Creating Shared Value for Rice in
Latin America and the Caribbean

      César P. Martínez

      Knowledge Sharing Week

...
Rice Research at CIAT
• Must take into account:
  Internal/external environments.
• INTERNAL :
• Change Process in CGIAR: ...
CIAT Mission

To reduce hunger and
       poverty
through research that
      increases
 the Eco-efficiency of
     Agricu...
EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
•   RICE TRENDS
•   CLIMATE CHANGE
•   SOILS MANAGEMENT
•   PRODUCTION SYSTEMS
•   FUNDING OPPORTUNIT...
40                                    2.5                          800                                     5.0
           ...
Trends in grain yield(kg/ha) in different rice
growing regions(1960-2006). Patricio Mendez del Villar, 2008
Rice Growth Rates by Regions
         in America
     Variable      Caribbean   Cent ral   Nort h   Sout h
 Yield         ...
Monthly Average Price of Rice in USD Fob in Bangkok,
Houston and Ho Chi Minh City. (source: Osiriz/Infoarroz)
RICE PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION WORLDWIDE



                        A FRAGILE BALANCE 2000-2005




PATRICIO MENDEZ del V...
ESTIMATED RICE DEFICIT BY REGIONS
2018
Future Needs (Pulver, 2007)


600


500
                                         150
                                     ...
The rainfall increases from 1089.37mm to 1186mm
The wet season gets wetter with 573.56mm instead of 217.21mm in the wettes...
Estimated Changes in Rainfall and Temperature in LAC
   Based on 2050 climate compared to 1960-2000
                     c...
CHANGES in FERTILIZER’S PRICE
         COLOMBIA - 2008


                        NATIONAL AVERAGE
                        ...
SUMMARY




   In agreement with FLAR:
   see Poster # 84
Challenges for Rice
• Yield potential
• Tolerance to biotic/ abiotic stresses
• Climate change
• Competitiveness of rice
 ...
RATIONALE
Rice is the leading food staple in LAC, and demand for rice is growing.
LAC’s abundant land and water resources ...
Strategic Goals for Rice
    Goal: To improve rice production
sustainability in LAC, generating food
security,    increasi...
Objectives
• Development of improved rice lines with higher yield and
  nutritional value
• Utilization of wild rice speci...
Strategies

• The Rice Program will focus on strengthening
  the rice sector of LAC.
• Strong research and technology plat...
OUTPUTS
Output 1: Rice germplasm for improving human health and nutrition in Latin America and the
   Caribbean
   Three M...
OUTPUT ONE: Genotype x Environment experiments conducted by INTA. Nicaragua in two
  locations (2008)


                  ...
Potential Impact of Saavedra 27
        in the Bolivian Diet
       La Contribución a la Ingesta de Hierro
               ...
Output 2: Broaden Genetic Base

     Grain Yield of several rice genotypes evaluated under
     rainfed conditions in Buen...
Output 3:Platform
                       Caiapó x MG12 CSSLs Population
     Oryza sativa     Oryza glaberrima   Heterozyg...
Phenotypic Platform for Gene Technology
     Evaluation in Rice - Palmira
LINKAGES

• Impact Studies(D.White): Impact Study of Cirad’s rice genetic
resources in LAC.
Salomon Pérez(AgroSalud): Prel...
REACHING-END USERS
•   1- Development of Breeding, Genomic and Training Tools:
•   2- DELIVERY STRATEGY:
•   Breeding Tool...
• Thanks for your kind attention and
  comments

 c.p.martinez@cgiar.org




                  Eco-efficient Agriculture f...
Creating Shared Value for Rice in Latin America and the Caribbean
Creating Shared Value for Rice in Latin America and the Caribbean
Creating Shared Value for Rice in Latin America and the Caribbean
Creating Shared Value for Rice in Latin America and the Caribbean
Creating Shared Value for Rice in Latin America and the Caribbean
Creating Shared Value for Rice in Latin America and the Caribbean
Creating Shared Value for Rice in Latin America and the Caribbean
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Creating Shared Value for Rice in Latin America and the Caribbean

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Presentation by César P. Martínez for the CIAT KSW 2009

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  • Creating Shared Value for Rice in Latin America and the Caribbean

    1. 1. Creating Shared Value for Rice in Latin America and the Caribbean César P. Martínez Knowledge Sharing Week CIAT , Palmira May 21, 2009 Eco-efficient Agriculture for the Poor
    2. 2. Rice Research at CIAT • Must take into account: Internal/external environments. • INTERNAL : • Change Process in CGIAR: IRRI-CIAT- WARDA Strategic Alliance • CIAT Strategic Plan 2010-2012 • EXTERNAL: Trends, food crisis, climate change, high prices of fertilizers, etc. • LAC comparative advantages Eco-efficient Agriculture for the Poor
    3. 3. CIAT Mission To reduce hunger and poverty through research that increases the Eco-efficiency of Agriculture for the Poor Eco-efficient Agriculture for the Poor
    4. 4. EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT • RICE TRENDS • CLIMATE CHANGE • SOILS MANAGEMENT • PRODUCTION SYSTEMS • FUNDING OPPORTUNITIES • CHALLENGES • And so on. Eco-efficient Agriculture for the Poor
    5. 5. 40 2.5 800 5.0 Africa ar Asia /ye ea r .1% 2.0 4.0 Tonnes/Ha Tonnes/Ha 30 1 600 /y % Millions Millions 2 .6 1.5 3.0 20 400 1.0 2.0 10 0.5 200 1.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1961 1980 2008 1961 1980 2008 40 r 4.0 12 8.0 Latin America ea North America ar & Caribbean %/y /ye Tonnes/Ha Tonnes/Ha 30 .5 3.0 9 .0% 6.0 Millions Millions 3 2 20 2.0 6 4.0 10 1.0 3 2.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1961 1980 2008 1961 1980 2008 Production (Tonnes) Area harvested (Ha) Consumption (Tonnes) Yield (Tonnes/Ha) Production, Area, Consumption (paddy) and Yield by regions Periods 1961, 1980 and projections for 2008
    6. 6. Trends in grain yield(kg/ha) in different rice growing regions(1960-2006). Patricio Mendez del Villar, 2008
    7. 7. Rice Growth Rates by Regions in America Variable Caribbean Cent ral Nort h Sout h Yield 1.70 1.79 1.24 2.17 Prod uction√ 3.01 1.48 2.72 2.42 Harvested area√ 1.32 -0.31 1.48 0.25 Comsumption 2.87 3.46 -- 2.88 (pad d y)√ Food (milled ) 2.81 3.33 4.49 2.56 Population√ 1.46 2.41 1.04 2.05
    8. 8. Monthly Average Price of Rice in USD Fob in Bangkok, Houston and Ho Chi Minh City. (source: Osiriz/Infoarroz)
    9. 9. RICE PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION WORLDWIDE A FRAGILE BALANCE 2000-2005 PATRICIO MENDEZ del VILLAR,2008
    10. 10. ESTIMATED RICE DEFICIT BY REGIONS 2018
    11. 11. Future Needs (Pulver, 2007) 600 500 150 millones 400 Déficit 300 2002/05 2010 2015 2030
    12. 12. The rainfall increases from 1089.37mm to 1186mm The wet season gets wetter with 573.56mm instead of 217.21mm in the wettest quarter and is 2.53oC hotter The dry season gets wetter with 11mm in the dryest quarter and an increase in temperature of 3.06oC Overall this climate becomes less seasonal in terms of variability through the year in precipitation Temperatures increase, with a mean increase of 2.74oC The maximum temperature of the hottest month increases from 34.36oC to 38.28oC The minimum temperature of the coldest month increases from 14.98oC to 17.1oC The daily range in temperature increases from 12.63oC to 13.76oC The length of the dry season decreases from 6.78 months to 6.46 months The coefficient of variation of predictions between models is 5.54% for temperature and 14.03% for precipitation 160 40 Current Precipitation Future Precipitation Max T Current 140 35 Mean T Current Min T Current Max T Future 120 30 Mean T Future Min T Future Precipitation (mm) Temperature (oC) 100 25 80 20 60 15 40 10 20 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Month 8 9 10 11 12 0 Rice These results are based on the 2050 climate compared with the 1960-2000 climate. Future climate data is derived from 12 GCM models from the 4th IPCC assessment, run under the A2a scenario (business as usual).
    13. 13. Estimated Changes in Rainfall and Temperature in LAC Based on 2050 climate compared to 1960-2000 climate Total annual Annual mean Precipitation Temperature Country rainfall change temperature coefficient of coefficient of (mm) change (mm) variation (%) variation(%) Bolivia -13.99 2.84 7.77 4.32 Brazil 7.91 2.55 5.87 3.90 Colombia 50.02 2.38 6.00 3.54 Ecuador 118.39 2.08 6.52 2.69 Nicaragua -120.54 2.29 9.20 2.80 Suriname -120.69 2.24 14.30 3.54 Uruguay 73.53 1.86 6.80 4.91 United States -39.20 2.78 6.89 5.53
    14. 14. CHANGES in FERTILIZER’S PRICE COLOMBIA - 2008 NATIONAL AVERAGE COL. Pesos / Ton JANUARY SEPTEM BER INCREASE UREA 1,355,667 2,116,000 56.09% DAP 1,918,667 2,949,333 53.72% KCL 1,527,333 2,573,200 68.48% Note: Trasportation costs are included Source: Fedearroz
    15. 15. SUMMARY In agreement with FLAR: see Poster # 84
    16. 16. Challenges for Rice • Yield potential • Tolerance to biotic/ abiotic stresses • Climate change • Competitiveness of rice sector( production costs, high cost of fertilizers) • Reaching end-users • Technology transfer • Training of new rice scientists Eco-efficient Agriculture for the Poor
    17. 17. RATIONALE Rice is the leading food staple in LAC, and demand for rice is growing. LAC’s abundant land and water resources give it the potential to be a supplier of rice to the world. During 1990-2004 rice yield in LAC expanded annually at 3.5%. There are unique pests and diseases in LAC, as well as distinct grain types and cropping systems. There is a need to develop germplasm and technology appropriate for diverse type of rice production systems and different breeding strategies and rice materials are needed. Eco-efficient rice production systems, with high productivity and low impact on the environment are critical for the future. Climate models for LAC are predicting 2-3 oC increases in mean temperature and greater variability in rainfall distribution. Rice lines with improved water-use efficiency and more resilience to temperature changes will be the Rice Program contribution to mitigate climate change. Eco-efficient Agriculture for the Poor
    18. 18. Strategic Goals for Rice Goal: To improve rice production sustainability in LAC, generating food security, increasing income and improving health associated with Eco- Efficient production in the tropics with emphasis on increasing the options for the medium-small farmers. To develop stronger partnerships in the region, increasing the capacity to deliver the technological products to the targeted end users. Eco-efficient Agriculture for the Poor
    19. 19. Objectives • Development of improved rice lines with higher yield and nutritional value • Utilization of wild rice species and synthetic populations for the development of resilient rice germplasm to respond to climate change with high yield potential, tolerance to main insect pest and diseases, and good grain quality • Development of rice lines with improved water and nitrogen-use efficiency by complementing conventional approaches with advanced biotechnology tools that include molecular markers and transgenics. • Development of a regional hybrid rice project supported by a wide public-private partnership. • Promoting best management practices and technology transfer to close the yield gap by working with NARs, farmer’s associations and private sector. Eco-efficient Agriculture for the Poor
    20. 20. Strategies • The Rice Program will focus on strengthening the rice sector of LAC. • Strong research and technology platform driven by CIAT-FLAR-EMBRAPA consortium including CIRAD-IRD partners in close collaboration with interested NARs. • Building on IRRI-CIAT-WARDA strategic alliance. • Building on win-win partnerships with private sector and advanced institutions/lab. • Combining breeding with biotechnology tools. Eco-efficient Agriculture for the Poor
    21. 21. OUTPUTS Output 1: Rice germplasm for improving human health and nutrition in Latin America and the Caribbean Three Millenium Goals and food security are deal with this output. Women and children are especially susceptible to iron and zinc deficiencies and vitamin A. The costs of these deficiencies are high and economic and health indicators in LAC are deteriorating. Biofortified rice lines will be Rice Program’s contribution to combat malnutrition in LAC. Output 2: Enhanced Gene Pools for Irrigated and Upland Rice in LAC. The genetic base of both irrigated and upland rice in LAC is very narrow. Different breeding strategies and biotechnology tools in place to broaden the genetic base. Several traits of agronomic importance, and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, have been transferred from several wild rice species into improved rice cultivars. Recombination of favorable alleles associated with desirable agronomic traits, including tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, will allow development of germplasm for diverse types of production systems in line with an eco-efficient rice production. Output 3: Genotypic and Phenotypic Platforms for Rice Enhancement A lot of molecular and phenotypic data have been generated in rice on different agronomic traits, a field phenotyping platform is in place, and transformed rice lines with drought tolerance are available. CIAT has permission from the Colombian National Biosafety Committee and excellent biosafety and field facilities for the generation and testing of transformed rice. A marker-assisted selection program is underway to combine phenotypic and molecular data. Lines with better water and nitrogen-use efficiency will allow savings in water and fertilizer costs. Eco-efficient Agriculture for the Poor
    22. 22. OUTPUT ONE: Genotype x Environment experiments conducted by INTA. Nicaragua in two locations (2008) Irrigated Upland Sebaco Posoltega Fe Zn Fe Zn Genotypes (mg/kg) sdt (mg/kg) sdt (mg/kg) sdt (mg/kg) sdt FLO 3001-MP2-1P-3P-M 5.47 0.48 14.70 0.56 5.97 0.26 10.78 1.03 FLO 3724-3P-5-1P-M 6.00 0.20 17.68 1.63 6.43 1.73 14.60 2.95 FLO 3779-4P-9-3P-1P-M 6.63 1.42 16.29 1.22 5.61 0.28 14.65 3.86 FLO 3801-1P-1-1P-2P-M 5.23 0.69 17.17 0.94 5.29 0.11 15.07 0.98 FLO 4052-2P-3-2P-2P-M 5.47 0.32 16.01 0.33 7.25 0.91 14.62 0.92 CIWINI 4.74 0.74 13.81 0.63 5.28 0.45 11.67 0.80 CT 15679-17-2-7-5-5-M 5.38 0.08 22.53 0.94 5.41 0.68 13.44 1.20 CT 15679-17-1-1-1-4-M 4.09 0.41 20.99 0.57 5.54 0.77 12.27 1.08 CT 15679-3-4-2-3-3-M 4.69 0.19 20.82 0.41 5.57 1.06 15.09 0.76 CT 15691-4-5-2-2-1-M 5.78 1.36 16.24 0.74 7.53 0.67 13.04 1.41 ISA-40 5.30 0.41 15.44 0.23 7.51 2.81 12.24 0.34 CT 15679-17-1-4-5-2-M 4.47 0.53 20.67 1.17 5.81 1.87 14.21 1.03 INTA DORADO 6.45 0.88 12.37 0.52 7.63 1.18 11.40 6.08 FEDEARROZ-50 5.36 0.62 20.20 0.25 6.92 1.06 12.76 4.48 M ean 4.98 16.05 5.77 12.36
    23. 23. Potential Impact of Saavedra 27 in the Bolivian Diet La Contribución a la Ingesta de Hierro y Zinc 700 600 500 Microgramo 400 P aitití s/día 300 Tari 200 Saavedra 27 100 0 Hierro Zinc Saavedra 27, could contribute 197 µg of iron per day and 627 µg of zinc per day to the Bolivian diet. This means 18% y 28% more iron than Paitití and Tari, respectively and 17% and 5% more zinc compared to Paitití and Tari, respectively.
    24. 24. Output 2: Broaden Genetic Base Grain Yield of several rice genotypes evaluated under rainfed conditions in Buenaventura, Valle. Colombia. BS Thesis. Yener Caicedo. Universidad del Pacifico. 2008 Genotypes Climate data: Rainfall 6.400mm Temp:25-26 oC;Daylight:3 hr/day; Rel.humidity:86-88%. Low fertility
    25. 25. Output 3:Platform Caiapó x MG12 CSSLs Population Oryza sativa Oryza glaberrima Heterozygous Missing data Alien 64 lines covering the whole Oryza glaberrima genome Small regions lacking on Chr. 2 and 4 Genotyping with 200 SSRs (125 automatically selected by CSSL Finder program) Strong distortion segregation on Chr.6
    26. 26. Phenotypic Platform for Gene Technology Evaluation in Rice - Palmira
    27. 27. LINKAGES • Impact Studies(D.White): Impact Study of Cirad’s rice genetic resources in LAC. Salomon Pérez(AgroSalud): Preliminary impact studies on the adoption of rice varieties having more iron and zinc in Bolivia • Climate Change(GIS): Better assessment of changes in rainfall, temperature and solar radiation in specific rice growing areas. • Soils: Phenotypic platform in place for nitrogen-use efficiency. Link with I. Rao • Improved Crop Management and water harvest technologies (FLAR): There is a need for additional help. • Capacity Building and Training: Genotypic and Phenotypic Platform Eco-efficient Agriculture for the Poor
    28. 28. REACHING-END USERS • 1- Development of Breeding, Genomic and Training Tools: • 2- DELIVERY STRATEGY: • Breeding Tools: Rice lines, parental sources, and populations • CIAT’s Nurseries delivered via FLAR(16 members), AgroSalud (7 members), IRRI-INGER Global, Seed Companies, Universities, etc. SMTA is used. • Genomic Tools: Introgression lines, CSSLs, maps, software, databases, protocols and markers • Delivered to interested partners, advanced lab. , universities, GCP (projects) • 3- Training Tools and Capacity Building: Reports, Books, Papers, Conferences, Workshops • Several means are used: • Web pages: CIAT, Rice Program, AgroSalud • Print materials : bulletins, books , papers. • Participation in Conferences and Training Courses, in house-service training, Workshops and Field days • Phenotypic and Genomic Platform linked to Biotechnology Platform. Eco-efficient Agriculture for the Poor
    29. 29. • Thanks for your kind attention and comments c.p.martinez@cgiar.org Eco-efficient Agriculture for the Poor
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