Theoretical framewrk [Research Methodology]


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Theoretical framewrk [Research Methodology]

  1. 1. Submitted By: Sreepooja.S.P.
  2. 2. “There is nothing as practical as a good theory.” ---KURTLEWIN(1890-1947)
  3. 3. Every study is based on something. This something is generally a broad theoretical area in the existing research literature.
  4. 4. A theory is NOT a guess or a belief. A theory is based on empirical evidence found through scientific research that was rigorously controlled to avoid bias. In psychology and the social sciences, theories have two critical components: (a) the theory describes specific behaviors, and (b) the theory must make predictions about future behaviors.
  5. 5. The researcher presents the theoretical framework to place THEIR research within the perspective of other studies in the same discipline. The theoretical framework provides support for the proposed study by presenting known relationships among variables and setting limits or boundaries for the proposed study
  6. 6. 1. Start with recommendations for further study in specific areas in previously published studies. 2. Use the facts, observations, and theories from previous studies to focus your ideas about new relationships among the variables or about new populations under study.
  7. 7. Present the broad theoretical foundation first Present main issues Tie in your research Theoretical foundations forquantitative research Start your Theoretical Framework section with a broad overview of the topic. Define the broad topic and list germinal researchers in the area. Summarize the germinal researchers' key concepts. Name their theories. Cite researchers who present important issues, unique perspectives, and controversies within the specific topic area Discuss how your study fits within other research in the field. In a quantitative study, your purpose is to describe your population and test hypotheses. In stating your hypotheses, you are essentially proposing a new theory. Place your population and hypotheses within the context of the
  8. 8. In qualitative research, there may be no existing theoretical foundation because theory often emerges from the findings. Theoretical foundations for qualitative research Present your problem statement within the context of the qualitative inquiry method itself. However, even in qualitative research enough literature has usually been published on any given topic to provide you with seminal work about the specific topic. If not, look for related topics - if you are exploring a new area within adult education, it is acceptable to report on similar work within adolescent education.
  9. 9. The following are the basic features of a theoretical framework: •The variables influencing the research problem should be clearly identified, defined and discussed. •The discussion should also highlight the relationship between the variables so identified. •The type of relationship for e.g.. Positive or negative should be highlighted. •The reason for assuming the type of relationship should be mentioned drawing on the previous research studies identified through the literature review. •A model showing the relationship among the variables can be given so that the concepts can be visualized and understood clearly by the reader.
  10. 10. Types of variables There are many types of variables like::  Dependent Independent Moderating Intervening Discrete Continuous Extraneous
  11. 11. Dependent variable • As the name suggests the value of a dependent variable is influenced by other variables. • It is the main variable of interest to the researcher.
  12. 12. Independent variables An independent variable influences the value of dependent variable either in a positive or in a negative way. The variance in the dependent variable is accounted for by the independent variable. Independent variable Dependent variable
  13. 13.  The variable that moderates the relationship between dependent and independent variables is called as a moderating variable. The moderating variable has a strong contingent effect on the relationship between the independent and the dependent variable.
  14. 14. An intervening variable is one that surfaces between the time, the independent variable start operating to influence the dependent variable and the time the impact is felt on it. The intervening variable surfaces as a function of the independent variables operating in any situation and helps to conceptualize and explain the influences of the independent variables on the dependent variables.
  15. 15.  The theoretical framework is the foundation on which the entire research is carried out.  It is logically developed, described and elaborated network of associations among the variables deemed to be relevant to the problem situation and identified through such processes as interviews, observations and literature survey.  Experience and intuition can also be taken up in developing the theoretical framework.