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  • 1. Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition Solomon • Berg • Martin The Animal Body:The Animal Body: Introduction toIntroduction to Structure and FunctionStructure and Function
  • 2. Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 37 The Animal Body • Tissue consists of a group of closely associated, similar cells that carry out specific functions • Tissues associate to form organs, such as the heart • Groups of tissues and organs form organ systems
  • 3. Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 37 The Animal Body • Main types of animal tissue • Epithelial • Connective • Muscle • Nervous • Classification depends on structure and origin
  • 4. Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 37 The Animal Body • Epithelial tissue forms a continuous layer or sheet covering a body surface or lining a body cavity • Protection • Absorption • Secretion • Sensation
  • 5. Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 37 The Animal Body • Connective tissue consists of fewer cells separated by intercellular substance, fibers in a matrix • Collagen fibers • Elastic fibers • Reticular fibers
  • 6. Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 37 The Animal Body • Connective tissue contains specialized cells • Fibroblasts • Macrophages • Functions of connective tissue • Joins other tissues • Supports the body and its organs • Protects underlying organs
  • 7. Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 37 The Animal Body • Muscle tissue consists of cells specialized to contract • Each cell is an elongated muscle fiber containing contractile units called myofibrils
  • 8. Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 37 The Animal Body • Nervous tissue • Elongated cells called neurons –Specialized for transmitting impulses • Glial cells –Support and nourish neurons
  • 9. Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 37 The Animal Body • Types of epithelial cell shapes • Squamous • Cuboidal • Columnar • Type of epithelial tissue • Simple • Stratified • Pseudostratified
  • 10. Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 37 The Animal Body • Simple squamous epithelium • Lines blood vessels and air sacs in the lungs • Exchange of materials by diffusion
  • 11. Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 37 The Animal Body Simple squamous epithelium
  • 12. Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 37 The Animal Body • Simple cuboidal and columnar epithelium • Lines passageways • Specialized for secretion and absorption
  • 13. Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 37 The Animal Body Simple cuboidal epithelium
  • 14. Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 37 The Animal Body Simple columnar epithelium
  • 15. Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 37 The Animal Body • Stratified squamous epithelium • Outer layer of skin • Lines passageways into the body • Provides protection • Pseudostratified epithelium • Lines passageways • Protects underlying tissue
  • 16. Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 37 The Animal Body Stratified squamous epithelium
  • 17. Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 37 The Animal Body Pseudostratified epithelium
  • 18. Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 37 The Animal Body • Glands are formed from epithelial tissue • Goblet cells –Unicellular glands that secret mucus –Exocrine glands secrete onto an epithelial surface • Endocrine glands –Release hormones into interstitial fluid or blood
  • 19. Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 37 The Animal Body Glands
  • 20. Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 37 The Animal Body • Epithelial membrane • Sheet of epithelial tissue and a • Layer of underlying connective tissue • Mucous membrane • Lines a cavity that opens to the outside of the body • Serous membrane • Lines a cavity that does not open to the outside of the body
  • 21. Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 37 The Animal Body • Types of connective tissue • Loose connective tissue • Dense connective tissue • Elastic connective tissue • Adipose tissue • Cartilage • Bone • Blood
  • 22. Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 37 The Animal Body • Loose connective tissue • In the subcutaneous tissue • Between many body parts • Fibers in a semifluid matrix • Cartilage cells (chondroctyes) • In lacunae, small cavities in the cartilage matrix
  • 23. Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 37 The Animal Body Loose connective tissue
  • 24. Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 37 The Animal Body Cartilage
  • 25. Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 37 The Animal Body • Osteocytes • Secrete and maintain the matrix of bone • Compact bone consists of spindle-shaped units called osteons –Central blood vessel through a Haversian canal surrounded by lamellae
  • 26. Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 37 The Animal Body Bone
  • 27. Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 37 The Animal Body • Skeletal muscle • Striated • Under voluntary control • Each elongated, cylindrical muscle fiber has several nuclei
  • 28. Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 37 The Animal Body • Cardiac muscle • Striated • Contraction is involuntary • Elongated, cylindrical fibers branch and fuse • Each fiber has one or two nuclei
  • 29. Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 37 The Animal Body • Smooth muscle • Contracts involuntarily • Elongated, spindle-shaped fibers lack striation • Each fiber has a central nucleus • Responsible for movement of food through the digestive tract
  • 30. Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 37 The Animal Body Muscle tissues
  • 31. Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 37 The Animal Body • Elongated neurons receive and transmit information • Dendrites receive signals and transmit them to the cell body • Axon transmits signal to other neurons, a muscle, or a gland • Synapse is a junction between neurons
  • 32. Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 37 The Animal Body Nervous tissue
  • 33. Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 37 The Animal Body •Organ systems • Integumentary • Skeletal • Muscular • Nervous • Endocrine • Circulatory
  • 34. Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 37 The Animal Body •Organ systems • Lymphatic • Respiratory • Digestive • Urinary • Reproductive
  • 35. Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 37 The Animal Body • Homeostasis • Automatic tendency to maintain a balanced internal environment • Dynamic equilibrium maintained by negative feedback systems • Regulators respond to counteract changes caused by stressors
  • 36. Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 37 The Animal Body Homeostasis
  • 37. Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 37 The Animal Body • Thermoregulation • Homeostatic mechanisms for regulating body temperature • Physiological • Structural • Behavioral
  • 38. Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 37 The Animal Body • Ectotherms • Body temperature varies with the environment • Very little energy used • Less food needed • Activity may be limited by daily and seasonal temperatures
  • 39. Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 37 The Animal Body • Endotherms • Mechanisms to maintain body temperature in a narrow range • Increased enzyme activity • Activity even in low winter temperatures • High energy cost
  • 40. Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 37 The Animal Body • Acclimatization • Process of adjustment to seasonal changes • Torpor –Adaptive hypothermia • Hibernation –Long-term torpor in winter cold • Estivation –Torpor caused by lack of food or water in summer heat