Water User Associations in Northern Ghana:From Institutional Panacea to Reality Check <br />Ernest Nti Acheampong  and Jea...
Contents<br /><ul><li>Background to the study
Paradigm Shift/ WUAs as Institutional Panaceas
History and Distribution of Small Reservoirs
Small Reservoir Performance/ WUAs presence
Water User Associations: “Institutional Blueprint”
Conditions for Collective Action
Conclusion</li></li></ul><li>Background…<br />In sub-Saharan Africa….<br />Impact on Government Expenditure/ Resources: <b...
Policy Changes<br />Reforms in Water and Irrigation sectors policies (national and international) over the last three deca...
Small Reservoirs: An integral component of rural Ghana...<br />Purpose:<br /><ul><li>livestock watering; Domestic use
Drought proofing mechanisms;
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Water user associations in northern Ghana: From Institutional Panacea to Reality Check - Ernest Nti Acheampong, Research Officer, International Water Management Institute, Ghana

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Water user associations in northern Ghana: From Institutional Panacea to Reality Check - Ernest Nti Acheampong, Research Officer, International Water Management Institute, Ghana

  1. 1. Water User Associations in Northern Ghana:From Institutional Panacea to Reality Check <br />Ernest Nti Acheampong and Jean-Philippe Venot<br />IWMI- West Africa<br />Accra, Ghana<br />Theme 3: Water and Society<br />CTA Annual Seminar<br />Johannesburg, 22-26 November, 2010<br />
  2. 2. Contents<br /><ul><li>Background to the study
  3. 3. Paradigm Shift/ WUAs as Institutional Panaceas
  4. 4. History and Distribution of Small Reservoirs
  5. 5. Small Reservoir Performance/ WUAs presence
  6. 6. Water User Associations: “Institutional Blueprint”
  7. 7. Conditions for Collective Action
  8. 8. Conclusion</li></li></ul><li>Background…<br />In sub-Saharan Africa….<br />Impact on Government Expenditure/ Resources: <br /> Due to harsh political and Socio-economic <br /> conditions <br />Dwindling national resources to subsidize inputs and service provision to irrigation and water sectors <br />Poor performance and/or collapse of State managed large scale operated water and irrigation schemes<br />
  9. 9. Policy Changes<br />Reforms in Water and Irrigation sectors policies (national and international) over the last three decades. <br />Implementation of Policy Changes at the national levels<br />Structural Adjustment Programme(SAPs) <br />Poverty Reduction Strategies Programme (PRSPs) <br />Shift from Large Scale Irrigation systems to Smallholder irrigation developments; <br />dependent to a large extent on the innovativeness of individual farmers <br />emerging technologies and market forces.<br />Devolution of water resources management from;<br />State-led irrigation schemes to community-led schemes.<br />Centralized approach to decentralized and participatory approach <br />Emergence of Water Users Associations (WUAs)<br />
  10. 10. Small Reservoirs: An integral component of rural Ghana...<br />Purpose:<br /><ul><li>livestock watering; Domestic use
  11. 11. Drought proofing mechanisms;
  12. 12. Small Scale Irrigation;
  13. 13. Increasing food security and;
  14. 14. Poverty reduction</li></ul>Small Reservoirs in Ghana (+ 3500)<br /><ul><li>> 1,000 small dams (irrigation system)
  15. 15. > 2,500 small dugouts (no irrigation system)
  16. 16. > 5000 ha potential area of irrigation
  17. 17. > 1,500 sites reported area under irrigation</li></li></ul><li>Historical Development of Small Reservoir in Ghana<br />3 main phases of construction<br /><ul><li>Post Independence era
  18. 18. 1966-1991: “Status Quo”
  19. 19. 1991-2001 (3 per year)
  20. 20. Post 2001 (5 per year): 116 (out of 350) new/rehabilitated sites in the UER/UWR</li></ul>< 1 Mm3<br />< 50 ha<br />
  21. 21. Research Activities<br /><ul><li>Regional Analysis
  22. 22. Analysis of existing databases
  23. 23. Upper East and West Regions
  24. 24. ˜ 350 sites identified
  25. 25. Development of a secondary database
  26. 26. Participatory appraisal with AEA and field visits
  27. 27. Use of small dams and performance levels
  28. 28. Maintenance of infrastructures
  29. 29. Modes of management
  30. 30. Qualitative field surveys (24 sites)
  31. 31. Key informants interviews
  32. 32. Partners: MoFA-GIDA, UDS, KNUST</li></li></ul><li>Performance & WUAs presence/ Effectiveness<br />Level of WUA effectiveness<br />50-55%<br />GOOD<br />POOR<br />Many WUAs are dormant/ have collapsed !!<br />
  33. 33. Institutional Bricolage…..… WUA cannot do it all<br />Be adaptable<br /><ul><li>Provide multiple organizational options
  34. 34. Promote coordination with traditional authorities
  35. 35. Promote coordination with other levels of authority</li></li></ul><li>Condition for collective action….<br />Improve social inclusion, improve access, equity and reduce vulnerability<br />WUAs platform for political party mobilization<br />Extra-rational behavior of individuals stimulate organization<br />Market access and systems arrangement <br />Farmer’s level of education or knowledge about WUAs <br />
  36. 36. Conclusion<br />Devolution of local commons’ management has a high tendency to improve efficiency and equity<br />No single institutional pillar panacea (WUAs)<br />Diagnostic approach in the analysis of institutional arrangements in a dynamic, socio-political and cultural setting. <br />Financial and capacity support by the State is crucial <br />

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