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Orthopaedics

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  • 1. Orthopaedics Correcting problems with the Musculoskeletal system
  • 2. Today’s objectives: (What I need to know)
    • To define Orthopaedics
    • To list some common musculoskeletal disorders and injuries and explain their causes
    • To describe appropriate treatments for these injuries and disorders
  • 3. Orthopaedics
    • Orthopaedics deals with all disorders and injuries (trauma) of the musculoskeletal system
    • Orthopaedics involves the diagnosis and treatment of these injuries and disorders
  • 4. There are many things that can go wrong with the muscles and skeleton
    • Fractures
    • Joint wear/ damage (osteoarthritis)
    • Bone wasting (osteoporosis)
    • Deformity
    • Tendon Tears
    • Ligament tears
    • Inflammation of muscles, cartilage, tendons and ligaments
  • 5. Why do these problems arise?
    • Born that way (congenital)
    • Sports injury.
    • Inappropriate posture
    • Inappropriate exercise
    • Old age
    • Damaging workplace
    • Traffic or other accident
  • 6. Fractures
    • The way bone breaks varies with age:
    •  The very young tend not to fracture or sustain greenstick fractures
    •  Adults and teenagers fracture more easily complete or partial fractures
    •  The Elderley fracture very easily due to reduced bone density. Because of the brittleness the fractures are often impacted fractures
  • 7. Fractures – simple and compound
    • Simple describes those which don’t break through muscles and skin
    • Compound fractures break through muscles and skin
    • The latter are associated with care accidents or great falls.
  • 8. Comminuted fractures
    • This is when bones break into three or more pieces
    • Often these are difficult to deal with
    • They can damage or threaten to damage soft tissues
    • How would you deal with a shattered femur?
  • 9. A vulnerable area – spinal fracture
    • Fractures such as whiplash fracture are incredibly dangerous
    • The most dangerous area is in the cervical region
    • Why is this?
    • If the spinal cord is severed the patient will be paralysed from that pint down
    • This is why neck braces are always used if in doubt.
  • 10. Arthroscopy
    • Developed by
    • Dr. Watanabe of Japan
    • It is performed before keyhole surgery
    • The joint is punctured and flooded with sterile fluid at high pressure
  • 11. After the assessment…
    • Once the surgeon has assessed what the problem is surgery can begin.
    • This often happens straight away
    • Small tools are used to perform the surgery (e.g. removing loose cartilage)
  • 12. Keyhole surgery
    • The benefits of keyhole surgery are:
    •  The whole area doesn’t have to be opened (infection minimized
    •  Fewer tissues are damaged
    •  So… fewer tissues have to heal
    •  The patient recovers more quickly
  • 13. Joint Replacement
    • Sometimes a joint is so badly damaged it has to be replaced
    • Typical this happens in the very old or severe car accidents
    • Hip replacements are common
    • The femur head is removed and a titanium alloy head inserted
    • The hip socket is hollowed out and a plastic cup inserted
  • 14. Arthrodesis
    • Sometimes badly damaged joints are fused
    • This happens, especially if the joint has limited movement anyway
    • Pain is alleviated
  • 15. Questions
    • Name two possible features of a comminuted fracture.
    • Why do paramedics often put a stable collar on victims of severe road traffic accidents?
    • Give two advantages of keyhole surgery over conventional surgery.
    • What is Arthroscopy? What does it literally mean?