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AugustinMercado-icraf-conservationagriculturewithtreesintopical uplands


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The population in the tropical uplands particularly in the Southeast Asia is rapidly increasing, but the natural resources are dwindling and degrading. Presentation provides evidence of Conservation Agriculture with Trees increasing crop yields, soil organic matter and income and resilience to environmental stresses (drought, intense rainfall, typhoons), while reducing labor and capital costs.

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AugustinMercado-icraf-conservationagriculturewithtreesintopical uplands

  1. 1. Agus%n  R  Mercado  Jr1  ,  Rodel  Lasco1  and   Manuel  Reyes2     1World  Agroforestry  Centre  (ICRAF-­‐Philippines)   2North  Carolina  Agricultural  and  Technical  State  University       Conserva%on  Agriculture  With  Trees  for   Sustainable  Crop  Produc%on   Intensifica%on  in  the  Topical  Uplands       Global  Forum  for  Innova%ons  in  Agriculture    9-­‐11  March  2015.  Abu  Dhabi  
  2. 2. Challenges  in  the  tropical  uplands     •  Soils  are  inherently  poor  in  nutrients   par%cularly  P  (acid  soils)   •  Small  farm  size  (2  has  =  5  acres)   •  Inappropriate  farming  prac%ces   •  High  rainfall  (>2500  mm/yr)   •  Soil  erosion  is  high   •  Declining  farm  produc%vity   •  Deforesta%on  in  upper  watersheds   •  Poverty  and  malnutri%on   •  Lives  and  livelihoods  of  the  people  living   at  the  lowland  communi%es  are  affected   by  the  land    degrada%on  at  the  upper   watersheds    
  3. 3. 5  Important  principles  of  CAT  on  Sloping   lands     •  Minimal  soil  disturbance   •  Con2nuous  mulch  or   ground  cover   •  Diverse  crop  species/crop   rota2ons     •  Integra2on  of  trees     •  Integrated  water,     nutrient  and  pests   management  
  4. 4. Conserva%on  agriculture     Trees   Trees     Banana,  fodder  grasses   and  legumes   Conserva%on  agriculture  with  trees  (CAT)  system  as   sloping  lands  management  strategy       •  Minimal  soil  disturbance   •  Con%nuous  mulch  or  ground  cover   •  Crop  rota%ons/Diverse  crop  species    
  5. 5. Resource  flows  of  an  integrated  conserva2on  agriculture  with   trees  (CAT)  system   Households  and  markets  
  6. 6. Examples  of  conserva2on  agriculture  with  trees  (CAT)   Annual  based  systems     Perennial  based  systems  
  7. 7. Impact  of  extreme  events  on  farming  systems     (During  typhoon  Bopha  (Pablo)  275  kph  -­‐2012>  P40  B  damages)   Monoculture  maize   Monoculture  banana   Conserva%on  Agriculture  with  Trees  (CAT)   Quick  recovery  of  CAT  (  5  months  later   Resilience  to  extreme  events!!!!    
  8. 8. Conceptual  Framework  of  Conserva2on  Agriculture   with  Trees  (CAT)  Research  (Philippines)     Inputs/component   research   • Tree  species     • Crops  and  crop   varie2es     • Cropping  paVerns   • Equipment/  planters   • Soil  management   • Crop  nutri2on   • Pests  management   • Insects   • Diseases   • Weeds   Main   Research   •  Conserva2on   Agriculture   produc2on   Systems  with   Trees   (CAPST)  :  Type   1,  2,  &  3  on-­‐farm   experimenta2on     Outputs/Impacts   • Soil  Quality   • Crop  yield   • Total  biomass   • Economics   • Gender   • Technology   networks   • Biodiversity   (earthworms)   Outcomes   • Capacity  (Human   capital)   • Incomes   • Food  security   • Environmental   services  (agri-­‐ diversity,  carbon   sequestra2on,   soil  and  water   conserva2on  )   To  provide  basket  of  op2ons  for  sloping  acid   upland  environments     Scaling  up  
  9. 9. Component  researches   Tree  species     • Rubber  clonal   Evalua2on   • Coffee   • Cacao   • Indigenous  tree   species   Crop  varie%es   • Adlai   • Upland  rice   • Cassava   • Forages   • Herbaceous  legumes   • Maize   • Sorghum   • Cowpea   • Pigeon  pea   • Vegetables   Soil  Management   and  Crop  Nutri2on   • NPK  Omission   experiment   • NPK  rates   • Organic  fer2lizer   sources   • Organic  fer2lizer   op2mum  rate  
  10. 10.                                Long  term  CAPS  trials:  RM  &  FM               Treatments   T1  -­‐  Maize  +  Arachis  pintoi  (AP)  -­‐  Maize  +  AP   T2  -­‐  Maize  +  Sytlosanthes  guinanensis  (SG)-­‐  Fallow   T3  -­‐  Maize  +  Cowpea  (CP)-­‐  Upland  rice  +  CP   T4  -­‐  Maize  +  Rice  beans  (RB)  -­‐  Maize  +  RB   T5  -­‐  Cassava  +  Stylo   T6  .  Farmer’s  prac2ce    
  11. 11. Maize  +  Arachis  pintoi  
  12. 12. Soil  moisture  reten2on     (T1-­‐  Maize  +  Arachis  pintoi;  T6-­‐  monoculture  maize)   0-­‐15  cm  depth   0-­‐30  cm  depth    
  13. 13. Net  benefit  comparison   CAPS  Treatments     Net  benefit  (US $)     (/ha/yr)   Maize  +  Arachis  pintoi  (AP)  -­‐  Maize  +  AP   (2  crops/year)   1503     Maize  –  maize  monoculture   Farmer’s  prac%ce   (2  crops/year)     366  
  14. 14. Arachis  pintoi  harves2ng  in  CAT  system   •  Can  harvest  5,250  kg/ha  of   fresh  herbage  at  21-­‐day   pruning  intervals   •  Can  support  4-­‐6  cows  
  15. 15. Arachis  pintoi  as  feed  for  livestocks  
  16. 16. Benefits  of    Arachis  pintoi    live  mulch  in  CAT     •  No  2llage;  No  herbicide!   •  Controls  erosion  effec2vely     •  Improves  crop  yields   •  Herbage  can  be  harvested   regularly  for  livestocks   (chicken,  pigs,  caVle,  goats,   etc).  Livestock  is  well   integrated  into  CA!!   •  No  turn  around  period   between  crops!!   •  No  reestablishment  cost      
  17. 17. Maize  +  cowpea  /Upland  rice  +  cowpea  
  18. 18. Net  benefit  comparison   CAPS  Treatments       Net  benefit  (US$)   (/ha/yr)     Maize  (mz)+  Cowpea  (CP)-­‐  Upland  rice   (Upl)  +  CP   (2  mz/yr;  4  cp/yr;  1  upl)     2371   Maize  –  maize  monoculture   Farmer’s  prac%ce   (2  crops)     366  
  19. 19. Temporal  varia2on  of  soil  organic  maVer  at  upper   soil  layer  (0-­‐5  cm)  under  various  CAPS  treatments   North  Carolina   Agricultural     and  Technical  State   University   0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 Organic  Matter  (%) OM  at  0-­‐5  cm  @  F1 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6
  20. 20. Component  researches       •  Evalua2on  of  crop  varie2es   that  are  best  for   conserva2on  agriculture   produc2on  systems  that   produce  high  biomass  and   economic  yield  which   includes  forage  grasses,   sorghum,  cassava,  upland   rice,  sweet  potato,  adlai,   cowpea  and  open  pollinated   maize   •  Key  parameters   Biomass yield Economic yield
  21. 21. Adlai (Coix lacryma-jobi L.) for Conservation Agriculture Production Systems   Perennial  cereal  crop!!!!  
  22. 22. Aboveground  total  dry  maVer  yield  of  different   Adlai  varie2es     First  crop   Ratoon  crop    
  23. 23. CAT:  Good  innova%on   Natural  vegeta%ve  filter  strips  establishment   •  Establishment    is  simple  and  low  cost     •  Controls  soil  erosion  efficiently     •  Improves  crop  yields   •  Founda2on  for  agroforestry  establishment  
  24. 24. CAT:  Good  innova%on   Rainwater  harves%ng  through  animal  built  embankment  (ABE)   •  Simple  and  cost  effec2ve     •  Addresses  rainfall  uncertain2es  during  climate  change   •  Reduces  runoff  during  rainfall  extreme  events   •  Opportuni2es  for  related  food,  nutri2onal  and  income  ac2vi2es  by  raising   fish  ,  ducks,  etc   •  Nutrients-­‐loaded  water  improves  crop  yields  
  25. 25. CAT:  Good  innova%on   Organic  fer%lizer  produc%on  through  compos%ng     •  Making  fer2lizer  more  available    and  cheaper  to  cash  poor  farmers.   •  Improves  soil  carbon  stocks     •  Mass   par2cipa2on   of   smallholders   to   climate   change   mi2ga2on   and   adapta2on.      
  26. 26. CAT:  Good  innova%on   Vegetable  agroforestry   •  Improve  vegetable  yields  up  to  40%     •  Habitat  for  wildlife   •  Soil  conserva2on   •  Addi2onal  income  from  2mber  
  27. 27. Scaling  up  CAT  innova2ons  through   Landcare  approach  planorm  
  28. 28. Impact  of  Landcare  Approach  on  Adop%on  of  Soil   Conserva%on  Prac%ce  (NVS)  
  29. 29. Summary     •  Evidences   of   CAT   innova2ons   are   increasing   crop  yields,  soil  organic  maVer  and  income  and   resilience   to   environmental   stresses   (drought,   intense  rainfall,  typhoons),  while  reducing  labor   and  capital  costs.   •  Adop2on  is  now  taking  place  
  30. 30. Summary   •  Government,  non-­‐government  organiza2ons  and   private  companies  should  address  the  barriers  to   CAT  research  and  development  by  providing  funds   and  subsidies,  inves2ng  on  CA  machineries  and   equipment,  strengthen  linkages  between  research   and  development  ac2vi2es   •  Experiences  provided  the  founda2on  that  CAT   innova2ons      are  ready  for  scaling  up  in  Southeast   Asia  and  other  places  in  the  humid  tropics  with   similar  bio-­‐physical  and  socio-­‐economic   environments  
  31. 31. For  informa%on  contact:         Agus2n  R.  Mercado,  Jr..  PhD   World  Agroforestry  Centre  -­‐  Philippines   Thank  you  very  much!