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Understanding the gendered dimensions of access to water among small scale horticultural farmers in Domboshava - Ignatius Gutsa, PhD student, Sociology Department, University of Zimbabwe

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Understanding the gendered dimensions of access to water among small scale horticultural farmers in Domboshava - Ignatius Gutsa, PhD student, Sociology Department, University of Zimbabwe Presentation Transcript

  • 1.
    • Paper Title: Understanding the Gendered Dimensions of Access to Water among Small Scale Horticultural Farmers in Domboshava.
    • Ignatius Gutsa (PhD Candidate) Department Of Sociology University of Zimbabwe
    • E-mail: igutsa@sociol.uz.ac.zw
  • 2. Introduction and Background
    • 70% of Zimbabweans live in rural areas.
    • Rural livelihoods linked to access, use and management of natural resources (subsistence and income generation).
    • Water entry point to poverty alleviation and livelihoods protection.
    • Water strategic resource for development (IUCN 2005).
    • Women traditionally recognised and accepted as main users of water
    • However gender relations limit their access to, control and use of water.
  • 3. Intro & Background cont……
    • Most households in Goromonzi depend on surface water to produce food and earn an income.
    • Mutsvati dam located in Goromonzi district
    • Irrigation infrastructure appears uniform (water pumped from dam or seasonal river to gardens)
    • Buckets, simple technology foot-pumps (chitsoka tsoka) , hand-pumps and motor powered water pumps used to apply water to the fields.
    • Gardens watered and cultivated by individuals or families (women mainly performing the work).
  • 4. Objectives
    • To document the nature of gender relations surrounding access to water among horticultural farmers in Domboshava district.
    • To examine the changing nature of gender dynamics surrounding access to and control of water for irrigation purposes.
  • 5. Significance of study
    • Inequality in rights to water appear gender based.
    • Women having fewer rights, authority and decision making over water than men.
    • Limited literature in Zimbabwe on gender relations in access to water after the land reform.
    • Findings presented will contribute to a better understanding of gender dimensions of access to water among small scale horticultural farmers.
  • 6. Methodology
    • Citizen ethnographer approach.
    • Ethnography as research process based on fieldwork using variety of (mainly qualitative) techniques:
    • Documented six Life histories/In-depth interviews.
    • Participant observation.
    • Focus Group Discussions (male and female farmers)
    • Above methods adopted because of need to triangulate data gathering to come up with reliable and valid data.
  • 7. Conceptual Framework
    • Research guided by Anthony Giddens’ (1984) structuration theory.
    • Human action performed in the context of pre-existing social structure governed by sets of norms distinct from other social structures.
    • Domboshava district containing repertoire of different lifestyles, cultural forms and rationalities.
    • Structure and rules not permanent and external.
    • Individual actors having agency.
  • 8. Presentation & Discussion of Findings
    • Mutsvati reservoir/dam playing a key role in livelihoods
    • Providing domestic and productive water.
    • No water management committee at Mutsvati.
    • Despite importance of the small reservoir its development is fraught with difficulties i.e.
    • Lack of resources, no management structure, inequitable access by different community members for different uses.
    • Women now playing crucial role because of allocation of A1 farms.
    • Vegetable gardening labour intensive in dry season (2 daily waterings).
  • 9. Presentation & Discussion of Findings…….cont
    • Dry season conflicts with down stream farmers.
    • Increased siltation, reduced rainfall and menacing alien invasive weeds causing w ater shortage.
    • Women involved in agricultural production also responsible for providing water for household uses.
    • Gender relations reflected in:
    • 1. The gendered division of labor,
    • 2. The control of productive asset ownership and
    • 3. The intra-household allocation.
    • To locals Mutsvati dam cannot be “owned” so open access
    • Time women spending collecting water class based.
  • 10. Gender relations & the land reform
    • Women dominated marketing of produce pre-land reform.
    • Gender relations changing with allocation of A1 plots
    • Some women now enjoying express authority over water.
    • Women not a homogenous social group
    • Class creating variations in conditions of access.
    • Rich women with diesel motor pumps having greater access than men and other women.
    • Study contradicting findings reflecting women’s limited access and control of water for production.
  • 11. Conclusion and Recommendations
    • Study reflects changing gender relations.
    • Land reform somehow altered gender relations
    • Women not a homogenous class category.
    • Further comparative research to identify factors affecting gender relations around access to water post land reform.
    • Recognize importance of women's specific water needs, especially for production, as opposed to domestic use.
    • Need to introduce efficient irrigation techniques.
    • Recognising women’s multiple roles as domestic and productive water users an important aspect in (IWRM)
  • 12.
    • THANK YOU!!