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Classification
The Concept and Use Of Classification System.
By: zainab Kulsoom.
Learning Objectives
• After lesson , students will be able to:
• Understand that organisms can be classified into groups by the
features they share
• Describe a species as a group of organisms that can reproduce to
produce fertile offspring
• Describe the binomial system of naming species as an internationally
agreed system in which the scientific name of an organism is made up
of two parts showing the genus and species
• Construct and use dichotomous keys based on identifiable features
Classification Of Organisms
• Definition
• Organisms are grouped together on the basis of same features.
• Organisms are grouped together on the of feeding mechanism.
• Organisms are grouped together on the basis of respiration.
• Organsims are grouped together on the basis of their survival.
An overview of classification System.
What are the species?
• The biological classification has seven different levels.
• Species is the first one.
• Definition.
• A group of organisms that can potentially interbreed with one
another to produce viable and fertile offspring.
• Species is the smallest group in biological classification system.
Examples of species.
Binomial System Of classification
• It’s an international system of classifying the organisms which uses
Latin words.
• The name of an organism is written in two parts, i.e; the genus and
the species.
• Both are written in italics.
• A Swedish Botanist Carl Linnaeus proposed this system.
• According to him , each organism’s name is written in two parts, the
first part shows us the group to which specific plant or animal belongs
and the last part tells us about the species.
Examples of Binomial System.
• Tomato: Lycopersicum ascolentum
• Humans: Homo sapiens.
• Housefly: Musca domestica.
• Onion: Alium sativum.
• Cat: Felis catus.
Dichotomous Key
• Definition
• The word di means two. Basically it’s used to identify and categorize
organisms.
• This key helps an individual to place the organisms in their respective
groups according to the features they share.
• A method used to identify a species by answering a series of
questions based on contrasting features (eg: physical characteristics)
that have two possible outcomes.
• While making a dichotomous key, we need top study and observe the
physical features as well as some other factors like height, weight etc.
• All these things help us to categorize the organism accordingly.
Examples of Dichotomous key in Plants.
Dichotomous key in animals.
Learning Objectives
• State the main features used to place all organisms into one of the
five kingdoms: Animal, Plant, Fungus, Prokaryote, Protoctist.
• State the main features used to place organisms into groups within
the animal kingdom, limited to: (a) the main groups of vertebrates:
mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish
• State the main features used to place organisms into groups within
the animal kingdom, limited to:
• the main groups of arthropods: myriapods, insects, arachnids,
crustaceans
Organisms are classified on the basis of their
features.
Kingdom Animal
Kingdom Plant
Kingdom Fungus
Kingdom Prokaryote
Kingdom Protoctist
Characteristics Of Prokaryotes
• Unicellular and Microscopic.
• Non-membrane bound (no nuclear
membrane and no mitochondia).
• Cell wall made of murein.
• Mode of nutrition is autotrophic.
(photosynthesising bacteria, make use of
light).
• Examples: Bacteria or Cyanobacteria
Characteristics Of Protoctista
• Mainly small eukaryotic organisms.
• Many live in aquatic environments.
• This is usually the kingdom where organisms
which aren’t animals, plants or fungi are
found.
• They can be both autotrophic or
heterotrophic.
• Examples: Algae and Paramecium.
Characteristics Of Fungi.
• Eukaryotic
• Multicellular
• Cell wall made of chitin.
• The members of this kingdom don’t possess
photosynthetic pigments and are
therefore heterotrophic ( depend on other
organisms for their food).
• Examples: Mushroom, Mold etc.
Characteristics Of Plants.
• Eukaryotic
• Multicellular
• Cell wall made of cellulose.
• Members of the plantae
group contain photosynthetic
pigment and gain their energy
through it and are
therefore autotrophic (can
make their own food).
Animal Kingdom
• A kingdom is a category of living
organism.
• Animals are the multicellular
organisms, have no cell wall and
chloroplast. Hence they are
unable to make food.
• The animal kingdom includes all
the animals but are divided into
two different groups.
• a.Vertebrates
• b.Invertebrates
• (Book Pg:25)
Vertebrates (Book Pg:29)
• Vertebrates are the animals
which have a vertebral
column.
• It’s sometimes called as spine
or spinal column and consists
of a chain of cylindrical bones
(Vertebrae) joined to each
other.
• Vertebrates are further
divided into 5 classes.
a. Fish
b. Amphibians
c. Reptiles
d. Birds
e. Mammals.
Cold Blooded & Warm Blooded
• The animals that are capable to maintain their body temperature are
referred as warm blooded animals.
• The advantage of being warm blooded is that an animals’s activity is
not dependent on the surrounding’s temperature.
• e.g; Birds and Mammals.
• The animals which cannot maintain their body temperature are called
as cold blooded animals.
• e.g; Fish, Amphibians & Reptiles.
Class Fish
• Characteristics.
• Cold blooded vertebrates
• Streamlined body shape, smooth that
helps them to move through the water
easily.
• Fins are majorly helping in movement.
• Body is also covered with overlapping
scales.
• Respiration in fish is done through gills
which are covered with operculum.
• Mode of reproduction is sexual in fish
but fertilization takes place outside the
body.
Amphibians
• Cold blooded animals with no scales on their body and have four
limbs.
• The name amphibians mean “double life” which means these
organism spend half of their life in water and half on land.
• e.g;.frog, toad.
• Both frog and toad live on land but for the process of reproduction,
they move into water body.
• Amphibians have webbed feet that helps them to push water.
• Respiration is done through skin of amphibians so their skin is moist.
Reptiles
• Also called as land living vertebrates.
• Have dry skin with scales on it.
• Dry skin of reptiles reduce water loss.
• Reptiles lay eggs so egg has a tough paper like shell.
• Reptiles are limited to damp habitats and don’t need water for the
process of reproduction.
• e.g; crocodiles, alligator, lizard, Chamaeleon, turtles, snakes, tortoises.
Birds
• Warm blooded vertebrates.
• They have a powerful wing muscles with rigid frame to work against
it.
• Body is covered with feathers but legs and feet are covered with
scales.
• Variety of feathers can be found in birds.
• Birds have four limbs, the forelimbs are modified to wings for flight.
The feet have four toes which help them to hold the prey or capture
seeds etc.
Mammals. (Pg:31)
• The largest and complex class of chordates.
• Animals are warm blooded.
• Four limbs are present.
• They are differentiated from birds because of hair. Feathers are absent in
mammals.
• A well developed respiratory system is present also mammary glands are present
to feed their newborns with milk.
• Humans are also mammals as they give birth to babies.
• Mode of reproduction is completely sexual.
• Some mammals are capable to stand up and move right after birth (e.g; sheep
and goat)
• Mammals are heterotrophs and feed on other organisms.
Invertebrates
• Arthropods are invertebrate animals having an exoskeleton called
cuticle which encloses their bodies.
• a segmented body (made up of several sections) and between the
segments, there are flexible joints which allow movement.
• paired jointed limbs.
• The segments are grouped together to form distinct regions, the
head, thorax ( the central part) and abdomen (the part behind the
body).
Crustaceans
• They have an exoskeleton
• Jointed limbs
• Two pairs of antennae. Arthropods use antennae to touch, smell, and
even hear the world. From featherlike to clubbed, see the wide
variety of antennae. Antennae are segmented appendages attached
to the head above the mouthparts, with important sensory functions,
including touch, smell, and in some cases hearing.
• Gills (as they are aquatic)
• Compound eyes (compound eyes can cover a wider angle compared
to simple eyes).
Examples of crustaceans
Insects
• Insects form the very large class of arthropods.
• They also have an exoskeleton
• Three pairs of jointed legs,
• Compound eyes and usually two pairs of wings
• The segments are grouped into distinct head, thorax and abdomen
regions.
• One pair of antenna.
• The cuticle prevents water loss from inside of the body and stops
water entering the body. (thus preventing the body of insects from
drying out in hot, dry climate)
Examples Of Insects.
Arachnids
• Four pairs of legs (eight total).
• Arachnids also have two additional pairs of appendages (projections).
One pair is used mainly for reproduction and other for piercing their
prey and paralyze it with a poison. ( poison is secreted by a gland at
the base).
• There are usually several pairs of simple eyes.
• Arachnids do not have antennae or wings.
• The arachnid body is organized into the cephalothorax, a fusion of the
head and thorax, and the abdomen.
Examples Of Arachnids
Myriapods
• Many pairs of legs on each body segment.
• They have a head and a segmented body that is not clearly divided
into thorax and abdomen.
• One pair of antennae on the head.
• They have simple eyes.
• As the myriapod grows, extra segments are formed.
• Respiratory exchange occurring through a tracheal system.
• Centipedes are carnivores (feeding on other animals)
• Millipedes are herbivores. (feeding on plants)
Examples Of Myriapods.
Objectives.
• State the main features used to place organisms into groups within
the plant kingdom, limited to ferns and flowering plants (dicotyledons
and monocotyledons)
• Classify organisms using the features identified in 2.2.1, 2.2.2 and
2.2.3 5
• State the main features of viruses, limited to protein coat and genetic
material
• Understand that viruses can only replicate in living cells
The Plant Kingdom
• Plants are multicellular.
• Outside wall is made up of cellulose.
• A photosynthetic pigment, chloroplast is present that carry out the
process of photosynthesis.
• Plants are autotrophs.
• They are the producers of our environment.
• There are several plants on planet earth that have several different
features.
Ferns
• Land plants with well developed structures.
• Ferns lack flowers but have similar structure of stem, leaves and roots
of flowering plants.
• A horizontal underground stem is present.
• Roots directly grow from the stem.
• Water conducting tubes (Sieve tubes) are present just like xylem and
phloem in other plants.
• The structure of leaves is somewhat different from the other plants.
Leaves Of Ferns.
• The leaves of ferns
are different.
• Upper and lower
epidermis is present
with a layer of
palisade cells and a
spongy mesophyll
cells.
Spores In Ferns
• Single celled spores are
produced by the ferns.
• These are produced on
the lower side of the leaf.
• Gametes are produced by
ferns but usually ferns lack
seeds.
Flowering Plants
• Flowering Plants reproduce by seeds.
• Seeds are formed in flowers in ovary part of it.
• Flowering plants are divided into two types;
• (a)Dicotyledons (Dicot in short).
• (b)Monocotyledons (Monocot in short).
Dicot Plants.
• Flowering plants that
have two seed leaves are
called as dicot plants.
• Seed leaves are actually
the two halves of the
seeds that store food.
• The leaves of dicot plants
are large and veins are
present .
• Examples: Flowering
plants, fruits.
Monocot Plants.
• Monocots have one
seed leaf.
• Such plants have long
and narrow leaves.
• Parallel leaf veins are
present.
• Examples: Corn, Maize
etc.
Viruses
• Different types of viruses are present.
• The difference is due to their shape and structure.
• All viruses have RNA or DNA.
• It’s coated with protein coat.
• Protein coat is called as capsid.
• Viruses don’t have nucleus, cytoplasm, cell organelles or cell membrane.
• so, viruses are not cells.
• They don’t feed, respire, excrete or grow.
• Viruses also reproduce but only when they are present inside an organism’s
body.
Viruses Replicate
The End

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Chapter: 3 "Classification"

  • 1. Classification The Concept and Use Of Classification System. By: zainab Kulsoom.
  • 2. Learning Objectives • After lesson , students will be able to: • Understand that organisms can be classified into groups by the features they share • Describe a species as a group of organisms that can reproduce to produce fertile offspring • Describe the binomial system of naming species as an internationally agreed system in which the scientific name of an organism is made up of two parts showing the genus and species • Construct and use dichotomous keys based on identifiable features
  • 3. Classification Of Organisms • Definition • Organisms are grouped together on the basis of same features. • Organisms are grouped together on the of feeding mechanism. • Organisms are grouped together on the basis of respiration. • Organsims are grouped together on the basis of their survival.
  • 4. An overview of classification System.
  • 5. What are the species? • The biological classification has seven different levels. • Species is the first one. • Definition. • A group of organisms that can potentially interbreed with one another to produce viable and fertile offspring. • Species is the smallest group in biological classification system.
  • 7.
  • 8. Binomial System Of classification • It’s an international system of classifying the organisms which uses Latin words. • The name of an organism is written in two parts, i.e; the genus and the species. • Both are written in italics. • A Swedish Botanist Carl Linnaeus proposed this system. • According to him , each organism’s name is written in two parts, the first part shows us the group to which specific plant or animal belongs and the last part tells us about the species.
  • 9. Examples of Binomial System. • Tomato: Lycopersicum ascolentum • Humans: Homo sapiens. • Housefly: Musca domestica. • Onion: Alium sativum. • Cat: Felis catus.
  • 10. Dichotomous Key • Definition • The word di means two. Basically it’s used to identify and categorize organisms. • This key helps an individual to place the organisms in their respective groups according to the features they share. • A method used to identify a species by answering a series of questions based on contrasting features (eg: physical characteristics) that have two possible outcomes.
  • 11. • While making a dichotomous key, we need top study and observe the physical features as well as some other factors like height, weight etc. • All these things help us to categorize the organism accordingly.
  • 12. Examples of Dichotomous key in Plants.
  • 13. Dichotomous key in animals.
  • 14. Learning Objectives • State the main features used to place all organisms into one of the five kingdoms: Animal, Plant, Fungus, Prokaryote, Protoctist. • State the main features used to place organisms into groups within the animal kingdom, limited to: (a) the main groups of vertebrates: mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish • State the main features used to place organisms into groups within the animal kingdom, limited to: • the main groups of arthropods: myriapods, insects, arachnids, crustaceans
  • 15. Organisms are classified on the basis of their features. Kingdom Animal Kingdom Plant Kingdom Fungus Kingdom Prokaryote Kingdom Protoctist
  • 16. Characteristics Of Prokaryotes • Unicellular and Microscopic. • Non-membrane bound (no nuclear membrane and no mitochondia). • Cell wall made of murein. • Mode of nutrition is autotrophic. (photosynthesising bacteria, make use of light). • Examples: Bacteria or Cyanobacteria
  • 17. Characteristics Of Protoctista • Mainly small eukaryotic organisms. • Many live in aquatic environments. • This is usually the kingdom where organisms which aren’t animals, plants or fungi are found. • They can be both autotrophic or heterotrophic. • Examples: Algae and Paramecium.
  • 18. Characteristics Of Fungi. • Eukaryotic • Multicellular • Cell wall made of chitin. • The members of this kingdom don’t possess photosynthetic pigments and are therefore heterotrophic ( depend on other organisms for their food). • Examples: Mushroom, Mold etc.
  • 19. Characteristics Of Plants. • Eukaryotic • Multicellular • Cell wall made of cellulose. • Members of the plantae group contain photosynthetic pigment and gain their energy through it and are therefore autotrophic (can make their own food).
  • 20. Animal Kingdom • A kingdom is a category of living organism. • Animals are the multicellular organisms, have no cell wall and chloroplast. Hence they are unable to make food. • The animal kingdom includes all the animals but are divided into two different groups. • a.Vertebrates • b.Invertebrates • (Book Pg:25)
  • 21. Vertebrates (Book Pg:29) • Vertebrates are the animals which have a vertebral column. • It’s sometimes called as spine or spinal column and consists of a chain of cylindrical bones (Vertebrae) joined to each other. • Vertebrates are further divided into 5 classes. a. Fish b. Amphibians c. Reptiles d. Birds e. Mammals.
  • 22. Cold Blooded & Warm Blooded • The animals that are capable to maintain their body temperature are referred as warm blooded animals. • The advantage of being warm blooded is that an animals’s activity is not dependent on the surrounding’s temperature. • e.g; Birds and Mammals. • The animals which cannot maintain their body temperature are called as cold blooded animals. • e.g; Fish, Amphibians & Reptiles.
  • 23. Class Fish • Characteristics. • Cold blooded vertebrates • Streamlined body shape, smooth that helps them to move through the water easily. • Fins are majorly helping in movement. • Body is also covered with overlapping scales. • Respiration in fish is done through gills which are covered with operculum. • Mode of reproduction is sexual in fish but fertilization takes place outside the body.
  • 24.
  • 25. Amphibians • Cold blooded animals with no scales on their body and have four limbs. • The name amphibians mean “double life” which means these organism spend half of their life in water and half on land. • e.g;.frog, toad. • Both frog and toad live on land but for the process of reproduction, they move into water body. • Amphibians have webbed feet that helps them to push water. • Respiration is done through skin of amphibians so their skin is moist.
  • 26.
  • 27. Reptiles • Also called as land living vertebrates. • Have dry skin with scales on it. • Dry skin of reptiles reduce water loss. • Reptiles lay eggs so egg has a tough paper like shell. • Reptiles are limited to damp habitats and don’t need water for the process of reproduction. • e.g; crocodiles, alligator, lizard, Chamaeleon, turtles, snakes, tortoises.
  • 28.
  • 29. Birds • Warm blooded vertebrates. • They have a powerful wing muscles with rigid frame to work against it. • Body is covered with feathers but legs and feet are covered with scales. • Variety of feathers can be found in birds. • Birds have four limbs, the forelimbs are modified to wings for flight. The feet have four toes which help them to hold the prey or capture seeds etc.
  • 30.
  • 31. Mammals. (Pg:31) • The largest and complex class of chordates. • Animals are warm blooded. • Four limbs are present. • They are differentiated from birds because of hair. Feathers are absent in mammals. • A well developed respiratory system is present also mammary glands are present to feed their newborns with milk. • Humans are also mammals as they give birth to babies. • Mode of reproduction is completely sexual. • Some mammals are capable to stand up and move right after birth (e.g; sheep and goat) • Mammals are heterotrophs and feed on other organisms.
  • 32.
  • 33. Invertebrates • Arthropods are invertebrate animals having an exoskeleton called cuticle which encloses their bodies. • a segmented body (made up of several sections) and between the segments, there are flexible joints which allow movement. • paired jointed limbs. • The segments are grouped together to form distinct regions, the head, thorax ( the central part) and abdomen (the part behind the body).
  • 34. Crustaceans • They have an exoskeleton • Jointed limbs • Two pairs of antennae. Arthropods use antennae to touch, smell, and even hear the world. From featherlike to clubbed, see the wide variety of antennae. Antennae are segmented appendages attached to the head above the mouthparts, with important sensory functions, including touch, smell, and in some cases hearing. • Gills (as they are aquatic) • Compound eyes (compound eyes can cover a wider angle compared to simple eyes).
  • 36. Insects • Insects form the very large class of arthropods. • They also have an exoskeleton • Three pairs of jointed legs, • Compound eyes and usually two pairs of wings • The segments are grouped into distinct head, thorax and abdomen regions. • One pair of antenna. • The cuticle prevents water loss from inside of the body and stops water entering the body. (thus preventing the body of insects from drying out in hot, dry climate)
  • 38. Arachnids • Four pairs of legs (eight total). • Arachnids also have two additional pairs of appendages (projections). One pair is used mainly for reproduction and other for piercing their prey and paralyze it with a poison. ( poison is secreted by a gland at the base). • There are usually several pairs of simple eyes. • Arachnids do not have antennae or wings. • The arachnid body is organized into the cephalothorax, a fusion of the head and thorax, and the abdomen.
  • 40. Myriapods • Many pairs of legs on each body segment. • They have a head and a segmented body that is not clearly divided into thorax and abdomen. • One pair of antennae on the head. • They have simple eyes. • As the myriapod grows, extra segments are formed. • Respiratory exchange occurring through a tracheal system. • Centipedes are carnivores (feeding on other animals) • Millipedes are herbivores. (feeding on plants)
  • 42. Objectives. • State the main features used to place organisms into groups within the plant kingdom, limited to ferns and flowering plants (dicotyledons and monocotyledons) • Classify organisms using the features identified in 2.2.1, 2.2.2 and 2.2.3 5 • State the main features of viruses, limited to protein coat and genetic material • Understand that viruses can only replicate in living cells
  • 43. The Plant Kingdom • Plants are multicellular. • Outside wall is made up of cellulose. • A photosynthetic pigment, chloroplast is present that carry out the process of photosynthesis. • Plants are autotrophs. • They are the producers of our environment. • There are several plants on planet earth that have several different features.
  • 44. Ferns • Land plants with well developed structures. • Ferns lack flowers but have similar structure of stem, leaves and roots of flowering plants. • A horizontal underground stem is present. • Roots directly grow from the stem. • Water conducting tubes (Sieve tubes) are present just like xylem and phloem in other plants. • The structure of leaves is somewhat different from the other plants.
  • 45. Leaves Of Ferns. • The leaves of ferns are different. • Upper and lower epidermis is present with a layer of palisade cells and a spongy mesophyll cells.
  • 46.
  • 47. Spores In Ferns • Single celled spores are produced by the ferns. • These are produced on the lower side of the leaf. • Gametes are produced by ferns but usually ferns lack seeds.
  • 48. Flowering Plants • Flowering Plants reproduce by seeds. • Seeds are formed in flowers in ovary part of it. • Flowering plants are divided into two types; • (a)Dicotyledons (Dicot in short). • (b)Monocotyledons (Monocot in short).
  • 49. Dicot Plants. • Flowering plants that have two seed leaves are called as dicot plants. • Seed leaves are actually the two halves of the seeds that store food. • The leaves of dicot plants are large and veins are present . • Examples: Flowering plants, fruits.
  • 50.
  • 51. Monocot Plants. • Monocots have one seed leaf. • Such plants have long and narrow leaves. • Parallel leaf veins are present. • Examples: Corn, Maize etc.
  • 52.
  • 53. Viruses • Different types of viruses are present. • The difference is due to their shape and structure. • All viruses have RNA or DNA. • It’s coated with protein coat. • Protein coat is called as capsid. • Viruses don’t have nucleus, cytoplasm, cell organelles or cell membrane. • so, viruses are not cells. • They don’t feed, respire, excrete or grow. • Viruses also reproduce but only when they are present inside an organism’s body.
  • 54.