Orthopaedics Correcting problems with the Musculoskeletal system
Today’s objectives: (What I need to know) <ul><li>To define Orthopaedics </li></ul><ul><li>To list some common musculoskel...
Orthopaedics <ul><li>Orthopaedics deals with all disorders and injuries (trauma) of the musculoskeletal system </li></ul><...
There are many things that can go wrong with the muscles and skeleton <ul><li>Fractures </li></ul><ul><li>Joint wear/ dama...
Why do these problems arise? <ul><li>Born that way (congenital) </li></ul><ul><li>Sports injury. </li></ul><ul><li>Inappro...
Fractures <ul><li>The way bone breaks varies with age: </li></ul><ul><li> The very young tend not to fracture or sustai...
Fractures –  simple and compound <ul><li>Simple describes those which don’t break through muscles and skin </li></ul><ul><...
Comminuted fractures <ul><li>This is when bones break into three or more pieces </li></ul><ul><li>Often these are difficul...
A vulnerable area – spinal fracture <ul><li>Fractures such as whiplash fracture are incredibly dangerous </li></ul><ul><li...
Arthroscopy <ul><li>Developed by  </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Watanabe of Japan </li></ul><ul><li>It is performed before keyhole...
After the assessment… <ul><li>Once the surgeon has assessed what the problem is surgery can begin. </li></ul><ul><li>This ...
Keyhole surgery <ul><li>The benefits of keyhole surgery are: </li></ul><ul><li> The whole area doesn’t have to be opened...
Joint Replacement <ul><li>Sometimes a joint is so badly damaged it has to be replaced </li></ul><ul><li>Typical this happe...
Arthrodesis <ul><li>Sometimes badly damaged joints are fused </li></ul><ul><li>This happens, especially if the joint has l...
Questions <ul><li>Name two possible features of a comminuted fracture. </li></ul><ul><li>Why do paramedics often put a sta...
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Orthopaedics

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Orthopaedics

  1. 1. Orthopaedics Correcting problems with the Musculoskeletal system
  2. 2. Today’s objectives: (What I need to know) <ul><li>To define Orthopaedics </li></ul><ul><li>To list some common musculoskeletal disorders and injuries and explain their causes </li></ul><ul><li>To describe appropriate treatments for these injuries and disorders </li></ul>
  3. 3. Orthopaedics <ul><li>Orthopaedics deals with all disorders and injuries (trauma) of the musculoskeletal system </li></ul><ul><li>Orthopaedics involves the diagnosis and treatment of these injuries and disorders </li></ul>
  4. 4. There are many things that can go wrong with the muscles and skeleton <ul><li>Fractures </li></ul><ul><li>Joint wear/ damage (osteoarthritis) </li></ul><ul><li>Bone wasting (osteoporosis) </li></ul><ul><li>Deformity </li></ul><ul><li>Tendon Tears </li></ul><ul><li>Ligament tears </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammation of muscles, cartilage, tendons and ligaments </li></ul>
  5. 5. Why do these problems arise? <ul><li>Born that way (congenital) </li></ul><ul><li>Sports injury. </li></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate posture </li></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Old age </li></ul><ul><li>Damaging workplace </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic or other accident </li></ul>
  6. 6. Fractures <ul><li>The way bone breaks varies with age: </li></ul><ul><li> The very young tend not to fracture or sustain greenstick fractures </li></ul><ul><li> Adults and teenagers fracture more easily complete or partial fractures </li></ul><ul><li> The Elderley fracture very easily due to reduced bone density. Because of the brittleness the fractures are often impacted fractures </li></ul>
  7. 7. Fractures – simple and compound <ul><li>Simple describes those which don’t break through muscles and skin </li></ul><ul><li>Compound fractures break through muscles and skin </li></ul><ul><li>The latter are associated with care accidents or great falls. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Comminuted fractures <ul><li>This is when bones break into three or more pieces </li></ul><ul><li>Often these are difficult to deal with </li></ul><ul><li>They can damage or threaten to damage soft tissues </li></ul><ul><li>How would you deal with a shattered femur? </li></ul>
  9. 9. A vulnerable area – spinal fracture <ul><li>Fractures such as whiplash fracture are incredibly dangerous </li></ul><ul><li>The most dangerous area is in the cervical region </li></ul><ul><li>Why is this? </li></ul><ul><li>If the spinal cord is severed the patient will be paralysed from that pint down </li></ul><ul><li>This is why neck braces are always used if in doubt. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Arthroscopy <ul><li>Developed by </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Watanabe of Japan </li></ul><ul><li>It is performed before keyhole surgery </li></ul><ul><li>The joint is punctured and flooded with sterile fluid at high pressure </li></ul>
  11. 11. After the assessment… <ul><li>Once the surgeon has assessed what the problem is surgery can begin. </li></ul><ul><li>This often happens straight away </li></ul><ul><li>Small tools are used to perform the surgery (e.g. removing loose cartilage) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Keyhole surgery <ul><li>The benefits of keyhole surgery are: </li></ul><ul><li> The whole area doesn’t have to be opened (infection minimized </li></ul><ul><li> Fewer tissues are damaged </li></ul><ul><li> So… fewer tissues have to heal </li></ul><ul><li> The patient recovers more quickly </li></ul>
  13. 13. Joint Replacement <ul><li>Sometimes a joint is so badly damaged it has to be replaced </li></ul><ul><li>Typical this happens in the very old or severe car accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Hip replacements are common </li></ul><ul><li>The femur head is removed and a titanium alloy head inserted </li></ul><ul><li>The hip socket is hollowed out and a plastic cup inserted </li></ul>
  14. 14. Arthrodesis <ul><li>Sometimes badly damaged joints are fused </li></ul><ul><li>This happens, especially if the joint has limited movement anyway </li></ul><ul><li>Pain is alleviated </li></ul>
  15. 15. Questions <ul><li>Name two possible features of a comminuted fracture. </li></ul><ul><li>Why do paramedics often put a stable collar on victims of severe road traffic accidents? </li></ul><ul><li>Give two advantages of keyhole surgery over conventional surgery. </li></ul><ul><li>What is Arthroscopy? What does it literally mean? </li></ul>

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