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  3.  This process of developing the specific research inquiry is referred to as conceptualization. A gradual clarification of concepts occurs, influenced by changes which have resulted from socio-cultural trends.
  4. After the research problem is identified by the student, it becomes timely to consult a research adviser to set the parameters of the projected inquiry. Such a consultation will resolve the following issues: 1. Type of research work, whether it shall be exploratory, descriptive or explanatory. 2. The sources suggested by an experienced adviser .
  5. 3. The timeframe for the research project. 4. Other general matters can be discussed with the adviser preparatory to framing the research proposal.
  6.  Such a consultation can help tie together random ideas about a planned project, conducive to the framing of a suitable research proposal.
  7. II. First Chapter of the Research Proposal
  8. Elements of Research Proposal  Introduction  Background of the Study  Setting of the Study  Theoretical / Conceptual Framework  Statement of the Problem  Hypotheses of the Study  The Significance of the Study  Scope and Delimitations of the Study  Definition of Key Terms
  9. INTRODUCTION The introduction serves to orient the reader about the research project. It may also include the rationale, legal basis, and historical setting. In effect, the introduction is a preview of the whole study.
  10. BACKGROUND THE STUDY This presents the context of the study, stating the external factors which gave rise to the research proposal.
  11. In identifying the factors that contribute to the Background of the Study, the following questions may be asked: What trends re occurring in the field? What development are most promising? What problems have surfaced or may surface?
  12. What is the impact of socio- cultural factors? If this paper is read 25 years after its publication, how would the reader benefit from the study? What is the general state of knowledge about the problem?
  13. SETTING OF THE STUDY Identifying the setting is important as this will demonstrate that the study is based on a true-to-life setting about which accurate observations and measurement procedures can be made.
  14. SETTING OF THE STUDY Once the researcher works within a paradigm, two benefits are achieved: a) A more accurate understanding of what could otherwise be simply od actions and views b) An avenue for new ways of thinking and explaining things
  15. SETTING OF THE STUDY  A different point of view from another research may eventually come to light, but the difference may be in framework for observation and understanding
  16. Theoretical/Conceptual Framework  The theoretical framework outlines the theory that the researcher wants to espouse or to verify in his study.
  17. Theoretical/Conceptual Framework This consists of elements called COMPONENTS of the system and their interrelationships. The components interact with each other and the interaction are either shown in a diagram or mathematical form.
  18. Statement of the Problem  A research proposal is prompted by questions of observed phenomena which call for an explanation.  In a research proposal the problem needs to be stated correctly by the way of a precise question which demands a specific answer. The formulation of this question has a bearing a several on several factors:
  19. Statement of the Problem 1. Source of the problem such as from the researcher’s interest from suggestion by an adviser or peers , from the course of the study, or from new ideas inherent in previous researchers. 2. Factors in problem selection such as focus, point of view and time frame. 3. Prospect of a good problem proposal such as its relevance , novelty, practicality.
  20. After determining the problem, the researcher may then take steps to develop a clear and functional problem statement. This entails: a)Establishing the research topic within the general area of study b)Developing a more narrowly defined problem that represents an aspect of the research topics c)Formulating the defined issue, the problem statement.
  21. Hypothesis of the Study The hypothesis is stated by way of a declarative sentence, relating either in general or in specific terms, the relationship of these factors or variables with clear implication that this relationship can be empirically or statistically measured. Without this characteristic of being potentially measurable, the hypothesis is not valid or is at least a poor assumption
  22. Hypothesis of the Study The importance of the hypothesis s a tool in scientific research has long been established because a)They direct the research inquiry, saying in effect what has to be done; b)They enable the researcher, by the way of their general relational statements, to make deductions on specific manifestations implied by the inquiry problem.
  23. Hypothesis of the Study A more radical way of stating its importance is to say that a research problem cannot be scientifically solved unless it is reduced into hypothesis form.
  24. Significance of the Study The presentation should prove the importance of the study in terms of:: Solving a problem Narrowing or bridging a knowledge gap Improving socio- economic or politico- cultural conditions Validating research instruments and methods Supporting development thrusts
  25. Scope and Delimitation of the Study The scope tells the extent to which the results of an inquiry may find an application. The delimitation gives information on the shortcomings of the investigation, and where results may fail to apply
  26. Scope and Delimitation of the Study One difficulty in research concerns the issue of generality or specificity. If a research problem is too general, it can become to vague, thus not measurable. General terms such as democracy, innovation, self- transformation do not carry immediate empirical value.
  27. Scope and Delimitation of the Study On the other hand, there is the other extreme of too much specificity. While every scientific research needs to be narrowed down, there is the danger of making the inquiry too thin and trivial.
  28. Definition of Terms Universally accepted terms are not defined in the research study. Terms whose meanings may be different in the context of the inquiry need to be defined in this section. Operational definition of terms are preferred over dictionary definition of terms.
  30. This chapter is divided into four sub- sections: FOREIGN LITERATURE – These are materials published in books, professional journals, magazines, newspapers and other publications in other countries  LOCAL LITERATURE – These are materials found in books, professional journals, magazines, newspaper and other publications in the country.
  31.  FOREIGN STUDIES – These are unpublished materials, such as manuscripts, thesis and dissertations produced in foreign countries LOCAL STUDIES – These are unpublished materials, such as manuscripts, theses and dissertations produced in the disagreement in the field of study.
  32. Literature and studies are said to relate to the present research due to their resemblance by way of: 1. CONTENT 2. METHODOLOGY AND SAMPLING PLAN 3. USE OF THE SAME SET OF FACTORS OR VARIABLES IN THE PRESENT STUDY
  33.  To establish the baseline information about the research problem;  To pinpoint strengths and weaknesses of the literature material or studies;  To lead the researcher to the correct procedure for obtaining valid results; and  To highlight the importance of the inquiry.
  34. The chapter may be organized in several ways, the most common of which are: THEMATIC ORGAIZATION. The discussion of the researcher is based on the similarities of ideas or themes. CHRONOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION. The study is organized according to episodes or periods. SITE ORGANIZATION. The studies are grouped into “Foreign” or “Local”. The review of Foreign and Local Studies gives a balanced presentation of an inquiry by way of determining geographical settings.
  35. SOME POINTS TO CONSIDER IN WRITING THE CHAPTER ARE: 1.Materials reviewed must relate in purpose, method, and findings with the current study. 2.Interrelationship of the materials should be clarified, whie strengths and weaknesses of each material are pointed out.
  36. 3. The transition from the past study to the present must be shown, possibly showing the evolvement of one work to another. 4. In the text, only the last names of the authors are given. However, initials are to be included in case the works cited are written by persons with the same surnames.
  37. A good review or related literature and studies is characterized by the following: 1.Most recent materials are used. 2.Review is objective and unbiased. 3.The materials reviewed are relevant 4.The basis of the review conforms to genuinely original materials; the facts and data are validly true and reliable.
  38. 5. Materials are sufficient enough to provide insight to research problem. 6. While the length of this section is not prescribed, it is best to limit it to the most recent and the most related materials in order to effect a holistic and organized review.
  39. IV. Methods and Procedures Methods of research used -This refers to over all plan and scheme in conducting te study. Respondents of the study -this provide specific information about those who will participate in the research, either the subjects in quantitative research or the participants in qualitative researches.
  40. Sampling tehniques used -this refers to the design for getting respondents that resulting observations will be representative o the entire popuaion 1.Probability sampling-uses the”chance process” in selecting the sample of the research. 2.Non-probability-comprises”convenience sampling” which utilizes what are available or “purposive sampling” which includes as samples those that have unique characteristics
  41. Instruments used in the study Observation w/c determines what is occuring or what individuals are doing Interview or the direct method which is an oral type of questionnaire to determine the perceptions of individuals or group The questionnaire or the indirect method w/c use carefuly planned and printed items given to repondents in order to elicit answers to question of the research  surveys w/c are administered to assess opinons,perceptions and attitudes Documents w/c entil analysis o records such as registry of birth,death ,marriages
  42. Validation of the instruments used Validity-refers to the extent w/ the instrument measures what it intends to measure Reliability-extent of the consistency of the instrument readability –refers to the level of clarity of the instrument possibly conducting second run of validation, to make sure the instrument posseses the mentioned criteria
  43. Statistical Treatment of Data
  44. Based on the instrument questions, the appropriate statistical tools are used, such as frequency counts, percentage scoring, mean and standard deviation procedure, use of the 5-point likert scale, the t-test etc.
  45. Chapter 4. presentation, analysis and interpretation Chapter 5. summary conclusion and recommendation o
  46. Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation Presentation contains data organized into logical sequential and meaningful categories and classified in order to make the data useful for study and interpretation Textual Tabular Graphical
  47. Analysis of Data This process requires summarizing the trend patterns observed in the data presented in order to arrived at concrete and acceptable findings
  48. Interpretation of Data This involves inferences relevant to the problem. Supported by data or documents, conclusion may be drawn about the problems
  49. Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation Summary – it is best to organized the summary statement according to the stated problem Conclusions are inferences, deduction and or generalizations base on findings Recommendations are addressed to those concerned to help solve the problem guided by the research findings.