuses on the questions: Does the Learner possess the knowledge and skills needed to begin the planned instruction? To what extent has the learner already developed the understanding and skills t that are goals of planned objectives?
  7. 7. To what extent do the student’s interest, work habits and personality indicate that one mode of instruction might be better than the other?
  8. 8. • Placement Assessment – The purpose of placement assessment is to determine the prerequisite skills, degree of mastery of the course the best mode of learning.
  9. 9. • During the instructional process the main concern of a classroom teacher is to monitor the learning progress of the students. • The teachers should assess whether the students achieved the intended learning outcomes set for a particular lesson. During Instruction
  10. 10. • Formative Assessment It is a type of assessment used to monitor the learning progress of the students during instruction. The purpose of formative assessment are the following: Immediate feedback Indentify learning errors Modifying instruction Improve both learning and instruction
  11. 11. • Diagnostic Assessment It is a type of assessment given at the beginning of the instruction. It aims to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the students regarding the topics to be discussed.
  12. 12. • Summative Assessment A type of assessment usually given at the end of a course unit. The purposes of summative assessment are to determine the following: Instructional objectives achieved Certify the students mastery Provide information for judging Effectiveness of instruction End of Instruction
  13. 13. Methods of Interpreting the Results 1. Norm-referenced Interpretation It is used to describe students performance according to relative position in some known group. In this method of interpretation it is assumed that the level of performance of will not vary much from one class to another class.
  14. 14. 2. Criterion-reference Interpretation It is used to describe student performance according to specified domain of clearly defined learning task. This method of interpretation is used when the teacher wants to determine how well the students have learned specific knowledge or skills in a certain course or subject matter.
  15. 15. This are ways in describing classroom test and other procedures in the table below adapted and modified from Gronlund, Linn, and Miller (2009) Classification Type of Assessment Function of Assessment Examples of Instruments Nature of assessment Maximum Performance It is used to determine what individuals can do when performing at their best. Aptitude tests, achievement tests Typical Performance It is used to determine what individuals will do under natural conditions Attitude, interest, and personality inventories; observational techniques; peer appraisal
  16. 16. Classification Type of Assessment Function of Assessment Examples of Instruments Form of assessment Fixed-choice test An assessment used to measure knowledge and skills effectively and efficiently. Standard multiple choice test Complex- performance assessment An assessment procedure used to measure the performance of the learner in contexts and on problems valued in their own right Hands-on laboratory experiment, projects, essays, oral presentation
  17. 17. Classification Type of Assessment Function of Assessment Examples of Instruments Use in classroom instruction Placement An assessment procedure used to determine the learner’s prerequisite skills, degree of mastery of the course goals, and/ or best modes of learning. Readiness tests, aptitude tests, pretests on course objectives, self- report inventories, observational techniques Formative An assessment procedure used to determine the learner’s learning progress, provides feedback to reinforce learning, and corrects learning errors Teacher-made tests, custom-made tests from textbooks publishers, observational techniques
  18. 18. Classification Type of Assessment Function of Assessment Examples of Instruments Use in classroom instruction Diagnostic An assessment procedure used to determine the causes of learner’s persistent learning difficulties such as intellectual, physical, emotional, and environmental difficulties. Published diagnostic tests, teacher-made diagnostic tests, observational techniques Summative An assessment procedure used to determine the end- of-course achievement for assigning grades or certifying mastery of objectives Teacher-made survey test, performance rating scales, product scales
  19. 19. Classification Type of Assessment Function of Assessment Examples of Instruments Methods of interpreting results Criterion- referenced It is used to describe student performance according to a specified domain of clearly defined learning tasks. Example: multiples Readiness tests, aptitude tests, pretests on course objectives, self- report inventories, observational techniques Norm- referenced It is used to describe student’s performance according to relative position in some known group. Example: ranks 5th in a classroom group of 40 Standardized aptitude and achievement test, teacher- made survey tests, interest inventories, adjustment inventories
  20. 20. OTHER TYPES OF TEST • Non-standardized Test Is a type of test developed by the classroom teachers. • Standardized Test Is a type of test developed by test specialist. It is administered, scored and interpreted using a certain standard condition.
  21. 21. • Objective Test Is a type of test in which two or more evaluators give an examinee the score. • Subjective Test Is a type of test in which the scores are influenced by the judgment of the evaluator, meaning there is no one correct answer.
  22. 22. • Supply Test Is a type of test that requires the examinees to supply an answer, such as an essay test item or completion or short answer test item. • Fixed-response Test It is a type of test that requires the examines to select an answer from a given option such as multiple-choice test, matching type of test, or true/false test/
  23. 23. • Individual Test Is a type of test administered to student to one-on-one basis using oral questioning. • Group Test Is a type of test administered to a group of individuals or group of students.
  24. 24. • Mastery Test Is a type of achievement test that measures the degree of mastery of a limited set of learning outcomes using criterion-reference to interpret the result. • Survey Test Is a type of test that measures students’ general achievement over a broad range of learning outcomes
  25. 25. • Speed Test Is designed to measure a number of items of individual can complete over a period of time. • Power Test Is designed to measure the level of performance rather than speed of response. It contains test items that are arranged according to increasing degree of dificulty
  26. 26. MODES OF ASSESSMENT This are type or modes of assessment used by classroom teacher to assess the learning progress of the students. These are traditional assessment, alternative assessment, performance-based assessment, and portfolio assessment.
  27. 27. • Traditional Assessment It is a type of assessment in which the students choose their answer from a given of choices. In traditional assessment, students are expected to recognize that there is only one correct or best answer for the question asked.
  28. 28. • Alternative Assessment An assessment in which students create an original response to answer a certain question. Students respond to a question using their own ideas, in their own words.
  29. 29. • Alternative Assessment Components a.Assessment is based on authentic tasks that demonstrate students’ ability to accomplish communication goals. b.The teacher and students focus on communication, not on right and wrong answers.
  30. 30. c. Students help the teacher to set the criteria for successful completion of communication tasks. d. Students have opportunities to assess themselves and their peers.
  31. 31. • Performance-based Assessment Is an assessment in which students are asked to perform real-world tasks demonstrate meaningful application of essential knowledge and skills. It is a direct measure of student performance because the tasks are designed to incorporate context, problems and solution strategies that students would use in real life.
  32. 32. • Portfolio Assessment Portfolio assessment is the systematic, longitudinal collection of student work created in response to specific, known instructional objects and evaluated in relation to the same criteria.
  33. 33. • Portfolio Is a purposeful collection of student work that exhibits the student’s efforts, progress and achievements in one or more areas over a period of time. It measures the growth and development of students.
  34. 34. GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE STUDENT ASSESSMENT Improvement of student learning is the main purpose of classroom assessment. This can be done if assessment is integrated with good instruction and is guided by certain principles. Gronlund (1998) provided the general guidelines for using student assessment effectively.
  35. 35. • Effective assessment requires a clear concept of all intended learning outcomes. • Effective assessment requires that a variety of assessment procedures should be used. • Effective assessment requires that the instructional relevance of the procedure should be considered.
  36. 36. • Effective assessment requires an adequate sample of student performance. • Effective assessment requires that the procedures must be fair to everyone. • Effective assessment requires specifications of criteria for judging successful performance.
  37. 37. • Effective performance requires feedback to students emphasizing strengths of performance and weaknesses to be corrected. • Effective assessment must be supported by comprehensive grading and reporting system.
  38. 38. Thanks for LISTENING

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