<ul><li>Paper Title:  Understanding the Gendered Dimensions of Access to Water among Small Scale Horticultural Farmers in ...
Introduction and Background <ul><li>70% of Zimbabweans live in rural areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Rural livelihoods linked to ...
Intro & Background cont…… <ul><li>Most households in Goromonzi depend on surface water to produce food and earn an income....
Objectives <ul><li>To document the nature of gender relations surrounding access to water among horticultural farmers in D...
Significance of study <ul><li>Inequality in rights to water appear gender based. </li></ul><ul><li>Women having fewer righ...
Methodology <ul><li>Citizen ethnographer approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnography as research process based on fieldwork us...
Conceptual Framework <ul><li>Research guided by Anthony Giddens’ (1984) structuration theory.  </li></ul><ul><li>Human act...
Presentation & Discussion of Findings <ul><li>Mutsvati reservoir/dam playing a key role in livelihoods </li></ul><ul><li>P...
Presentation & Discussion of Findings…….cont <ul><li>Dry season conflicts with down stream farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>Incr...
Gender relations & the land reform <ul><li>Women dominated marketing of produce pre-land reform. </li></ul><ul><li>Gender ...
Conclusion and Recommendations <ul><li>Study reflects changing gender relations.  </li></ul><ul><li>Land reform somehow al...
<ul><li>THANK YOU!! </li></ul>
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Understanding the gendered dimensions of access to water among small scale horticultural farmers in Domboshava - Ignatius Gutsa, PhD student, Sociology Department, University of Zimbabwe

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Understanding the gendered dimensions of access to water among small scale horticultural farmers in Domboshava - Ignatius Gutsa, PhD student, Sociology Department, University of Zimbabwe

  1. 1. <ul><li>Paper Title: Understanding the Gendered Dimensions of Access to Water among Small Scale Horticultural Farmers in Domboshava. </li></ul><ul><li>Ignatius Gutsa (PhD Candidate) Department Of Sociology University of Zimbabwe </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail: igutsa@sociol.uz.ac.zw </li></ul>
  2. 2. Introduction and Background <ul><li>70% of Zimbabweans live in rural areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Rural livelihoods linked to access, use and management of natural resources (subsistence and income generation). </li></ul><ul><li>Water entry point to poverty alleviation and livelihoods protection. </li></ul><ul><li>Water strategic resource for development (IUCN 2005). </li></ul><ul><li>Women traditionally recognised and accepted as main users of water </li></ul><ul><li>However gender relations limit their access to, control and use of water. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Intro & Background cont…… <ul><li>Most households in Goromonzi depend on surface water to produce food and earn an income. </li></ul><ul><li>Mutsvati dam located in Goromonzi district </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation infrastructure appears uniform (water pumped from dam or seasonal river to gardens) </li></ul><ul><li>Buckets, simple technology foot-pumps (chitsoka tsoka) , hand-pumps and motor powered water pumps used to apply water to the fields. </li></ul><ul><li>Gardens watered and cultivated by individuals or families (women mainly performing the work). </li></ul>
  4. 4. Objectives <ul><li>To document the nature of gender relations surrounding access to water among horticultural farmers in Domboshava district. </li></ul><ul><li>To examine the changing nature of gender dynamics surrounding access to and control of water for irrigation purposes. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Significance of study <ul><li>Inequality in rights to water appear gender based. </li></ul><ul><li>Women having fewer rights, authority and decision making over water than men. </li></ul><ul><li>Limited literature in Zimbabwe on gender relations in access to water after the land reform. </li></ul><ul><li>Findings presented will contribute to a better understanding of gender dimensions of access to water among small scale horticultural farmers. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Methodology <ul><li>Citizen ethnographer approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnography as research process based on fieldwork using variety of (mainly qualitative) techniques: </li></ul><ul><li>Documented six Life histories/In-depth interviews. </li></ul><ul><li>Participant observation. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus Group Discussions (male and female farmers) </li></ul><ul><li>Above methods adopted because of need to triangulate data gathering to come up with reliable and valid data. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Conceptual Framework <ul><li>Research guided by Anthony Giddens’ (1984) structuration theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Human action performed in the context of pre-existing social structure governed by sets of norms distinct from other social structures. </li></ul><ul><li>Domboshava district containing repertoire of different lifestyles, cultural forms and rationalities. </li></ul><ul><li>Structure and rules not permanent and external. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual actors having agency. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Presentation & Discussion of Findings <ul><li>Mutsvati reservoir/dam playing a key role in livelihoods </li></ul><ul><li>Providing domestic and productive water. </li></ul><ul><li>No water management committee at Mutsvati. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite importance of the small reservoir its development is fraught with difficulties i.e. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of resources, no management structure, inequitable access by different community members for different uses. </li></ul><ul><li>Women now playing crucial role because of allocation of A1 farms. </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetable gardening labour intensive in dry season (2 daily waterings). </li></ul>
  9. 9. Presentation & Discussion of Findings…….cont <ul><li>Dry season conflicts with down stream farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased siltation, reduced rainfall and menacing alien invasive weeds causing w ater shortage. </li></ul><ul><li>Women involved in agricultural production also responsible for providing water for household uses. </li></ul><ul><li>Gender relations reflected in: </li></ul><ul><li>1. The gendered division of labor, </li></ul><ul><li>2. The control of productive asset ownership and </li></ul><ul><li>3. The intra-household allocation. </li></ul><ul><li>To locals Mutsvati dam cannot be “owned” so open access </li></ul><ul><li>Time women spending collecting water class based. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Gender relations & the land reform <ul><li>Women dominated marketing of produce pre-land reform. </li></ul><ul><li>Gender relations changing with allocation of A1 plots </li></ul><ul><li>Some women now enjoying express authority over water. </li></ul><ul><li>Women not a homogenous social group </li></ul><ul><li>Class creating variations in conditions of access. </li></ul><ul><li>Rich women with diesel motor pumps having greater access than men and other women. </li></ul><ul><li>Study contradicting findings reflecting women’s limited access and control of water for production. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Conclusion and Recommendations <ul><li>Study reflects changing gender relations. </li></ul><ul><li>Land reform somehow altered gender relations </li></ul><ul><li>Women not a homogenous class category. </li></ul><ul><li>Further comparative research to identify factors affecting gender relations around access to water post land reform. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize importance of women's specific water needs, especially for production, as opposed to domestic use. </li></ul><ul><li>Need to introduce efficient irrigation techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognising women’s multiple roles as domestic and productive water users an important aspect in (IWRM) </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>THANK YOU!! </li></ul>

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