Developing the theoretical andconceptual framework Heddy Hidalgo Rivero Adapted from (Khan, 1999) Zorn and Campbell (2006
TheoryTheories are constructed in order to explain, predictand master phenomena (e.g. relationships, events, orthe behavior). In many instances theories are models ofreality.A theory makes generalizations about observations andconsists of an interrelated, coherent set of ideas andmodels.Theories not only imply the answer of some hypothesis,but also, lead to the formulation of some others
Formulating the TheoreticalFrameworkThe theoretical framework of the study is a structure that can hold or support a theory of a research work. It presents the theory which explains why the problem under study exists.Thus, the theoretical framework is but a theory that serves as a basis for conducting research.Theories used to explain the research object represent the vision under which we approach such an object and somehow the ways we should take in doing so
Formulating the Theoretical FrameworkPurpose:• It helps the researcher know his/her research object• It helps the researcher see clearly the variables of the study;• It can provide him with a general framework for data analysis;• It is essential in preparing a research proposal using descriptive and experimental methods.
How should the theoretical framework be formulated?1. The author should specify the theory used as basis for the study2. The author should mention the proponents of the theory3. The author should cite the main points emphasized in the theory4. The author should support the exposition of the theory by ideas from other experts;5. The author should relate his theoretical proposition with his own study.
How should the theoretical framework be formulated?1. It is the author’s job to synthesize or make sense ofthe literature. Simply describing or quoting theliterature may be adequate, but in doing so the writerloses the argument as well as his or her own voice2. The author has to relate the theories and theconcepts included among themselves. He also has toconvey the relationship among the sources he isconsidering (Zorn and Campbell, 2006)3. The author has to relate his/her research object tothe main proposals oh the theories he/she is exposing
How should the theoretical framework be written?1. An introduction that provides an overview of the focus and objectives of the review, along with a thesis statement2. A set of themes that categorize and make sense of thesources reviewed and develop the thesis (e.g., sources thatsupport a particular position, those opposed, and those offeringalternative views)3. Explanation and evaluation of conclusions reached by keysources, and explanation of how they converge and divergefrom the conclusions reached by other source4. Conclusions, reasonable speculations, and gaps that emergeafter considering the sources as a whole Zorn and Campbell (2006)
ConceptAfter formulating the theoretical framework, theresearcher has to develop the conceptual framework ofthe study.A concept is an image or symbolic representation of anabstract idea. Chinn and Kramer (1999) define a conceptas a “complex mental formulation of experience”.While the theoretical framework is the theory on whichthe study is based, the conceptual framework is theoperationalization of the theory.
Conceptual frameworkIt represents the researcher’s own position on theproblem. It gives direction to the study.It may be an adaptation of a model used in a previousstudy, with modifications to suit the specific inquiry.Besides showing the direction of the study, through theconceptual framework, the researcher can be able toshow the relationships of the different constructs thathe wants to investigate.It allows the researcher to construct his/her own termsand to clarify those being used in the study
How should the conceptual framework be formulated?1. cite your conceptual framework or paradigm;2. Identify your variables;3. Point out the dependent and intervening variables;4. Show the direction of the study.