What is CLIL?
CLIL is a dual-focused educational approach
An additional language is used for learning and
teaching content and language.
Using language to learn and learning to use language
• CLIL was seen as an umbrella term which may refer to any
situation in which ‘L2 is used as a tool in the learning of a nonlanguage subject in which both language and subject have a joint
role.’ (Marsh, 2002, 58).
• CLIL is a tool for teaching and learning
Content AND Language.
• The essence of CLIL is integration.
• Students use language to learn new
• The CLIL approach also develops
learning and thinking skills.
3 As lesson planning tool (communication
Language of learning
- Key phrases needed
- Key vocabulary
Language for learning
- Learning how to learn
- Language for pair group
- Understanding instructions
- How to deal with not understanding
Language through learning
Language OF learning:
* Key vocabulary:
fish, octopus, dolphin, starfish, je
llyfish, shark, angelfish, living/no
n-living things, sunlit, twilight and
midnight, eat/ live in/live up
to/weigh/jump/ swim up to.
* Key structures: under the sea, in the
water, are the main enemies
of..., can it
Language FOR learning:
I can see, We can find, there is/are.
I would like to know more about...
Language THROUGH learning:
- Language needed to express previous
knowledge and experiences
- ‘Dictionary use’ for vocabulary extension
The 4Cs conceptual framework for CLIL
(Coyle & Hood)
NEW TEACHER/STUDENT ROLES
From “students receive knowledge” to….. “…students construct knowledge”
From “Teacher or text as authority “to ….
“….students create meaning”
From “Teachers imparting knowledge”
“…..teachers foment thinking”
From “learning should be fun” to….
“….learning should be challenging”
From “thinking develops naturally” to….
“….teachers can facilitate thinking”
In seeing CLIL as a mainstream approach in
education, we believe that all learners have
the potential to benefit from a conscious
focus on the integration of content and
language (Mehisto, Marsh and Frigols, 2008).
• 1. In a student-centred approach, the first
step is to identify learner needs.
• 2. Then the planning phase starts.
• 3. Teachers choose multimodal approaches
to learning (visual, auditory, kinesthetic and
• 4. Planned and emergent forms of
interaction are particularly important to
stimulate cognitive and linguistic skills.
• 5. A focus on the specific aspects of subject
literacies allows students to acquire the
types of discourse required for the content.
• 6. Constant evaluation or assessment
(formative and summative) for learning
gives support to all learners and foments
• 7. Teachers’ own reflection is crucial and
in CLIL contexts it is significantly
enhanced through the cooperation
between subject and language specialists.
• 8. Emphasis on context and culture in all
learning and teaching situations.
Identify the students’ needs
• Difference between learners’ L2 level in BICS (Basic
Interactional Communicative Skills) and CALP
(Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency) and how
this may affect their learning process;
• How learners’ different previous experiences in CLIL
may affect their learning process;
• How learners’ general academic and literacy skills (in
the L1) may affect their learning process in CLIL;
• How different learning styles, motivation and attitudes
toward CLIL may affect their learning process.
• Who are my students? (language level, prior
language, culture, behaviour, goals, etc.)
• What are the learning objectives? What do I
want them to learn?
• How can I organise their learning events?
• What resources can I use?
• How can I assess my students?
(rubrics, projects, group work, selfevaluation, peer evaluation, etc.)
Planning what the students should be doing and what the
teacher should be doing.
To plan a CLIL lesson:
Aims /objectives: content
objectives and language
Tasks to be carried out:
planning and delivering a
Verbal and non-verbal inputs are of equal
Adding illustration makes the verbal
message more precise.
It increases mutual comprehension of
Optimal learning conditions
Verbal + non-verbal input, including:
Visual (images, models, graphic
(songs, videos, chants, etc.), Kinesthetic
(gestures, miming, TPS), or
Tactile (handling models).
Computer-based digital technologies for
multiple modes of representation, creating
‘digitally afforded multimodality.’ (Hull and
According to Vygotsky, learning is a social
process, and learning occurs during the
interactions between individuals.
Vygotsky suggests that individuals construct
shared understandings in culturally formed
Learning involves social, constructive
and cultural processes.
• Sharpe (2001) distinguishes two types of
‘designed in’ scaffolding and
‘point of need’ or contingent scaffolding.
• Asking certain types of questions
• Listening carefully to students’ responses
• Using a variety of strategies to help them
clarify and extend their thinking
• Scaffolding language and scaffolding
On a warm, __________________ day, water in a glass
of water seems to slowly disappear. This is because the
energy from the sun is _______________ the water up
and turning the liquid water into water ______________.
This process is called ___________________. When the
water ________________, it becomes an invisible
gas in the _____________________. Evaporation takes
places all over the earth, but especially in the
________________ and ________________ where
there is lots of water.
Objectives vs Outcomes
• Learning objectives are what the specific teacher
wants these specific pupils to learn:
• What do you want pupils to know?
• What key ideas do you want them to understand?
• What issues do you want pupils to explore and
• What will the students be able to do after the
• You will usually say “students will” and use one
of the verbs from Bloom’s taxonomy
• Learning outcomes are more related to curriculum
objectives. They can be measured and included on a
• they must be student focused
• contain an active verb, most often describing a skill
• written in terms of student attainment
After the lesson/unit the students:
describe the life cycle of a plant.
run three kilometres in less than 30 minutes.
Listens to the
Knows the parts
of the body
• Assessment for learning creates a genuine
learning community among learners and
• In a CLIL class, evaluation is associated with
peer evaluation and self evaluation in a
dynamic process that constantly evolves.
• Throughout the learning period, teachers will
need to take into consideration
motivation, learner autonomy, and the
responsibility of all agents.
Cooperation among teachers
• Language and content teachers need to cooperate
with each other. They both need to be aware of
the importance of language awareness in teaching
• According to Hoare (2004), the level of language
awareness the teacher has makes a great deal of
difference when providing for students.’ access to
the language needed for content learning.
• Teachers’ skills are developed through repeated
cycles of practice and reflection (Freeman and
Teachers need to:
• Distinguish content learning outcomes and language
• Identify formative and summative assessment points
for content and language learning;
• Design assessment for content and language learning
using a variety of methods and techniques appropriate
to CLIL learners;
• Integrate the assessment of content and language.
Teachers need to….
• Monitor their own speech to ensure output is
comprehensible and invites meaningful
• Identify appropriate written texts or modify
• Break up written material into small chunks
and provide visuals and graphic organizers
• Make sure they ask questions or provide
activities at different levels of Bloom’s
Construct a model to demonstrate how it will work.
Make a diorama to illustrate an important event.
Make a scrapbook about the areas of study.
Make a paper-maché map to include relevant information about an event.
Take a collection of photographs to demonstrate a particular point.
Make up a puzzle game using the ideas from the study area.
Make a clay model of an item in the material.
Dress a doll in national costume.
Paint a mural using the same materials.
Write a letter about... for others.
Self-evaluation, peer-evaluation, teacher evaluation- all with rubrics