Skeletal system


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Skeletal system

  1. 1. Skeletal<br />System<br /><ul><li>Osteoporosis
  2. 2. BoneFractures</li></li></ul><li>Osteoporosis<br /><ul><li>What is
  3. 3. Causes
  4. 4. Signs & Symptoms
  5. 5. Treatment
  6. 6. Prevention
  7. 7. Life Speciation
  8. 8. Diagnosis</li></li></ul><li>Is the most common type of bone disease.<br />Osteoporosis occurs when the body fails to form enough new bone, when too much old bone is reabsorbed by the body, or both.<br />Women over age 50 and men over age 70 have a higher risk for osteoporosis.<br />
  9. 9. Causes<br />The leading causes of osteoporosis are a drop in estrogen in women at the time of menopause and a drop in testosterone in men. Chronic kidney disease, eating disorders are also some other possible reasons.<br />
  10. 10. Symptoms<br />Bone pain or tenderness <br />Fractures with little or no trauma<br />Loss of height (as much as 6 inches) over time<br />Low back pain due to fractures of the spinal bones<br />Neck pain due to fractures of the spinal bones<br />
  11. 11. Treatments<br />Lifestyle changes and a variety of medications.<br />Teriparatide is approved for the treatment of postmenopausal women who have severe osteoporosis and are considered at high risk for fractures. The medicine is given through daily shots underneath the skin. <br />Regular exercise can reduce the likelihood of bone fractures in people with osteoporosis. Some of the recommended exercises include:<br />
  12. 12. Prevention<br />Calcium is essential for building and maintaining healthy bone. Vitamin D is also needed because it helps your body absorb calcium<br />Follow a diet that provides the proper amount of calcium, vitamin D, and protein<br />Quit smoking. Limit alcohol intake<br />It is also critical to prevent falls<br />
  13. 13. Life Speciation<br />You can livefor quite a long time as long as youtakecertainprecautions and have a properdietandflifestyleaccordingtoyourcondition.<br />
  14. 14. Diagnosis<br />A densitometry or DEXA scan can measure how much bone you have<br />Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) may be used in rare cases.<br />A spine or hip x-ray may show fracture or collapse of the spinal bones. However, simple x-rays of bones are not very accurate in predicting whether someone is likely to have osteoporosis.<br />
  15. 15. Isthereanytreatmentto relieve theirsymptoms?<br />Bisphosphonates are the primary drugs used to both prevent and treat.<br />Calcitonin is a medicine that slows the rate of bone loss and relieves bone pain.<br />
  16. 16. Bone Fracture<br /><ul><li>What is
  17. 17. Causes
  18. 18. Classification
  19. 19. Signs & Symptoms
  20. 20. Diagnosis
  21. 21. Treatment
  22. 22. Prevention</li></li></ul><li>A bone fracture (sometimes abbreviated FRX or Fx, Fx, or #) is a medical condition in which there is a break in the continuity of the bone. A bone fracture can be the result of high force impact or stress, or trivial injury as a result of certain medical conditions that weaken the bones, such as osteoporosis, bone cancer, or osteogenesis imperfecta, where the fracture is then termed pathological fracture.<br />
  23. 23. The most common causes include: <br /><ul><li>High impact sports injuries
  24. 24. Traumatic, forceful and unnatural </li></ul> movements <br /><ul><li>Overuse - prolonged long-distance </li></ul> walking or running <br /><ul><li>Falls
  25. 25. Accidents
  26. 26. Osteoporosis
  27. 27. Tumors growing near the bone </li></li></ul><li>Classification<br />Greenstick is a fracture in a young, soft bone in which the bone bends and partially breaks.<br />Spiral: Sometimes called a torsion fracture, in which a bone has been twisted apart. <br />Comminuted: Bone is broken, splintered or crushed into a number of pieces. <br />Transverse: The break is across the bone, at a right angle to the long axis of the bone.<br />Compound: The bone is sticking through the skin. Also called an open fracture.<br />Compression: caused by compression,<br /> the act of pressing together. <br />Compression fractures of the vertebrae<br /> are especially common in the elderly.<br />
  28. 28.
  29. 29. Signs & Sympotms<br /><ul><li>Swelling around the injured area
  30. 30. Loss of function in the injured area
  31. 31. Bruising around the injured area
  32. 32. Deformity of a limb</li></li></ul><li>Diagnosis<br />A bone fracture is diagnosed by a physical examination and x-rays of the injured area. However, <br />some types of fractures are difficult to <br />see on an x-ray. In this case, your doctor<br /> may order other diagnostic imaging tests, such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic <br />resonance imaging (MRI), or bone scans.<br /> Open fractures require additional <br />laboratory tests to determine whether <br />blood has been lost and if there is <br />infection. <br />
  33. 33. Treatment<br />The treatment for a bone fracture depends upon the type and location of the fracture and the patient’s age and medical history. When a fracture is suspected, the affected <br />area should be immobilized <br />to prevent any further <br />damage. <br />
  34. 34. Prevention<br /><ul><li>Weight-bearing exercise and sufficient </li></ul>amounts of calcium in the diet help strengthen<br />the bones and prevent bone fractures. <br /><ul><li>Wearing a seat belt when riding in a motor vehicle.
  35. 35. People who participate in contact sports should wear appropriate protective gear.
  36. 36. Doctors recommend estrogen therapy for women over the age of 50.
  37. 37. This, as well as calcium supplements, can help</li></ul> lower the risk of osteoporosis and related <br />bone injuries.<br />
  38. 38. A new study shows that osteoporotic fractures increase a person's risk of dying, even after relatively minor fractures if that person is elderly. With hip fractures, there is double the risk of death for women, three times the risk for men.<br />