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Basic Video Techniques JEA/NSPA Fall 2012


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Presentation from the Fall 2012 JEA/NSPA National Journalism Convention in San Antonio, TX. This session discussed basic rules and tips for video angles, composition, lighting and shooting for sound.

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Basic Video Techniques JEA/NSPA Fall 2012

  1. 1. Basic videographytechniques Don Goble Ladue Horton Watkins High School St. Louis, MO @dgoble2001 2760
  2. 2. News Feature from HEC-TV & other Goble videos with professionals: on the site, also visit the Video Production Tips page!
  3. 3. Goals for the SessionBuild some common languageTeach you new methods or validatewhat you are already doingPresentation will be uploaded to mySlideShare account for review
  4. 4. Ten Finger wide sound medium shot shot lighting nose reactionclose eyesshot background action
  5. 5. Wide • Long shot – LS/Wide shot - WS: shows the big picture from side to side and front to back--the location, the characters, and the relationship between characters & location; a persons entire body is visible on the screen. Head to toe • Extreme long shot – ELS: very distant view of subjects, relative to other shots • Establishing shot - ES: first seconds/minute of video, shows setting & sets mood in our broadcasts,
  6. 6. MediumMedium shot – MS: closer to scene; advances action & information to understand why of location & action; shows a person from the waist up.Medium close-up – MCU: shows a person from the chest up
  7. 7. TightClose-up – CU: on a single object; persons head & down to just below shoulder; reveals details of emotion & personality, tension & excitement on person’s faceExtreme close-up – ECU: relative to other shots, a small part of person’s body; it is OK to cut off the top of a persons head, but never cut off their chin--remember the rule of thirds about a persons eyes!
  8. 8. Critical Focus
  9. 9. Composition• Rule of Thirds• High Angle• Low Angle• Oblique/Canted Angle• Zoom In & Zoom Out• Pan Left & Pan Right• Eye Level• Hand Held Shots• The Bird’s Eye View
  10. 10. Framing• Rule of Thirds• Eyes on Third• No Head room• Nose Room• Shoot to edit protocol - give extra time• Always shoot in sequences • Wide • Medium • Tight
  11. 11. High Angle• Not so extreme as a birds eye view. The camera is elevated above the action using a crane to give a general overview.• High angles make the object photographed seem smaller, and less significant (or scary).• The object or character often gets swallowed up by their setting - they become part of a wider picture.
  12. 12. Low Angle• These increase height (useful for short actors like Tom Cruise) and give a sense of speeded motion.• Low angles help give a sense of confusion to a viewer, of powerlessness within the action of a scene.• The background of a low angle shot will tend to be just sky or ceiling, the lack of detail about the setting adding to the disorientation of the viewer.• The added height of the object may make it inspire fear and insecurity in the viewer, who is psychologically dominated by the figure on the screen.
  13. 13. Oblique/Canted Angle• Sometimes the camera is tilted (i.e. is not placed horizontal to floor level), to suggest imbalance, transition and instability (any Michael Bay movie).• This technique is used to suggest POV=Point-of-View shots (i.e. when the camera becomes the eyes of one particular character, seeing what they see - a hand held camera is often used for this).
  14. 14. Zoom In & Zoom Out • Slowly include a WS slow zoom to CU and hold the shot. • And then slowly begin a shot at a CU and zoom to a WS and hold the shot.
  15. 15. Pan Left & Pan Right• Moving the camera to the left or right side is called a Pan.• Can help follow action or show the landscape of your shot.• Must be used sparingly and slowly.
  16. 16. Eye Level • A fairly neutral shot • The camera is positioned as though it is a human actually observing a scene, so that actors heads are on a level with the focus. • The camera will be placed approximately five to six feet from the ground.
  17. 17. Hand Held Shots• The hand-held camera was invented in the 1950s to allow the camera operator to move in and out of scenes with greater speed.• It gives a jerky, ragged effect, totally at odds with the organized smoothness of a dolly shot, and is favored by filmmakers looking for a gritty realism (i.e. Scorsese), which involves the viewer very closely with a scene. Much favored by the makers of NYPD Blue.• If possible, ALWAYS use a Tripod when filming. Shaky shots can be VERY distracting.
  18. 18. The Bird’s Eye View • This shows a scene from directly overhead, a very unnatural and strange angle. • Familiar objects viewed from this angle might seem totally unrecognizable at first (umbrellas in a crowd, dancers legs). This shot does, however, put the audience in a godlike position, looking down on the action. • People can be made to look insignificant, ant-like, part of a wider scheme of things. • Hitchcock (and his admirers, like Brian de Palma) is fond of this style of shot.
  19. 19. Light• White Balance - use a sheet of white paper to help set• Natural Light• Florescent Lights• Light kits
  20. 20. Camera Placement• 180 degree rule
  21. 21. Crossing the Axis• 180 degree rule
  22. 22. Crossing the Axis• 180 degree rule
  23. 23. Crossing the Axis• 180 degree rule
  24. 24. Shooting Tips !Always:• Use a tripod• Use Manual focus on the camera• Be mindful of your light• Shoot more footage than you need from as many angles as possible• Zoom your feet, not only the lens
  25. 25. Shooting Tips !Always: • Remove hats and glasses (eyes are windows to the soul) • Avoid bright backgrounds (windows, whiteboards, etc.) • Get a variety of angles (not just eye level) • Avoid movement (pan & zoom while recording) • Shoot for sound
  26. 26. The Cell Phone - short film More 7 cam angle examples