Exam- REvision - CamERa anglEs - CamERa shots -CamERa movEmEnt - Editing By Gledis Dedaj
diffEREnt CamERa• anglEs. 1. The Birds-Eye view• This shows a scene from directly overhead, a very unnatural and strange angle. Familiar objects viewed from this angle might seem totally unrecognisable at first (umbrellas in a crowd, dancers legs).• This shot does, however, put the audience in a godlike position, looking down on the action. People can be made to look insignificant, ant-like, part of a wider scheme of things.• 2. High Angle• Not so extreme as a birds eye view. The camera is elevated above the action using a crane to give a general overview. High angles make the object photographed seem smaller, and less significant (or scary). The object or character often gets swallowed up by their setting - they become part of a wider picture.• 3. Eye Level• A fairly neutral shot; the camera is positioned as though it is a human actually observing a scene, so that e.g. actors heads are on a level with the focus. The camera will be placed approximately five to six feet from the ground.• 4. Low Angle• These increase height (useful for short actors like Tom Cruise or James McAvoy) and give a sense of speeded motion. Low angles help give a sense of confusion to a viewer, of powerlessness within the action of a scene. The background of a low angle shot will tend to be just sky or ceiling, the lack of detail about the setting adding to the disorientation of the viewer. The added height of the object may make it inspire fear and insecurity in the viewer, who is psychologically dominated by the figure on the screen.• 5. Oblique/Canted Angle• Sometimes the camera is tilted to suggest imbalance, transition and instability (very popular in horror movies). This technique is used to suggest POINT-OF-VIEW shots (e.g. when the camera becomes the eyes of one particular character, seeing what they see — a hand held camera is often used for this.
diffEREnt CamERa anglEs. • Low Angle • High Angle • Crane
CamERa movEmEnt1. Pans• A movement which scans a scene horizontally. The camera is placed on a tripod, which operates as a stationary axis point as the camera is turned, often to follow a moving object which is kept in the middle of the frame.2. Tilts• A movement which scans a scene vertically, otherwise similar to a pan.3. Dolly Shots• Sometimes called TRUCKING or TRACKING shots. The camera is placed on a moving vehicle and moves alongside the action, generally following a moving figure or object. Complicated dolly shots will involve a track being laid on set for the camera to follow, hence the name. The camera might be mounted on a car, a plane, or even a shopping trolley.• A dolly shot may be a good way of portraying movement, the journey of a character for instance, or for moving from a long shot to a close-up, gradually focusing the audience on a particular object or character.
CamERa shots• ECU - Extreme Close-up : The extreme close up is used to reveal very small details in the scene.• CU - Close Up : The close up shot is used to reveal detail. If you are shooting just the head and shoulders of a subject this is a close up.• MS - Medium Shot : The medium shot is from just below the waist to above the head. There is more headroom than in the bust shot.• LS - Long Shot : This shot is useful for someone that is walking or moving.• 2 Shot : Two-shots are composed when two people are in the scene and their interaction is important. A two-shot is a good way to introduce a conversation.• OS - Over Shoulder : The over the shoulder shot reveals one subject as seen from over the shoulder of another subject. It simulates a view of the subject as seen from the second persons eyes.
Editing• Cut• The most common transition — an instant change Wipe from one shot to the next. The raw footage from One shot is progressively replaced by another shot in your camera contains cuts between shots where you a geometric pattern. There are many types of wipe, stop and start recording.• from straight lines to complex shapes. In film and television production, the vast majority of transitions are cuts. Wipes often have a coloured border to help distinguish the shots during the transition.• Mix / Dissolve / Cross fade Wipes are a good way to show changing location.• These are all terms to describe the same transition — a gradual fade from one shot to the next. Digital Effects• Cross fades have a more relaxed feel than a cut and Most editing applications offer a large selection of are useful if you want a meandering pace, digital transitions with various effects. There are too contemplative mood, etc. Scenery sequences work many to list here, but these effects include colour well with cross fades, as do photo montages. replacement, animated effects, pixelization, focus• Cross fades can also convey a sense of passing time or changing location. drops, lighting effects, etc. Many cameras also include digital effects, but if• Fade possible it is better to add these in post-production.• Fades the shot to a single colour, usually black or white. The "fade to black" and "fade from black" are ubiquitous in film and television. They usually signal the beginning and end of scenes.• Fades can be used between shots to create a sort of cross fade which, for example, fades briefly to white before fading to the next shot.