Lexical Approach


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Lexical Approach

  2. 2. BACKGROUND It is a language teaching method published by Michael Lewis in 1993 Giving importance the insight of the language lexicon Lexis is the basis of language The lexical approach concentrates on developing learners proficiency with lexis, or words and word combinations. Lexis plays the central role Alternative approach to traditional grammatical approach Chunks, minimal pairs, collacations, lexical units are the specific characteristics of this approach
  3. 3.  Chomsky has recently adopted a lexicon-is-prime The role of lexical units has been stressed in both first and second language acquisition research These units are :- Holophrases- Prefabricated patterns- Gambits- Speech formulae- Lexicalized stems
  4. 4. APPROACHo No learning theoryo No theory of languageo The building blocks of language learning and communication are not grammar, functions or some of unit of planning but teaching lexis with the help of chunks and collocations.
  5. 5. What is chunk? Lexical chunk is an umbrella term which includes all the other terms.What are collocations? Collocation is a pair of lexical content words commonly found together
  6. 6. o Lexical Chunks (that are not collocations) by the way up to now upside down If I were you a long way off out of my mindo Lexical Chunks (that are collocations) totally convinced strong accent terrible accident sense of humour sounds exciting brings good luck
  7. 7.  LEXICAL UNITS Binomials ( e.g. Knife and fork…) Trinomials ( e.g. Cool, calm and collected…) Idioms ( e.g. To rain cats and dogs… ) Similes ( e.g. As white as snow …. ) Connectives ( e.g. Finally, to conclude ) Conversational gambits ( e.g. Guess what… )
  8. 8.  Krashen’s suggestion:  emphasis on reading and listening Others’ suggestion:  making classroom laboratory Bahns’ suggestion:  no direct translational equivalence for teaching of lexical items in EFL
  9. 9. LEWIS’S ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT LEARNING THEORY IN THELEXICAL APPROACH: Encountering new learning items Noticing lexical chunks or collocations Noticing similarities, differences, restrictions and examples Acquisition is based not on the application of formal rules No linear syllabus can adequately reflect the nonlinear nature of acquisition
  10. 10. DESIGN- Objectives; To get students to become aware of, use and to eventually master these meaning-filled, multi-word “chunks”, collocations and fixed utterances. To help learners to notice for themselves how language is typically used Language is learnt by an increasing ability to break down wholes into parts. Grammar is acquired by a process of observation, hypothesis and experiment. We can use whole phrases without understanding their constituent parts. Acquisition is accelerated by contact with a sympathetic interlocutor with a higher level of competence in the target language
  11. 11.  SYLLABUS Structural syllabus is used.( Also called as “ lexical syllabus” ) teaching vocabulary and grammar
  12. 12. TEACHER’S ROLES; The talk of the teacher as a major source of learner input( This is the same with the Natural Approach) To understand and implement the methodology which is based on stages composed of; -Task -Planning - Report To create an operative environment(where students operate effectively) To help the learners manage their own learning after operation “…abandon the idea of the teacher as a knower and concentrate instead of the idea of the learner as “discoverer”.” (Willis 1990)
  13. 13. STUDENT’S ROLES; The analyzer of real life language samples based on his or her own explanations To observe, classify and make generalizations Making use of computers
  14. 14. PROCEDURE:  Introduction of chunks  Practice of chunks  Accumulation of chunks  Use of chunks and collocations
  15. 15. CONCLUSION; It has lexically based theory of language It doesnt have any certain learning theory It is an alternative approach It focuses on words and word combinations Grammar and lexis are the heart of learning It aims to teach vocabulary within grammar Teachers help learners to discover knowledge instead of giving it directly
  16. 16. WEAKNESS: It lacks full characterization of an approach Lack of a detailed learning theory