Somatoform disorders

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Somatoform disorders

  1. 1. Somatoform disorders Dr. Faisal Al Hadad Consultant of Family Medicine & Occupational Health PSMMC
  2. 2. Somatoform disorders The somatoform disorders are a group of psychiatric disorders in which patients present with a myriad of clinically significant but . unexplained physical symptoms        Somatization disorder Undifferentiated somatoform disorder Hypochondriasis Conversion disorder Pain disorder Body dysmorphic disorder Somatoform disorder not otherwise specified.
  3. 3. Diagnosis Factitious disorder and malingering, must be excluded before .diagnosing a somatoform disorder  In factitious disorder, patients adopt physical symptoms for unconscious internal gain (i.e., the patient desires to take on the role of being sick)  Malingering involves the purposeful feigning of physical symptoms for external gain (e.g., financial or legal benefit, avoidance of undesirable situations).  In somatoform disorders, there are no obvious gains or incentives for the patient, and the physical symptoms are not deliberately adopted or feigned.
  4. 4. Characteristics The physical symptoms: (1) Cannot be fully explained by a general medical condition, another mental disorder, or the effects of a substance. (2) Are not the result of factitious disorder or malingering (3) Cause significant impairment in social, occupational, or other functioning.
  5. 5. Somatization disorder  More common in women than men  Patients with this disorder present with unexplained physical symptoms including at least two GI complaints, four pain symptoms, one pseudoneurologic problem, and one sexual symptom.  Patients with this disorder often have made frequent clinical visits, had multiple imaging and laboratory tests, and had numerous referrals made to work up their diverse symptoms.
  6. 6. Conversion disorder  Conversion disorder involves a single symptom related to voluntary motor or sensory functioning suggesting a neurologic condition and referred to as pseudoneurologic.  Conversion symptoms typically do not conform to known anatomic pathways or physiologic mechanisms.
  7. 7. Pain disorder  The pain is associated with psychological factors at its onset (e.g., unexplained chronic headache that began after a significant stressful life event),  Patients with pain disorder use the health care system frequently, make substantial use of medication, and have relational problems in marriage, work, or family.
  8. 8. Hypochondriasis  Patients with hypochondriasis misinterpret physical symptoms and fixate on the fear of having a lifethreatening medical condition.  These patients must have a nondelusional preoccupation with their symptom or symptoms for at least six months before the diagnosis can be made.  The predominant characteristic is the fear patients exhibit when discussing their symptoms
  9. 9. Body dysmorphic disorder  Body dysmorphic disorder involves a debilitating preoccupation with a physical defect, real or imagined.  In the case of a real physical imperfection, the defect is usually slight but the patient’s concern is excessive.
  10. 10. Somatoform disorder not otherwise specified  Conditions that do not meet the full criteria for the other somatoform disorders, but have physical symptoms that are misinterpreted or exaggerated with resultant impairment.  A variety of conditions come under this diagnosis, including pseudocyesis (the mistaken belief of being pregnant based on actual signs of pregnancy).
  11. 11. Case 1 A 27-year-old female presents with the following symptoms: chest pain, nausea, periodic vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, double vision, back pain, dysuria, headache, .and irregular menses What is the most likely diagnosis?
  12. 12. Case 2 A 23-year-old female comes to your office with a chief complaint of having a "prominent jaw". She has been seen by a number of plastic surgeon for this problem but every .one has refused to do anything On examination: normal appearance of the jaw ?What is the most likely diagnosis
  13. 13. Case 3 A 29-year-old patient comes to the ER with a complaint of "having suddenly gone blind". The visual impairment that she describes is bilateral and associated with numbness and weakness in both .lower extremities Lower limbs examination reveals normal deep tendon reflexes and diminished motor strength and . sensation not following anatomic pathways ?What is the most likely diagnosis
  14. 14. Case 4 A 41-year-old male comes to you requesting a "complete cancer checkup". He provides a list of the tests he wishes to have done including complete laboratory profile and colonoscopy. He is afraid that he has colon cancer because a close relative was diagnosed with colon cancer 2 years ago. He admits that this fear is greatly interfering with his work and .social life ? What is the most likely diagnosis
  15. 15. Discussing the diagnosis  Consider and discuss the possibility of the disorder with the patient after ruling out organic pathology as the primary etiology for the symptoms.  The physician must first build a therapeutic alliance with the patient by: - Acknowledging the patient’s discomfort with his or her unexplained physical symptoms - Maintaining a high degree of empathy toward the patient during all encounters.  The physician should review with the patient the diagnostic criteria for the suspected somatoform disorder, explaining the disorder, with information regarding etiology, epidemiology and treatment.
  16. 16. Therapy  Once the diagnosis is made and the patient accepts the diagnosis, the physician may treat any psychiatric comorbidities.  Psychiatric comorbidities include depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, personality disorder, and substance abuse disorder.  CBT has been found to be an effective treatment of somatoform disorders.  CBT focuses on cognitive distortions, unrealistic beliefs, worry, and behaviors that cause health anxiety and somatic symptoms.
  17. 17. Referral to mental health professional  Making the initial diagnosis of a somatoform disorder  Confirming  Providing a comorbid diagnosis treatment.
  18. 18. Follow-up A schedule of regular, brief follow-up office visits with the physician is an . important aspect of treatment - Maintains the therapeutic alliance with the physician - Provides a climate of openness and willingness to help. - Allows the patient an outlet for worry about illness and the opportunity to be reassured repeatedly that the symptoms are not signs of a physical disorder. - Allows the physician to confront problems or issues proactively. - Prevent frequent and unnecessary between-visit contacts and reduce excessive health care use.
  19. 19. Thank you

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