Cell tissues and organs


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Cell tissues and organs

  1. 1. Cell tissues and organs B M Subramanya Swamy M.Sc. B.Ed. CIE Co ordinator & Examination Officer Kanaan Global School Jakarta Indonesia swamy@kanaanglobal.sch.id
  2. 2. Cell tissues and organs •Introduction •Specialized cells •Body structure •Organ system
  3. 3. Introduction • Specialized cells are adapted to perform specific roles • Within an organism there are various types of specialized cells • Differentiation is the process that allows cells and tissues to develop special structures and functions • Tissues are a group of similar cells that are specialized for the same function • Different types of tissues work together to form an organ
  4. 4. Specialized cells Root hair cells Xylem vessels Red blood cells Characteristics Unicellular found behind root tip Outgrowth of epidermal cells Row of cells Vessels form a hallow cylindrical tubes of cells Flattened biconcave disc No nucleus Contains hemoglobin
  5. 5. Root hair cells Xylem vessels Red blood cells Specialization Long and narrow thus increases its surface area Large vacuole with salt and sugar solution making it more concentrated than the surrounding soil water Cell wall thickened and impregnated with lignin Narrow lumen to aid capillary action Hallow vessel allows water to fill it Long vessel to reach distances between root and shoot Shape and flexibility allows it to pas through the narrowest vessels Shape increases surface area for diffusion of oxygen Cytoplasm with Hb to pick up more oxygen Lack of nucleus provides more space for Hb
  6. 6. Root hair cells Xylem vessel Red blood cell Functions Absorption of water and dissolved minerals salts from the soil Provides mechanical strength to plant body Conducts water and mineral salts from root to shoot Mainly to transport oxygen in the hemoglobin to area in the deprived of it
  7. 7. Body structure Tissues • Cells are arranged according to their type and function • A tissues is a group of similar cells that perform a specific function
  8. 8. Main tissues in animals Tissue type Types of cells Function Epithelial tissues Layer of lining or cover Cells usually placed end to end Covers the external surface Serves as a protective lining Some form glands E.g. Digestive gland
  9. 9. Tissue types Types of cells Function Connective tissue Bone cartilage Blood Joins body structure together Provides protection and support Has the ability to store or transport materials
  10. 10. Tissue type Types of cells Functions Muscular tissue Nervous system Muscles in arms heart etc Brain cells Locomotion Breathing Peristalsis Conduct nerve impulses throughout the body
  11. 11. Main tissues in plants Tissues types Types of cells Function Epidermal tissue One layer of cells May be covered with a waxy cuticle Covers surface of plant Protects from physical damage and infection Reduce water loss
  12. 12. Meristematic tissue Undifferentiated cells Undergoes cell division to produce new Vascular tissue Vascular bundle of xylem phloem cambium Transport water and mineral salts Transport food Provide support New tissue growth in the cambium Photosynthetic Cells with chloroplasts Cells with chlorophyll Absorption of sunlight photosynthesis
  13. 13. Organs • Some tissues work together ad an organ • A structure with two or more types of tissues that work together for a specific function
  14. 14. Plant and Animal organ Types of organ Function Leaf Photosynthesis Transpiration Flower Reproduction
  15. 15. Types of organ Function Alimentary canal To digest food Nose trachea lungs Gaseous exchange Heart blood Transport oxygen and dissolved substances
  16. 16. Organ system • A group of organs working together to perform a specific function
  17. 17. Organ system Function Integumentary system (skin) Waterproof barrier Regulates temperature Circulatory system Regulates body temperature Transports food wastes and gases to and from cells Respiratory system Takes in oxygen Release carbon di oxide
  18. 18. Muscular system Movements of parts of the body Muscles found in internal organs serves to move substances in the organs Skeletal system Supports body Protects internal organ Lymphatic system Filters bacteria Digestive system Takes in and breaks down food Absorbs nutrients Undigested food is eliminated
  19. 19. Excretory system Removes wastes from the body (includes lungs and skin) Nervous system Control and co-ordinate body movements Transmit information from the brain Immune system Defends against infection Endocrine system Secrete hormones Produce response in the body Reproductive system Produce sex cells Protects and nourishes young during development