The battle of hegemony: strategies to secure exclusive water rights F S Nkoka
Outline <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>3 Case studies </li></ul><ul><li>SSIS & SSA Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Unde...
Introduction <ul><li>Food insecurity in SSA  </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation a solution  </li></ul><ul><li>Failures of LSISs ...
Case Studies  <ul><li>Smallholder farmers vs MDF – Dowa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigation use versus domestic use  </li></u...
Tsangano Irrigation Systems
SSIS & SSA Analysis  <ul><li>SSA vulnerability </li></ul><ul><li>SSISs description </li></ul><ul><li>SSISs context – polit...
Understanding water rights <ul><li>Strange concept to Smallholder farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Not fully rolled out in SSA </...
Basis of Claim <ul><li>Construction history of the system  </li></ul><ul><li>Position in the system  </li></ul><ul><li>Soc...
Interpretation by SHFs <ul><li>Water belong to God </li></ul><ul><li>Different users with different reference point </li><...
Discussion points <ul><li>Line of division between water user groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legitimate for claims based on ...
Discussion points <ul><li>Underlying structure that lead to unequal access to water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak institution...
Think on these things <ul><li>Water rights decision should consider local situation  </li></ul><ul><li>More Smallholder fa...
Think on these things <ul><li>The concept of equity to be explained </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable use natural resource </l...
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The battle of hegemony: strategies to secure exclusive water rights - lessons from Malawi and Mozambique case studies - Francis Nkoka, , Agriculture Manager, Save the Children, Malawi

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The battle of hegemony: strategies to secure exclusive water rights - lessons from Malawi and Mozambique case studies - Francis Nkoka, , Agriculture Manager, Save the Children, Malawi

  1. 1. The battle of hegemony: strategies to secure exclusive water rights F S Nkoka
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>3 Case studies </li></ul><ul><li>SSIS & SSA Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding water rights </li></ul><ul><li>Basis of Claim </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation by SHFs </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion points </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Food insecurity in SSA </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation a solution </li></ul><ul><li>Failures of LSISs -> focus on SSISs </li></ul><ul><li>Clean track record of SSISs </li></ul>
  4. 4. Case Studies <ul><li>Smallholder farmers vs MDF – Dowa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigation use versus domestic use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smallholder farmers vs Large Scale farmer(s) – Mchinji </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shifting alliance of govt institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The waterscape continuum in Tsangano </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smallholder farmers vs smallholder farmers </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Tsangano Irrigation Systems
  6. 6. SSIS & SSA Analysis <ul><li>SSA vulnerability </li></ul><ul><li>SSISs description </li></ul><ul><li>SSISs context – political, markets, </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers – illiterate, poor, not organized </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of SSISs -> great contribution </li></ul>
  7. 7. Understanding water rights <ul><li>Strange concept to Smallholder farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Not fully rolled out in SSA </li></ul><ul><li>Vary in many respect – exclusive, transferability, scale, duration, recognition, & assurance </li></ul><ul><li>Its importance vary with time </li></ul>
  8. 8. Basis of Claim <ul><li>Construction history of the system </li></ul><ul><li>Position in the system </li></ul><ul><li>Social and political network </li></ul><ul><li>Settlement history </li></ul><ul><li>Considered informal </li></ul><ul><li>Overtaken by ‘formal’ request </li></ul>
  9. 9. Interpretation by SHFs <ul><li>Water belong to God </li></ul><ul><li>Different users with different reference point </li></ul><ul><li>Eruption of silent wars </li></ul><ul><li>Very critical in water scarce period </li></ul>
  10. 10. Discussion points <ul><li>Line of division between water user groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legitimate for claims based on scale, use, history </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Processes of exclusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location in the system – upstream vs downstream at system level & catchment level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Settlement history – fortifying ownership thru construction & land ownership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Formal’ over ‘informal’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power and power relations – fight them if they accept </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social & political network </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Discussion points <ul><li>Underlying structure that lead to unequal access to water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak institutions (WUAs, ICs) vs administrative structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixing ICs structure & membership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislation unsynchronized to local situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of awareness of ‘formal’ rights to smallholder farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Un-recognition of local logic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rigorous exercise of obtaining ‘formal’ rights </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Think on these things <ul><li>Water rights decision should consider local situation </li></ul><ul><li>More Smallholder farmers are illiterate & poor but not stupid </li></ul><ul><li>Their claims should be recognized – formal vs informal </li></ul><ul><li>More awareness to smallholder farmers required </li></ul>
  13. 13. Think on these things <ul><li>The concept of equity to be explained </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable use natural resource </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronize WUA and local structure (TAs) </li></ul><ul><li>Smallholder farmers to be pushed out of farming </li></ul><ul><li>Food insecurity to persist </li></ul><ul><li>Social conflict / disorder </li></ul>
  14. 14. THANK YOU

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