Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
1 disaster housing
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

1 disaster housing

2,103
views

Published on

Published in: Business, Real Estate

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,103
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
70
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Disaster Housing Resources and Strategies 2011 Emergency Management Conference
  • 2. Session Objectives
    • Identify the types of housing resources available to provide interim disaster housing and long-term housing resources to displaced survivors
    • Discuss issues and challenges associated with the delivery of disaster housing assistance
    • Identify the elements of a disaster housing “toolkit”
    • Identify lessons learned from previous disasters
  • 3. Disaster Housing
    • Cornerstone of Recovery
    • Lack of housing can lead to permanent relocation of large numbers of people (just as affected communities are trying to rebuild their economies, their workers and consumers may not be able to return home due to a lack of housing options).
    • Solutions to this issue must take into account infrastructure needs, population densities, special needs requirements, cultural sensitivities, and potential dispersion of residents over great distances.
  • 4. Disaster Housing
    • Rental resources provide the best interim and permanent housing options in most communities
      • Shortage of affordable housing may exist pre-disaster
      • Historically, low-income families are disproportionally impacted by disasters
    • Viable manufactured housing solutions may exist to augment available vacant residential unit
      • This option should be viewed as a one tool and not as an all-encompassing solution
      • A variety of housing types and resources
  • 5. Disaster Housing
    • Important piece of the recovery process
      • Helps survivors establish stability as they begin the process of recovering and rebuilding
        • While it is not necessarily ideal, for many it is a better alternative than living in cars, tents, damaged dwellings or in tight quarters with family or friends
    • Disaster Housing needs and strategies will differ greatly in urban and rural areas
      • Holly, Colorado
      • Windsor, Colorado
  • 6. Scalable Disaster Housing
    • Optimal solution : from shelters back home, or to permanent housing, skipping interim housing step
    • Small-Scale Disasters : sheltering and interim housing only, as repairs are completed
    • Large-Scale Disasters : more emphasis on permanent housing construction and relocation
  • 7. Disaster Housing
    • Challenge to Planners
    • Nature/magnitude
      • size, scope, scale, duration
    • Complexity, range and diversity of needs
      • Functional needs, unique households, diverse cultures
    • Community characteristics
      • One size doesn’t fit all
    • Available housing options
      • the sum of the existing options for interim housing may be too small to meet needs
  • 8. Disaster Housing
    • Challenge to Planners
    • Balancing these four interdependent factors to create holistic disaster housing strategy
    • Providing housing options that consider:
      • Availability of infrastructure and community services
      • Proximity to schools, employment, public transportation, health care, former neighborhoods, family and friends
  • 9. Disaster Housing
    • Challenge to Planners
    • Small window of opportunity
      • to introduce mitigation measures
      • for urban planning/redevelopment
      • to revisit building codes and local regulations (new green building options)
      • To devise strategies that complement economic goals
    • Recovery planning needs to be initiated quickly
  • 10. The Disaster Housing Timeline EVENT Sheltering/ Immediate Needs Interim Housing Permanent Housing – The New Normal
  • 11. Phases of Disaster Housing
    • Sheltering
    • Only housing assistance needed for most events
    • Interim
    • Covers gap from sheltering to permanent housing (up to 18 months)
    • Permanent
    • Reconstruction, relocation , new normal
  • 12. Types of Disaster Housing
  • 13. Disaster Housing Options
    • Shelters (Immediate Needs)
      • Red Cross and local government shelters
      • Transitional shelters (i.e. hotels and motels – may be covered by FEMA during Presidentially declared events)
    • Temporary Repairs or Repair and Replacement Assistance
      • Blue Roof (often conducted by USACE, quick repairs to damaged roofs on private homes. This assistance allows residents to return to and remain in their own homes while performing permanent repairs
      • For Presidentially declared disasters, FEMA provides up to $30,000 for home repairs or replacement dependant on the level of damage
  • 14. Disaster Housing Options
    • Current Housing Stock
      • FEMA and States can work in partnership to inventory and utilize available rental units.
        • Public Housing
        • Privately owned apartments
    • If Necessary, Temporary Housing Units (Mobile Homes) are a last option
      • Usually only used when infrastructure is significantly damaged and no rental units are available within a reasonable commuting distance
    • FEMA launched the Alternative Housing Pilot Program following Katrina and Rita
      • “ Katrina Cottages”
      • Potential grants for planned communities using these units
  • 15. Semi-Permanent Disaster Housing
    • “ Katrina Cottages”
    • In 2006, Congress provided FEMA the authority to test an alternative housing pilot program (AHPP) on the Gulf Coast
    • Alternatives: both temporary and permanent structures, some with steel framing, some that are expandable, some that can be assembled quickly, and some that can be easily stored for future use
    • At the end of the program, those same state grantees may sell, transfer, or lease the units
  • 16. Semi-Permanent Disaster Housing
  • 17. Acquisition and Demolition (or Relocation)
    • Potential funding sources:
    • Hazard Mitigation Grant Program
      • Post Disaster
    • Flood Mitigation Assistance Program
      • Properties must have flood insurance
    • Repetitive Flood Claims Program
      • Properties must have flood insurance
    • Pre Disaster Mitigation Program
    • Community Development Block Grants
      • HUD
      • Passed to State and to “Entitlement Communities” (Pop. > 50,000, County pop. > 200,000)
    • HUD Unmet Needs
  • 18. Acquisition and Demolition
    • Community (subgrantee) purchases home from a willing seller
      • No eminent domain
    • Pre-event or current market value, as appropriate (need documentation)
    • Repetitive Loss properties often prioritized
    • Deed restriction on the property – open space in perpetuity
      • Conserve/restore natural floodplain function
    • Property can’t be contaminated with hazardous materials
      • Other than incidental demolition or household waste
    • Property cannot be part of a future project that will use the land
      • i.e. roads, levees, restrooms or open space administration buildings
  • 19. Hazard Mitigation Grant Program
    • Additional 15% of combined Individual and Public Assistance funding available for Hazard Mitigation projects
    • 75% Federal/25% local
    • HMGP administered by the State, in partnership with FEMA
      • HMGP Administration Plan that can be readily enacted following
    • Must be cost-beneficial based on FEMA benefit cost methodology
    • Communities must have a local hazard mitigation plan time of obligation
    • Examples of use in Colorado for Acquisition and Relocation
      • La Junta (Flood)
      • Colorado Springs/Manitou Springs (Landslide)
  • 20. Acquisition and Demolition
  • 21. Reconstruction and Non-Profits
    • Non-profits often provide essential services in terms of clearing debris, cleaning properties and re-building homes
    • Alaska, 2009 (Eller and Gerber)
      • Significant flooding impacted rural areas
        • Areas not easily accessible by road
      • Unorthodox Pilot Program
        • FEMA used direct agreements with non-profits
        • Paid for volunteer travel, supplies, logistics and administration support in lieu of for-profit contractors
        • Christian Reformed World Relief Committee (CRWRC)
        • Mennonite Disaster Services (MDS)
        • Samaritans Purse (SP)
      • Non-profits built and repaired homes
        • supported other human services needs (including cash)
      • NVOAD organizations provided $3,818,865 worth of services
        • 14 homes built, 40 repaired
        • Federal direct investment was significantly less
  • 22. Disaster Housing Resources
  • 23. Interim Disaster Housing Resources
    • American Red Cross and local governmental or voluntary organizations may use hotel or motel rooms to temporarily shelter the survivors. These short-term stays provide time for the arrangement of more appropriate housing venues.
    • Federal assistance often does not come early in this cycle, if at all (while on average there have been about 50 disaster declarations per year, in many instances, federal help is neither requested nor granted.
  • 24. Interim Disaster Housing Resources
    • Rental properties where available are first and best option for interim housing
      • Identify resources for disabled residents
    • Manufactured Housing
      • On-Property Housing
      • Group Sites
      • Katrina Cottages
  • 25. Interim Disaster Housing
    • Rental Assistance
    • American Red Cross, The Salvation Army, other voluntary and faith-based organizations
    • HHS Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)
    • HUD Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) Emergency Funds
    • USDA Rural Development Disaster Loans/Grants
    • Must meet eligibility requirements related to income for
    • federal rental assistance programs
  • 26. Interim Disaster Housing Resources
    • Local Public Housing Authorities (PHAs)
    • Under Section 408, the most common form of aid is financial assistance. This help, available to both homeowners and renters who have lost their primary residence, is used by survivors to rent temporary replacement housing while their homes are repaired and while they are pursuing employment that will allow them to resume their own rent payments.
  • 27. FEMA Disaster Housing Assistance
    • Rental assistance for renters and homeowners displaced from their primary residence by a disaster
    • Home repair or replacement assistance for homeowners displaced from their primary residence
    • Direct housing for homeowners or renters (manufactured homes, federal-provided assistance)
    • Maximum financial assistance: $30,000/household
  • 28. FEMA Disaster Housing Assistance
    • Agency officials record the address of the residence, either the home or the rental unit, and then dispatch a contract housing inspector to meet with the victim. The purpose of this meeting is to verify the reported damage and to gather information on the habitability of the home.
  • 29. FEMA Disaster Housing Assistance
    • Public Assistance Funding for Public Housing Facilities
    • Since 2008, disaster damaged public housing facilities in declared counties may be eligible for Public Assistance
    • Emergency work (debris removal, demolition)
    • Permanent work (repair, replacement, reconstruction)
  • 30. FEMA Disaster Housing Assistance
    • FEMA Individual and Housing-Related Assistance 1998-2008 (in billions)
    • Housing Repairs 2.900
    • Other Needs Assistance (ONA) 1.500
    • Individual and Family Grants (IFG) 1.300
    • Mobile Homes and Trailers 1.100
    • Rental Assistance 0.964
    • Replacement Assistance 0.272
    • Lodging 0.021
    • Source: FEMA, Office of Legislative Affairs
  • 31. Permanent Disaster Housing
    • SBA Disaster Loan Program
    • FEMA (Direct Assistance) for permanent home construction, where no other options exist
    • HUD (Mortgage Assistance/Foreclosure Moratorium)
    • USDA Rural Development (grants, loans, rental assistance)
    • DOE (information, resources and training for reconstruction)
    • Local-State Economic/Community Development Agencies
    • VOAD member agencies (CRWRC, Mennonites)
    • Private Sector (builders, developers, lenders)
  • 32. Permanent Disaster Housing
    • SBA Disaster Loan Program
    • Home Disaster Loans
      • Up to $200,000 at 2.5% to replace primary home
      • Homeowners/renters up to $400,000 for personal property (2.5%)
    • Business Disaster Loans
      • Up to $2 million at 4%
    • Economic Injury Disaster Loans (EIDL)
      • For businesses unable to meet obligations as a result of a disaster
  • 33. Permanent Disaster Housing
    • Community Process
    • Government
      • Infrastructure repairs, land use planning, service extensions, capital improvements programming, building codes, hazard mitigation
    • Private Sector
      • Market characteristics, sustainable development, green/energy-efficient technologies, affordable housing, banks and mortgage lenders, insurance
    • Citizens
      • Homeowners, landlords, renters, community groups
  • 34. Disaster Housing Lessons from Previous Disasters
  • 35. Operation Safe Haven
    • Shelter Management
    • Shelter Site Selection
      • Congregate care
      • Mass feeding
    • Red Cross to the rescue !
      • Formalizing lead role
    • Volunteer Coordination
    • Non-Traditional Partners (COVA)
    • Utility and Damage Deposits
    • The Salvation Army to the rescue!
  • 36. Operation Safe Haven
    • Long-Term Recovery Committee
      • Dealing with extraordinary unmet needs
      • Coordination of case management
    • Formalizing Relationships with Nonprofit Partners
      • Establishing a paper trail for reimbursement
      • Need for formal delegation of responsibility
    • FEMA Public Assistance Program
    • Host-State Shelter Plans
      • EQ Planning/Utah’s Wasatch Front
  • 37. Case Study - Iowa Flooding Source: www.gazetteonline.com
  • 38. Temporary Housing Mission
      • Thousands of homes destroyed in the 2008 flood – 4000 alone in Cedar Rapids
      • At its peak, there were 564 occupied FEMA Temporary Housing Units in an operational area of roughly 7500 square miles
      • 600 commercial site and 80 private site installations
      • FEMA leased commercial sites in Cedar Rapids, Coralville (Iowa City), Waterloo/Cedar Falls, and some of the affected small towns
        • Private Sites generally approved in small towns without commercial sites.
  • 39. Temporary Housing Mission
    • Generally the temporary housing mission was very successful
    • Temporary Housing served as an anchor
    • Most customers were extremely grateful for having their own place to live
    • That being said, there were significant operational challenges that are worth discussing
  • 40. Takeaway Lessons
    • Anticipate all potential conditions when creating contract specs
    • Program managers, set up financial procedures before program starts operations – document everything!
    • Do not overreact to any problem, think through your options, even (especially) if there is media pressure
  • 41. Fourmile Canyon Fire
    • Boulder Housing Authority
      • Cash Donations (Foothills United Way)
    • Rebuilding Issues
      • Under-insurance
      • Hazardous Debris
      • Relaxing Building Codes
      • Flood/Debris Flow Preparedness and Mitigation
  • 42. Fourmile Canyon Fire
    • State Rental Assistance (three mos. + deposit if qualified)
      • TANF (HHS)
      • CDBG (HUD)
      • Eligibility
    • SBA Disaster Loan Program
      • Home Loans: 44 applications/11 approved
      • Business/EIDL Loans: 20 applications/3 approved
    Total SBA Loan Assistance for Fourmile Canyon Fire: = $1,674,100
  • 43. 1999 Floods and Landslides
  • 44. 1999 Floods and Landslides
    • Significant flooding on Fountain Creek and the Arkansas River
    • As much as 13+ inches throughout the Arkansas Basin, Damages to Colorado Springs and 12 Eastern counties estimated at $100,000,000
    • Over 400 homes damaged or destroyed
    • Manitou Springs
    • 3 properties were condemned
      • slow moving landslide.
      • Properties were purchased, demolished and converted to open space.
    • La Junta
    • 53 damaged homes in North La Junta purchased, demolished, converted to open space.
    • Funds included HMGP, FMA, HUD Unmet Needs and CDBG
  • 45. Delivery of Disaster Housing Assistance
  • 46. Locating Disaster Housing Resources
    • www.coloradohousingsearch.com
      • Socialserve.com
      • 2011 Initiative
    • Housing Resources Reference Guide
    • Public Messaging
  • 47. Insurance
    • Primary source of post-disaster housing assistance
    • Insurance coverage in Colorado is generally strong
      • Contributes to decisions about disaster declarations
    • Common exclusions:
      • Flood (covered through NFIP)
      • Earthquake
      • Intentional Loss
      • “ Earth Movement” (landslide)
      • Increased costs due to new building codes
        • Possible to purchase additional to insurance to cover this
    • Additional Living Expenses
      • Usually Included
      • Helps with costs of hotel, rental car and other needs while home is being fixed
    • Resources: Rocky Mountain Insurance Information Assocation; Colorado Deparment of Regulatory Affairs, Division of Insurance
  • 48. Insurance – What you Should Know
    • Insurance typically covers:
      • Fire and lightning
      • Windstorm or hail
      • Aircraft
      • Vehicles
      • Smoke
      • Theft/vandalism
      • Falling objects
      • Ice/Snow load
      • Freezing of plumbing, heating, AC etc
    • Replacement Cost
      • Not market value
    • Common Methods:
    • Actual Cash Value
      • Replacement cost minus depreciation
    • Replacement Coverage
      • Cost without deduction for depreciation
        • Coverage limits on this type of policy
        • Important to keep up-to-date on coverage
    • Extended Replacement
      • Covers costs up to a certain percentage over the limit (generally 20%)
      • Helps defray increased construction costs
  • 49. Wildfire Insurance – What you Should Know
    • Create a home inventory
      • Can you remember all of your possessions and how much they cost?
    • In Colorado, insurance companies often ask homeowners to mitigation according to local codes and Firewise program recommendations:
      • Defensible space within 30’ of the home
      • Remove branches that overhang the roof or within 15 feet of the of the chimney
      • Keep woodpiles and propane tanks at least 30 feet away from structures
    • Insurance companies frequently inspecting homes
  • 50. Flood Insurance – What you Should Know
    • Available to all homeowners, renters and businesses in jurisdictions that participate in National Flood Insurance Program
    • Homeowners Policy does not cover flood insurance (same for Earthquake)
    • Insurance can be purchased at any time, but there is a 30 day waiting period
      • If flood is imminent and one tries to buy insurance, it will not take effect in time
    • Does not cover basement improvements
      • Cover structural elements, essential equipment and other basic items normally in the basement
    • Required for homes purchased with Federally backed mortgages in the Special Flood Hazard Area (100 year floodplain)
      • 20-25% of insurance claims come from outside the SFHA
    • *Proactive communities participating in the Community Rating System can lower insurance premiums
  • 51. Fair Housing Act
    • Provides protections against discrimination in housing based on race, national origin, gender, disability, religion and familial status
    • FHA provisions still apply in disaster setting and should be included in strategies, public messaging and advertising related to disaster housing
    • Fair Housing Disaster Toolkit
      • http://www.hud.gov/offices/fheo/library/FHEO-DisasterToolkit.pdf
  • 52. Housing and Public Information
    • Pre-developed consistent, unified message essential
      • Quick fact sheets will be distributed to “front line” PIOs
    • Coloradohousingsearch.com will be marketed heavily before a disaster to increase available listings
      • In 2009, website was 2 nd only to Craig’s list in number of listings for Colorado properties
    • Unified public messaging around housing should reduce number of “grassroots” housing websites
    • COEmergency Facebook page will be tested during March Tornado exercise
      • Push out Housing and Donations/Volunteers related information
  • 53.
    • Provide additional assistance for applicants once they have exhausted assistance through insurance, SBA and FEMA:
        • home repairs/rebuilding
        • furniture
        • transportation
        • medical bills
        • behavioral health services
        • case management
        • other unmet needs
    Long-Term Recovery Committees Committees are organized with local leaders, citizens, civic groups, faith-based and voluntary organizations
  • 54. Elements of a Disaster Housing Toolkit
  • 55. Disaster Housing Toolkit
    • Resource Rental Database
    • Related Web Sites/Navigation Instructions
    • Shelter Database
    • Disaster Housing Plan or Strategy
    • Public Information Plan/PSAs for Landlords
    • Standing Disaster Housing Task Force or Committee
    • Existing Housing Programs (Section 8, CDBG, TANF)
    • Cooperative Training and Exercises
  • 56. Disaster Housing Case Management
    • Family Intake Process
    • Consolidated Assistance Network (CAN)
    • Release of Information (ROI) Form
    • Organizations that Do Disaster Case Management
    • NVOAD Points of Consensus on Disaster Case Management
    • Coordination with Long-Term Recovery Committees
  • 57. Developing a State or Local Disaster Housing Strategy
  • 58. National Disaster Housing Strategy
    • Describes how Nation provides disaster housing and recommends improvements
    • Describes broad range of organizations involved
    • Articulates key principles that guide disaster housing
    • Affirms disaster housing roles and responsibilities
    • Seeks to build capabilities to provide broad range of flexible housing options
    • Better integrates disaster housing assistance w/related community services and long-term recovery efforts
  • 59. National Disaster Housing Strategy
    • Implementation Goals
    • Support efforts to return to self-sufficiency
    • Affirm fundamental housing roles/responsibilities
    • Increase ability to meet the needs of all disaster survivors, including individuals with disabilities
    • Build capabilities to provide a broad range of options
    • Integrate housing with related services/recovery efforts
    • Improve disaster housing planning
    • Engage full range of partners/ensure federal laws followed
  • 60. State-Led Disaster Housing Task Force
    • SLDHTF Kickoff meeting held in May 2010
    • Brings together State Agencies
      • Dept. of Local Affairs (Housing, Emergency Management, Local Government), Dept. of Human Services (Supportive Housing and Homeless Programs)
    • Federal Partners
      • FEMA, HUD and USDA Rural Development
    • Private and Non-Profit Partners
      • Colorado Coalition for the Homeless, Colorado Housing and Finance Authority, American Red Cross, Colorado Manufactured Housing Association
  • 61. Mission -- Disaster Housing TF
    • Organize housing authorities to collaborate in the development of a joint, comprehensive housing plan that maximizes the availability and use of all housing options
      • Plan should establish framework for preparing for and responding to potential disaster events that necessitate a housing mission
      • Should ensure effective and efficient implementation of disaster housing programs in partnership with local, state, federal, nonprofit and private sector stakeholders
  • 62. Mission -- Disaster Housing TF
      • Preparedness Activities
      • Identify risks (and potential housing scenarios), develop capabilities and identify potential gaps
      • Response Activities
      • Evaluate housing requirements (review or participate in PDA), discuss potential solutions, develop recommendations, support local governments and various stakeholders in implementing housing programs
  • 63. Colorado Disaster Housing TF
    • Disability Organizations/Advocacy Groups
      • Colorado Cross Disability Coalition (CCDC)
      • Area Agencies on Aging
    • Pets and Companion Animals
      • Colorado Veterinary Medical Reserve Corps (CVMRC)
      • Community Animal Response Teams (CARTs)
    • Damage Assessment
      • CDEM/Local OEM Offices
      • Colorado Chapter Inc. (ICC)
    • Shelters/Family Intake
      • American Red Cross
  • 64. Colorado Disaster Housing Strategy
    • Holistic Re-housing Strategy
      • Monthly rental assistance/security & utility deposits
      • Case management services
      • Permanent housing solutions
    • Initiates at the “lowest” level (local public housing authorities)
    • Disaster Housing Toolkit
  • 65. Local Disaster Housing Plans
    • Recommendations (Pre-Disaster)
    • Assess capabilities and available resources to provide sheltering, interim housing and permanent housing
    • Engage local housing authorities and voluntary agencies in disaster housing planning
    • Assess availability of housing resources to meet unique needs of citizenry (disabled, elderly, low-income, undocumented residents, ethnic groups with language barriers, group/foster homes, homeless residents)
    • Develop local/community disaster housing plan
  • 66. Local Disaster Housing Strategies
    • Post-Disaster
    • Identify/prioritize housing needs (Human Services/OEM)
    • Identify available resources (Housing Authority, Human Services
    • Identify available housing programs and sequence of delivery (OEM, Housing Authority, Human Services)
    • Identify need for alternative forms of housing assistance (manufactured housing, mobile homes, travel trailers)
  • 67. THANK YOU
    • Questions/Discussion
    • Bob Wold, Recovery Manager
      • DOLA, Division of Emergency Management
      • [email_address]
    • Iain Hyde, Mitigation Specialist
      • DOLA, Division of Emergency Management
      • [email_address]

×