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Cinematography and editing

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Cinematography and editing

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Cinematography and editing

  1. 1. Draw the following shot types: <ul><li>CLOSE-UP </li></ul><ul><li>LONG SHOT </li></ul><ul><li>HIGH ANGLE SHOT </li></ul><ul><li>OVER THE SHOULDER SHOT </li></ul>
  2. 2. Cinematography and editing Learning Aims: I understand how different uses of the camera effect the meaning for audiences. I understand and recognise different types of editing. I can write about the use of cinematography and editing effectively.
  3. 3. I understand how different uses of the camera effect the meaning for audiences. <ul><li>Cinematography is: </li></ul><ul><li>The use of the camera and lighting to record movement on to film. </li></ul><ul><li>Greek translation = ‘drawing movement’ </li></ul>
  4. 4. I understand how different uses of the camera effect the meaning for audiences. <ul><li>One way we can analyse media texts is through the use of cinematography. </li></ul><ul><li>Cinematography includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The SHOT TYPE used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ANGLE at which the camera is positioned in relation to the subject. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also the movement of the camera. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The way something is filmed is just as important as what is being filmed! </li></ul>
  5. 5. CLOSE UP
  6. 6. LONG SHOT
  7. 7. HIGH ANGLE SHOT
  8. 8. OVER THE SHOULDER SHOT
  9. 9. Apply <ul><li>How does the cinematography in your opening sequences effect the audience. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Now for a bit of fun <ul><li>Draw a series of 5 pictures using a variety of shots that tell the story of a stickman trying to get fat. </li></ul><ul><li>Now buddy up combine your images with a partner to create a longer sequence. </li></ul>
  11. 11. editing Focus for today… What is editing, why and how important is it? <ul><li>So… for starters… </li></ul><ul><li>Write down what you think editing is? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the aim of editing? </li></ul><ul><li>b. Why you think it is </li></ul><ul><li>important to the final film? </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>If someone complains about “the way the programme was edited”, what do they mean? </li></ul><ul><li>What does this suggest about the importance of the editing process? </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Film editing is the connecting of one or more shots to form a sequence, and then to form an entire film. </li></ul><ul><li>A film editor works with: </li></ul><ul><li>layers of images </li></ul><ul><li>Story </li></ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul><ul><li>Rhythm and pace </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>An editor's cut (sometimes referred to </li></ul><ul><li>as the &quot;rough cut&quot;) is normally the first </li></ul><ul><li>pass of what the final film will be. </li></ul><ul><li>In the first stage of editing the film editor </li></ul><ul><li>will usually work alone. </li></ul>The director's cut When shooting is finished, the director can then turn his/her full attention to collaborating with the editor and further refining the cut of the film; scenes and shots are re-ordered, removed, shortened. This period is normally longer, and more intimately involved, than the production and filming; most directors and editors form a unique artistic bond; Martin Scorsese and Thelma Schoonmaker being one example.
  15. 15. <ul><li>Walter Murch: He suggests there are 4 main criteria for deciding where to cut…. </li></ul><ul><li>Think about these when you are watching excerpts from Action Adventure Films </li></ul><ul><li>emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Does the cut reflect what the editor believes the audience should be feeling at that moment? </li></ul><ul><li>story </li></ul><ul><li>Does the cut advance the story? </li></ul><ul><li>rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>Does the cut occur ‘at a moment that is rhythmically interesting and 'right‘ </li></ul><ul><li>eye-trace </li></ul><ul><li>Does the cut follow the audience's focus of interest within the frame&quot; </li></ul>
  16. 16. Now… take notes on editing under these headings: <ul><li>Editing terminology: Purpose/ aim: </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Rules… Invisible or Hollywood Style <ul><li>What became known as the popular Hollywood </li></ul><ul><li>style of editing was developed by early European </li></ul><ul><li>and American directors, in particular D.W. Griffith in </li></ul><ul><li>his films such as The Birth of a Nation and Intolerance . </li></ul><ul><li>The classical style ensures continuity of time and space using such techniques as the 180 degree rule (in a car chase, if a vehicle leaves the right side of the frame in one shot, it should enter from the left side of the frame in the next shot) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Breaking the rules… Some films deliberately break the rules, the French New Wave of the 60s being a good example. They would use jump cuts and deliberately disrupt continuity, or use random cutaway shots, or simply avoid traditional Hollywood “match cuts”
  19. 19. <ul><li>A montage sequence consists of a series of short shots </li></ul><ul><li>that are edited into a sequence to condense narrative. It </li></ul><ul><li>Is usually used to advance the story as a whole, often to </li></ul><ul><li>suggest the passage of time. A classic example is the </li></ul><ul><li>training montages in Sylvester Stallone's Rocky series of </li></ul><ul><li>movies. </li></ul>Montage: Has a number of different meanings Montage is a term which refers to the creation of meaning from two apparently separate shots http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yLuOl36vamI
  20. 20. types of transition <ul><li>The cut is the most often used, simplest and best type of </li></ul><ul><li>transition for invisible edits. </li></ul><ul><li>Action sequences are usually made up of rapid cuts adding to the their </li></ul><ul><li>dramatic feel and quick pace. Cut transitions are often used to portray </li></ul><ul><li>action as they do not indicate the passage of time </li></ul><ul><li>a dissolve is a gradual transition from one image to another. Usually, </li></ul><ul><li>the purpose is constructive, and it's done slowly enough to portray the </li></ul><ul><li>passage of time. </li></ul><ul><li>All transitions other than cuts and dissolves can be grouped as effect </li></ul><ul><li>transitions . Effect transitions include pushes, page peels, spirals and any and all other imaginable effects. (You may be familiar with these from producing powerpoints) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Cross Cutting <ul><li>Generally, cross-cutting is meant to suggest that actions are occurring at the same time. However, it can also be used to gain a deeper significance between two or more events that do not necessarily occur simultaneously. Another dimension of cross-cutting is the rhythm of alternating shots; increasing the rapidity between two different actions may add tension to a scene. </li></ul>So… Were you concentrating? Now tell me.. how does a typical action adventure film employ these techniques??
  22. 22. Mr Stickman <ul><li>How did you edit this sequence? Is this a montage? </li></ul><ul><li>Go back to the opening sequences – consider cinematography and editing. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Your preliminary Task <ul><li>Research the elements you have to have in your preliminary task. Find examples of these and blog them. </li></ul>

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