As level tv drama 2


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  • As level tv drama 2

    1. 1. Connect
    2. 2. Verisimilitude The ‘truth’ of the Scene and its ‘reality’
    3. 3. G322 Media Exam • Textual Analysis and Representation: – Camera shots – Camera Angle – Movement and Composition – Editing – Sound – Mise-en-Scene Discover
    4. 4. 7 KEY AREAS FOR TOPIC • Gender • Age • Ethnicity • Sexuality • Class and status • Physical ability/disability • Regional identity Discover
    5. 5. Verisimilitude The ‘truth’ of the Scene and its ‘reality’
    6. 6. How do we Analyse a TV Drama – Mise-en-Scene – Camera shots / Camera Angle / Movement and Composition – Editing – Sound Discover
    7. 7. How do we Analyse a TV Drama – Mise-en-Scene – Camera shots / Camera Angle / Movement and Composition – Editing – Sound Discover
    8. 8. The second level of realism………….. Camera angle, shot, movement and composition.. Question – how many types of shot can you remember?
    9. 9. Extreme Wide Shot (EWS) • In the extreme wide shot, the view is so far from the subject that she isn't even visible. The point of this shot is to show the subject's surroundings. • The EWS is often used as an "establishing shot" - the first shot of a new scene, designed to show the audience where the action is taking place.The EWS is also known as an extra long shot or extreme long shot (XLS).
    10. 10. Very Wide Shot (VWS) • The very wide shot is much closer to the subject than an extreme wide shot, but still much further away than a wide shot. • The subject is (just) visible here, but the emphasis is very much on placing her in her environment.This often works as an establishing shot, in which the audience is shown the whole setting so they can orient themselves.
    11. 11. Wide Shot (WS) • Also known as a LONG SHOT. • As with most shot types, the wide shot means different things to different people. However the wide shot seems to suffer more from varying interpretations than other types. Many people take the WS to mean something much wider than my example, i.e. what I would call a very wide shot.
    12. 12. Mid Shot (MS) • The MS is appropriate when the subject is speaking without too much emotion or intense concentration. It also works well when the intent is to deliver information, which is why it is frequently used by television news presenters. You will often see a story begin with a MS of the reporter (providing information), followed by closer shots of interview subjects (providing reactions and emotion).As well as being a comfortable, emotionally neutral shot, the mid shot allows room for hand gestures and a bit of movement.
    13. 13. Medium Close Up (MCU) • The medium closeup is half way between a mid shot and a close up. This shot shows the face more clearly, without getting uncomfortably close.
    14. 14. Close Up (CU) • In the closeup shot, a certain feature or part of the subject takes up most of the frame. A close up of a person usually means a close up of their face (unless specified otherwise).Close-ups are obviously useful for showing detail and can also be used as a Insert Shot ( or Cut In). A close-up of a person emphasizes their emotional state. Whereas a mid-shot or wide-shot is more appropriate for delivering facts and general information, a close-up exaggerates facial expressions which convey emotion. The viewer is drawn into the subject's personal space and shares their feelings.
    15. 15. Extreme Close Up (ECU) • The ECU gets right in and shows extreme detail.You would normally need a specific reason to get this close. It is too close to show general reactions or emotion except in very dramatic scenes.
    16. 16. Cutaway (CA) • A cutaway is a shot that's usually of something other than the current action. It could be a different subject (eg. this cat when the main subject is its owner), a close up of a different part of the subject (eg. the subject's hands), or just about anything else.The cutaway is used as a "buffer" between shots (to help the editing process), or to add interest/information.
    17. 17. Two Shot • Two-shots are good for establishing a relationship between subjects. If you see two sports presenters standing side by side facing the camera, you get the idea that these people are going to be the show's co-hosts. As they have equal prominence in the frame, the implication is that they will provide equal input.A two-shot could also involve movement or action. It is a good way to follow the interaction between two people without getting distracted by their surroundings.
    18. 18. Over the Shoulder Shot (OSS) • Looking from behind a person at the subject, cutting off the frame just behind the ear. The person facing the subject should occupy about 1/3 of the frame.This shot helps to establish the positions of each person, and get the feel of looking at one person from the other's point of view. A variation of this shot can be a bit wider and include the shoulder of the person facing the subject.
    19. 19. Point-of-View Shot (POV) • Shows a view from the subject's perspective. This shot is usually edited in such a way that it is obvious whose POV it is.
    20. 20. High Angle  a high angle shot is usually when the camera is located above the eyeline.  With this type of angle, the camera looks down on the subject and the point of focus often get "swallowed up" by the setting.  High angle shots also make the figure or object seem vulnerable or powerless
    21. 21. Low Angle • a low angle shot is usually when the camera is located below the eyeline. • With this type of angle, the camera looks up towards the subject • Low angle shots also make the figure or object seem powerful
    22. 22. Birds Eye View  The scene is shown from directly above. This is a completely different and somewhat unnatural point of view which can be used for dramatic effect or for showing a different spatial perspective.  In drama it can be used to show the positions and motions of different characters and objects, enabling the viewer to see things the characters can't.
    23. 23. Worms Eye View • The scene is shown from directly below. This is a completely different and somewhat unnatural point of view which can be used for dramatic effect or for showing a different spatial perspective.
    24. 24. Slanted • Also known as a dutch tilt, this is where the camera is purposely tilted to one side so the horizon is on an angle. This creates an interesting and dramatic effect.
    25. 25. Zoom • An adjustment to the focal length of the camera making the it seem that we are getting closer to the subject • Zoom
    26. 26. Dolly • The camera is mounted on a trolly which travels on tracks. This allows for a very smooth movement and is mainly used for tracking shots or zooms • Dolly
    27. 27. Pan • A horizontal movement of the camera, either left of right • Pan
    28. 28. Tilt • Pointing the camera up and down (not moving the camera up and down) • Tilt
    29. 29. Pedestal • The camera moves up and down but remains level, making it different to a tilt • Pedestal
    30. 30. Tracking • Movement that stays a constant distance from the subject – can be used on a crane as well • Tracking
    31. 31. Composition  Composition is how we create the shot we want in the frame  There are 5 key rules to composing a great shot: • Simplicity • Rule of Thirds • Framing • Leading Lines • Balance
    32. 32. Simplicity • Don't place your primary subject against a busy or congested background. Each scene should have a single story to tell. To simplify your shot, you may need to alter the camera position, alter the size of the image, or select the right background.
    33. 33. Rule of Thirds • Mentally divide your viewfinder into thirds horizontally and vertically. • Lines of interest should occur at 1/3 or 2/3 of the way up (or across) the frame, rather than at the center. • In shots of people, the main line of interest is the imaginary line going through the subject's eyes. So try to place the eyes about 1/3 from the top of the screen.
    34. 34. Framing • Look for natural "frames" within your scene. • Also, beware of horizontal and vertical lines in the frame (edges of buildings, counter tops, picture frames, and so forth). Make sure the horizontal lines are level and the vertical lines are straight up and down.
    35. 35. Leading Lines • Direct the viewers' eyes with leading lines. Use leading lines to direct them to focus on the main subject of your shot. • The direction of the dominant lines in a picture has psychological connotations. – Horizontal - serenity and inactivity. – Vertical - strength and dignity. – Diagonal - action, imbalance, insecurity. – Curved - softness or movement.
    36. 36. Balance • There are two main forms of balance: • Symmetrical balance creates a formal appearance. • Asymmetrical balance creates a feeling of movement and suggests a creative and dynamic mood. • Use the form of balance that is most appropriate for your subject.
    37. 37. Cinematography Analysis • Watch the following sequence and analyse the cinematography of the scene. Pay close attention to the shot type, the camera angle, the camera movement and what the shot makes us feel • Luther - Cinematography
    38. 38. How do we Analyse a TV Drama – Mise-en-Scene – Camera shots / Camera Angle / Movement and Composition – Editing – Sound Discover
    39. 39. Editing Techniques • Editing is how individual shots are combined in sequence to convey certain meanings. The relationships between shots themselves convey certain meanings • Editing also serves to portray lived time in terms of film-time so that actual events that would take longer to occur in real time are truncated or reduced to fit into the film time of the typical two-hour film
    40. 40. Editing Techniques • Key Terminology: – Shot Duration – How long each shot lasts – Continuity Editing - In continuity editing everything is filmed so that the viewer thinks they are seeing continuous action. You will need to ensure that characters’ appearance, the set and the lighting (colour and direction) remain consistent from shot to shot. – Transitions - Fades and dissolves (or ‘cross-fades’) can add to the meaning of a sequence. – Montage - Not all editing is continuity editing. Title sequences often use ‘montage’, where the combination of contrasting images builds up meaning.
    41. 41. Transitions • Dissolves can be used to provide a slow, relaxed way of linking shots - eg in a ‘montage’ of different shots within an opening sequence. They can also be used in continuity editing to show that we have moved forward in time and/or space. • Fades to black and back are usually used to show that a more significant period of time has elapsed between two sequences. • Wipes and other unusual transitions are best avoided!
    42. 42. Editing Techniques • Match on Action – A technique used in continuity editing to convey a sense of continuity between shots • Match Cut – objects or images on the screen are matched to another similar object to show a connection between both objects
    43. 43. • Jump Cut – An abrupt, disorientating transitional device in the middle of a continuos shot in which the action is noticeably advanced in time and/or cut between two similar shots, usually done to create discontinuity for artistic effect. • Credits – the information at the beginning and end of a film, which gives details of cast and crew etc. • Cross Cutting – the editing technique of alternating, interweaving, or interspersing one narrative action (scene, sequence or event) with another – usually in different locations or places, thus combining the two: this editing technique usually suggests Parallel action (that takes place simultaneously). Often used to dramatically build tension and/or suspense in chase scenes or to compare two different scenes. Also known as inter-cutting or parallel editing. • Cutaways – A brief shot that momentarily interrupts continuous action by briefly inserting another related action. Object, or person (sometimes not part of the principle scene or main action), followed by a cutback to the original shot. • Freeze Frame – the effect of seemingly stopping a film in order to focus in on one event or element. • Eye-line Match – a type of edit which cuts from one character to what that character has been looking at. • Flashback – a scene or moment in a film in which the audience is shown an event that happened earlier in the film’s narrative. • Shot Reverse-Shot— Edits which switch back and forth between two characters interacting with eachother
    44. 44. Sound • Although film and television largely effect the audience because of what they see, sound also has a big impact on the audience. • The music used in film is known as the soundtrack. • It can be broken down into the following categories...
    45. 45. Diagetic Sound: Sound or music that is recorded on set as it happens. This will include dialogue and sounds which take place within the film e.g. a door closing, gun being fired, police siren. Non-Diagetic Sound: Music or sound which is added to the film during the editing process. Most often, non-diagetic sound is music, which is used to create atmosphere or emotion.
    46. 46. SOUND • Score – The musical component of a programme’s soundtrack, usually composed specifically for the scene. • Sound Effects – sounds that are added to a film during the post-production stage. Sound Motif- A sound effect or combination of sound effects that are associated with a particular character, setting, situation or idea. • Sound Bridge— Can lead in or out of a scene. They can occur at the beginning of one scene when the sound from the previous scene carries over briefly before the sound from the new scene begins.
    47. 47. • Dialogue— Words spoken by the characters Incidental music— non-diegetic sounds which add atmosphere to an action or revelation. • Ambient sound—the background sounds which are present in a scene or location. Common ambient sounds include wind, water, birds, crowds, office noises, traffic, etc. It performs a number of functions including: Providing audio continuity between shots, reventing an unnatural silence when no other sound is present and establishing or reinforcing the mood. • Sound Perspectives—The sense of a sound's position in space, yielded by volume and pitch. Used to create a more realistic sense of space, with events happening (that is, coming from) closer or further away. • Voiceover—When a voice, often that of a character in the film, is heard while we see an image of a space and time in which that character is not actually speaking. The voice over is often used to give a sense of a character's subjectivity or to narrate an event told in flashback. • Contrapuntal Sound – When the score juxtaposes the action in the scene for dramatic effect
    48. 48. Representation
    49. 49. Representation An image+ a point of view = representation
    50. 50. In exploring representation you need to establish.... • What view of people or issues is being conveyed to audiences? • How far is that view conveyed? • How far are audiences positioned to take up a preferred view? • How far do the representations challenge or conform to dominant representations and ideologies?
    51. 51. Representation • Representation refers to the construction in any medium of aspects of ‘reality’ such as people, places, objects, events, cultural identities and other abstract concepts. Such representations may be in speech or writing as well as still or moving pictures. • A key aspect in the study of representation concern is with the way in which representations are made to seem ‘natural’.
    52. 52. Representation • Media is all about taking reality (real life) and re-presenting it to an audience in a different way. This might be a re-presentation of real life e.g. BBC news, a manipulation of real life e.g. The Only Way is Essex or Made in Chelsea, or a fictional account e.g. Eastenders or Coronation Street. • All Media has a base in reality and the way we see different events or characters can have a real impact on the way we feel about a group of people or a major issue.
    53. 53. Representation • Representation plays a major role in our enjoyment of a Media text. The audience reads and decodes information in a number of ways, and this helps them to understand who a character is or what they might be feeling. • The audience is also influenced by what they see represented on screen • Look at the following TV characters – how do they make you feel about them?
    54. 54. Stereotypes • The easiest way for the audience to relate to a character or characters is to use Stereotypes • Stereotypes are when a character is created using a common set of ideas about a group of people. These ideas can be both positive and negative and can influence the way we view groups of people
    55. 55. Stereotypes • Whenever we look at a character on screen we need to work out who they are representing. The easiest way to do this to use the letters C.A.G.E. This stands for: • Class • Age • Gender • Ethnicity
    56. 56. Gender • What are the most common representations of Gender in the Media? • Can you draw 2 figures in your book and then label each with the most common representations you’d expect Develop
    57. 57. Common Gender Representations Typical Male Representations Typical Female Representations
    58. 58. Female Representations • Representations of women across all media tend to highlight the following: – beauty (within narrow conventions) – size/physique (again, within narrow conventions) – sexuality (as expressed by the above) – emotional (as opposed to intellectual) dealings – relationships (as opposed to independence/freedom) • Women are often represented as being part of a context (family, friends, colleagues) and working/thinking as part of a team. In drama, they tend to take the role of helper or object, passive rather than active (Propp).
    59. 59. Male Representations • 'Masculinity' is a concept that is made up of more rigid stereotypes than femininity. Representations of men across all media tend to focus on the following: – Strength - physical and intellectual – Power – Sexual attractiveness (which may be based on the above) – Physique – Independence (of thought, action) • Male characters are often represented as isolated, as not needing to rely on others (the lone hero). If they capitulate to being part of a family, it is often part of the resolution of a narrative, rather than an integral factor in the initial equilibrium. • It is interesting to note that the male physique is becoming more important a part of representations of masculinity.
    60. 60. Textual Analysis • In pairs, watch the following extract • Can you identify what the representation is? • Is it a positive or negative • Casulty - Gender
    61. 61. Exam Practice MES CW ED S Point Evidence Analysis • What is the Representation • Is it positive or negative?
    62. 62. Practice Pieces • Hustle - Jan 2011 Exam • Dr Who - Jan 2009 Exam • Primevil - June 2010 Exam • Fat Friends
    63. 63. Age Develop