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OCD power point.

  1. 1. OCDObsessive-Compulsive Disorder<br />Stephanie Underhill<br />
  2. 2. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is an anxiety disorder in which people have unwanted and repeated thoughts, feelings, ideas, sensations (obsessions), or behaviors that make them feel driven to do something (compulsions).<br />Often the person carries out the behaviors to get rid of the obsessive thoughts, but this only provides temporary relief. Not performing the obsessive rituals can cause great anxiety.<br />Definitions<br />
  3. 3. Persistent, recurring thought (obsessions) that reflect exaggerated anxiety or fears.<br />Typical obsessions include worry about being contaminated, behaving improperly, or acting violently.<br />Obsessive washing hands, repeating phrases.<br />More about OCD<br />
  4. 4. About 20% of people with OCD have tics, which suggests the condition may be related to Tourette syndrome. However, this link is not clear.<br />OCD is a common psychiatric disorder, affecting approximately 2.2 million American adults each year.<br />People with OCD often go several years without treatment<br />OCD has a detrimental impact on many factors of quality of life, including level of education, employment status, and financial independence. No OCD medications have been shown to improve quality of life. <br />Statistics<br />
  5. 5. OCD most often begins in adolescence or early adulthood.<br />Most recognize their obsessions are irrational and that the compulsions are excessive or unreasonable.<br />Age of onset<br />
  6. 6. Chemical and brain dysfunction<br />The chemical messenger, Serotonin seems to be heavily involved. Serotonin is a chemical called a neurotransmitter that allows nerve cells to communicate with each other by working in the space between nerve cells, called the synaptic cleft. According to research, Serotonin is involved with biological processes such as mood, aggression, sleep, appetite and pain. It also seems that Serotonin is capable of connecting to nerve cells in the brain in many different ways and so can cause many different responses. It is not even fully established if it is all or part of the Serotonin chemical or another chemical entirely acting on it; or a malfunction in one or more of the receptors in the brain that Serotonin attaches to that causes the OCD problems.<br />Possible Causes<br />
  7. 7. Genetics<br />Some research points to the likelihood that OCD sufferers will have a family member with the problem or with one of the other ‘OCD –Spectrum’ of disorders.<br />One American study suggested that up to 30% of teenagers with OCD had a member of the immediate family with the problem or with obsessive symptoms. Other studies tend to suggest that if a sufferer’s OCD began in adulthood there is less chance of this person’s offspring contracting it than if the problem was contracted in childhood, specifically if the latter is the type of OCD that tends to start in childhood (if there are different types).<br />Possible Causes<br />
  8. 8. Infection<br />A streptococcal infection of the throat is known to occasionally result in the body confusing healthy cells with the infection and causing cellular damage. If this has happened with the brain, the body’s infection fighting system can attack the outside of nerve cells in the Basal Ganglia part of the brain with the result that OCD symptoms occur. Some research suggests that these symptoms don’t seem to last very long and the occurrence of this ‘infection OCD’ seems to be very rare.<br />Depression<br />People with depression sometimes develop OCD symptoms, and those with OCD very often develop depression. Dealing with both together is very difficult without clinical intervention and it is notoriously difficult to undertake an exposure programme while the depression is high.<br />Possible Causes<br />
  9. 9. Behavioral therapy is effective in treating most cases of OCD.<br />OCD is treated using medications and therapy.<br />The first medication usually considered is a type of antidepressant called a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). These drugs include:<br />Citalopram (Celexa)<br />Fluoxetine (Prozac)<br />Fluvoxamine (Luvox)<br />Paroxetine (Paxil)<br />Sertraline (Zoloft)<br />Treatment/Cures<br />
  10. 10. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to be the most effective type of psychotherapy for this disorder. The patient is exposed many times to a situation that triggers the obsessive thoughts, and learns gradually to tolerate the anxiety and resist the urge to perform the compulsion. Medication and CBT together are considered to be better than either treatment alone at reducing symptoms.<br />Psychotherapy can also be used to:<br />Provide effective ways of reducing stress<br />Reduce anxiety<br />Resolve inner conflicts<br />Treatment cont.<br />
  11. 11. Your own description of the behavior can help diagnose the disorder. A physical exam can rule out physical causes, and a psychiatric evaluation can rule out other mental disorders.<br />Questionnaires, such as the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS), can help diagnose OCD and track the progress of treatment.<br />Implications for Schools<br />
  12. 12. These supports and accommodations will need to be based on the OCD symptoms the student is experiencing.<br />In addition, students with OCD, like all other students with disabilities, have a legal right to accommodations and support strategies under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 or IDEA.<br />Allow the student to be first to get any handouts; he or she can hand the stack to another student, thus avoiding papers that were touched by others.<br />Give directions that are clear and short and use visuals to accompany verbal directions (e.g., have directions written on a chart).  Also, capture students' attention prior to giving directions, e.g., tell students they need to listen carefully; modulate voice; provide a signal such as a hand clap.<br />Educational Strategies<br />
  13. 13. Refrain from sending class work home that the student has been unable to complete in school due to writing difficulties. This can create additional stress for the student who is already distressed by OCD symptoms.<br />Provide the student with alternatives to written assignments, e.g., permit him or her to demonstrate his or her knowledge by drawing a picture, mural, etc. in lieu of writing an essay.<br />Use visual organizing systems such as color-coded folders (e.g., math folder is red; reading is blue).<br />Give the student untimed tests, extra time to complete the test.<br />Educational Strategies<br />
  14. 14. Use of a computer to keep notes in order.<br />Currently, there is no scientific evidence related specifically to the use of assistive technology with students who have OCD.<br />Assistive Technology<br />
  15. 15. OCD is a long-term (chronic) illness with periods of severe symptoms followed by times of improvement. However, a completely symptom-free period is unusual. Most people improve with treatment.<br />Long-term complications of OCD have to do with the type of obsessions or compulsions. For example, constant hand washing can cause skin breakdown. However, OCD does not usually progress into another disease.<br />Long-term Prognosis<br />
  16. 16. "Academic Support Strategies." OCD Education Station. OCD Chicago. Web. 09 Oct. 2011. <http://www.ocdeducationstation.org/role-of-school- personnel/academic-support-strategies/>.<br />“Causes of OCD." Anxiety Care. Web. 09 Oct. 2011. <http://www.anxietycare.org.uk/docs/ocdcauses.asp>.<br />Heward, William L. "6." Exceptional Children: an Introduction to Special Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Pearson, 2009. 217+. Print.<br />Obsessive-compulsive Disorder. PubMed Health. A.D.A.M. Web. 09 Oct. 2011. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001926/>.<br />Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Statistics." What Is Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)” Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Inc.,. Web. 09 Oct. 2011. <http://ocdcenter.org/about-ocd/ocd-statistics.php>.<br />Reference List<br />