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Do commercial biological and chemical products increase crop yields and economic returns under smallholder farmer conditio...
OUTLINE <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
BACKGROUND <ul><li>Increase in Agro-products appearing on the market in sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) </li></ul><ul><li>Some hav...
OBJECTIVE <ul><li>Screen  and  assess  the  effectiveness  of several Commercial agricultural products and seed technologi...
<ul><li>Category I : Rhizobial Inoculants (Biological Nitrogen Fixation) :   (22 products) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>best-bet ...
CLASSIFICATION OF PRODUCTS <ul><li>Category II:  Other (non-rhizobial)  microbiological products: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mi...
CLASSIFICATION OF PRODUCTS <ul><li>Category III:  Other non-microbial products and seed treatment s : (18 )   </li></ul><u...
 
 
 
 
MATERIALS AND METHODS
MATERIALS AND METHODS Collection of commercial products Green house evaluation Field evaluation Demonstration trials Farme...
Screening of new products and technological options <ul><li>Crops selected and site description </li></ul><ul><li>Kenya : ...
GREENHOUSE ACTIVITIES RESULTS
Greenhouse activities Evaluation of new Rhizobium inoculants in soybean (TGx1740-2F variety) Moses Thuita (PhD student) Co...
Results and discussion Effect of Rhizobium inoculants in soybean  (greenhouse trials) <ul><li>Equal performance in terms o...
Greenhouse activities Evaluation of Rhizobium inoculants in other legumes Samuel Mathu (MSc student) Rizoliq Mineral N Bio...
Greenhouse activities Evaluation of Rhizobium inoculants in other legumes Samuel Mathu (MSc student)
Greenhouse activities Evaluation of Rhizobium inoculants in other legumes Samuel Mathu (MSc student)
FIELD ACTIVITIES Bondo: Demonstration trial block I Edwin Mutegi
    Table 1. Performance of  CAT- I products on soybean at Jimma (Averaged over all the locations) RR= Recommended  Rate  ...
Field activities Field work on Cat. I products in soybean
On-going field activities MA sol. Maxx New farmer-managed trials: Histick or Legumefix with/without MA sol. Maxx Control L...
Grain yield of legumes crops as affected with CAT-II products in different locations of Nigeria  Field Trial Nigeria Produ...
Tissue Culture Bananas under Field Conditions Tissue culture banana field work Coast Nyanza Apparent volume Agnes Kavoo Ph...
No Bunch weight response in Meru South Effect  of  Products on Yield of TC Banana in Central Kenya  Agnes Kavoo PhD Student
Category III Products
Effect of alternative P formulations on maize shoot and root DM <ul><li>Significant response to mineral P addition in both...
Effect of P-based products on maize grain yield in Kenya None of the products increased grain yield but significantly high...
CAT- III products on Wheat at Kulumsa (Averaged over all the locations) EIAR Treatments Biological Yield of 100 plants Yie...
On-going field activities Agroblen slow-release fertilizer Cat. III in maize: Confirmation of SR2010 results in DEMO-trial...
Economic Valuation
Progress with field activities Progress with farmer-managed trials on Rhizatech and Legumefix (2 nd  season)
Progress with field activities Progress with farmer-managed trials on Rhizatech and Legumefix (2 nd  season)
Progress with field activities Progress with farmer-managed trials on Rhizatech and Legumefix (2 nd  season) >30% increase...
Progress with field activities Progress with farmer-managed trials on Rhizatech and Legumefix (2 nd  season) Legumefix cos...
Progress with field activities Progress with farmer-managed trials on Rhizatech and Legumefix (2 nd  season) B/C > 2 B/C <...
Progress with field activities Progress with farmer-managed trials on Rhizatech and Legumefix (2 nd  season) B/C > 2 B/C <...
CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>Effective Cat. I products </li></ul><ul><li>Previously: Legumefix, Histick and 1495MAR On Soy bean in ...
CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>Effective Cat. II products </li></ul><ul><li>Rhizatech: costly and little effect – should not be promo...
CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>Effective Cat. III products </li></ul><ul><li>Previously: Teprosyn and Agroleaf high P. </li></ul><ul>...
Acknowledgements <ul><li>We would like to acknowledge CTA for sponsorship to participate in the Conference </li></ul><ul><...
 
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Jefwa - Do commercial biological and chemical products increase crop yields and economic returns under smallholder farmer conditions?

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Presentation delivered at the CIALCA international conference 'Challenges and Opportunities to the agricultural intensification of the humid highland systems of sub-Saharan Africa'. Kigali, Rwanda, October 24-27 2011.

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Jefwa - Do commercial biological and chemical products increase crop yields and economic returns under smallholder farmer conditions?

  1. 1. Do commercial biological and chemical products increase crop yields and economic returns under smallholder farmer conditions? Challenges for opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the humid highland systems of Sub-Saharan Africa International Conference. Kigali Rwanda Oct 24 -27
  2. 2. OUTLINE <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characterization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Materials and methods </li></ul><ul><li>Results and discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledgment </li></ul>
  3. 3. BACKGROUND <ul><li>Increase in Agro-products appearing on the market in sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) </li></ul><ul><li>Some have a proven scientific basis others lack a basis that stands up to scientific scrutiny </li></ul><ul><li>Effective and safe agricultural new products to add value when applied in the context of Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) </li></ul><ul><li>Investment in products to significantly contribute to increasing productivity and income for smallholder farmers in SSA </li></ul>
  4. 4. OBJECTIVE <ul><li>Screen and assess the effectiveness of several Commercial agricultural products and seed technologies developed by private companies to optimize and sustain crop yields in diverse agro - ecological zones in SSA, following a rigorous and in-depth scientific appraisal </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Category I : Rhizobial Inoculants (Biological Nitrogen Fixation) : (22 products) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>best-bet locally-isolated promiscuous soybean bradyrhizobial strains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>available commercial inoculants obtained from private companies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Candidate products include selected strains from CIAT-TSBF and IITA, Rhizobium ‘Vault ’ (Becker Underwood, USA) and the inoculum produced at Marondera Research Station, widely used in Zimbabwe and SOYGRO products f rom South Africa. </li></ul></ul>CLASSIFICATION OF PRODUCTS
  6. 6. CLASSIFICATION OF PRODUCTS <ul><li>Category II: Other (non-rhizobial) microbiological products: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Micro-organisms beneficial to plant growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beneficial through disease suppression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>II A (8 products): Free living Nitrogen fixation organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>II B (26 products) Bio- enhancers and Biocontrol: Trchorderma, Mycorrhiza, Bacillus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>II A & B (18 products ) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. CLASSIFICATION OF PRODUCTS <ul><li>Category III: Other non-microbial products and seed treatment s : (18 ) </li></ul><ul><li>These include non-microbial products that stimulate the microbial activity in the rhizosphere, and are so indirectly beneficial to crops. Products containing enzymes or vitamins, seed coating, foliar sprays and soil conditioners </li></ul>
  8. 12. MATERIALS AND METHODS
  9. 13. MATERIALS AND METHODS Collection of commercial products Green house evaluation Field evaluation Demonstration trials Farmer participatory trials (Adaptation trials) Approach Category 1: products Category 2: products Category 3: products Screening Category 1: 1-2 products Category 2: 1-2 products Category 3: 1-2 products Field assessment in three countries: Kenya Niger Nigeria In each country, different sites in different Agro-Ecological Zones (AEZ) Assessment and Validation Scaling up Year 1 Year 2 Year 3
  10. 14. Screening of new products and technological options <ul><li>Crops selected and site description </li></ul><ul><li>Kenya : Soy beans, Cowpea, Common beans, Greengrams, Groundnuts, Maize and Tissue culture banana </li></ul><ul><li>Nigeria : Soybeans, Cowpea, Groundnuts, Maize </li></ul><ul><li>Ethiopia: Soybeans, Faba bean, Chick pea, Wheat </li></ul>Mandate area [action site] AEZ Annual rainfall Common staple and cash crops Siaya (western Kenya) Hot Lowlands (HL): 1100-1500m 700-1900mm     Coffee, tea, sugarcane, cotton, millet, maize, beans, sorghum, sunflower, bananas, cowpea and groundnut Meru South (Central Kenya) Moist Highlands (MH): 600-2500m 500-2700mm     Maize, sorghum, millet, wheat, barley, tea, sunflower, cotton, beans, bananas, Irish potatoes, citrus and pyrethrum Kitale (Rift Valley Kenya) Moist Mid-Highlands (MMH): 1700-2000m 1000-1200mm     Maize, wheat, barley, sorghum, coffee, tea, sunflower and pyrethrum. Isiolo (north-eastern Kenya) Dry Lowlands (DL): <1200m 400-600mm     Maize, millet, beans, onions and tomatoes. Kilifi (Coast of Kenya) Moist and Hot Lowlands (MHL): <250m 500-1200mm   Maize, cotton, cassava, cowpea, banana, cashew nuts, coconuts, citrus, beans, tomatoes and tobacco Maradi (southern Niger) Sahel Savanna (SS)   < 250mm Sorghum, millet, maize, cowpea, groundnut, tomato, water melon, potato, and garden egg Kano (northern Nigeria) Sudan Savanna (SuS) 500-1000mm Sorghum, millet, maize, cowpea, groundnut, soybean and cotton.   Kaduna-Zaria (central Nigeria) Northern Guinea Savanna (NGS)   900-1250mm Sorghum, maize, rice, soybean, cowpea, groundnut, pepper and sugarcane Mokwa (southern Nigeria) Southern Guinea Savanna (SGS)   1000-1300mm Yam, sorghum, maize, cowpea, groundnut, soybean, cotton, melon and okra. Fashola (southern Nigeria) Derived Savanna (DS) 1150-1700mm Cocoa, cola nut, cassava, yam, maize, cocoyam, plantain, banana, melon, vegetables and cowpea.
  11. 15. GREENHOUSE ACTIVITIES RESULTS
  12. 16. Greenhouse activities Evaluation of new Rhizobium inoculants in soybean (TGx1740-2F variety) Moses Thuita (PhD student) Control Mineral N Legumefix Biofix Rhizoliq
  13. 17. Results and discussion Effect of Rhizobium inoculants in soybean (greenhouse trials) <ul><li>Equal performance in terms of nodulation for some products </li></ul><ul><li>No effect on biomass yield </li></ul>Mosese Thuita (PhD Student)
  14. 18. Greenhouse activities Evaluation of Rhizobium inoculants in other legumes Samuel Mathu (MSc student) Rizoliq Mineral N Biofix 899 Biofix 2667 Control Biofix 422 Nodulator Legume- fix Control Mineral N Biofix GN peat Rizoliq
  15. 19. Greenhouse activities Evaluation of Rhizobium inoculants in other legumes Samuel Mathu (MSc student)
  16. 20. Greenhouse activities Evaluation of Rhizobium inoculants in other legumes Samuel Mathu (MSc student)
  17. 21. FIELD ACTIVITIES Bondo: Demonstration trial block I Edwin Mutegi
  18. 22.     Table 1. Performance of CAT- I products on soybean at Jimma (Averaged over all the locations) RR= Recommended Rate EIAR Treatments Grain Yield (t/ha) % yield increase over +ve control % yield increase over – ve control Control (0 kg N + RR P) 1.31 D -28 0 1/2 RD N + Full RR P 1.61 CD -12 23 RR N/P 1.83 BC 0 40 Legumefix + Full RR P 2.28 AB 25 74 TSBF 531 + Full RD P 1.54 CD -16 18 MAR 1495 + Full RR P 2.43 A 33 86 F -test ** CV (%) 26.2
  19. 23. Field activities Field work on Cat. I products in soybean
  20. 24. On-going field activities MA sol. Maxx New farmer-managed trials: Histick or Legumefix with/without MA sol. Maxx Control Legumefix + MA sol. Maxx
  21. 25. Grain yield of legumes crops as affected with CAT-II products in different locations of Nigeria Field Trial Nigeria Product Soybean (Kaya) Cowpea (Mokwa) Groundnut (Shanono) [ Kg ha -1 ] 0P 1961.6 ab 1072.6 b 1774.3 b 20P 2174.7 ab 1601.4 a 1452.6 c 40P 2340.4 a 1512.4 a 1823.3 ab MYCO-TEA 1907.4 ab 1537.4 a 1767.2 b PHC BIOPAK 2342.1 a 1329.3 ab 2146.5 a RHIZATECH 1694.1 b 1445.4 ab 2243.9 a
  22. 26. Tissue Culture Bananas under Field Conditions Tissue culture banana field work Coast Nyanza Apparent volume Agnes Kavoo PhD Student
  23. 27. No Bunch weight response in Meru South Effect of Products on Yield of TC Banana in Central Kenya Agnes Kavoo PhD Student
  24. 28. Category III Products
  25. 29. Effect of alternative P formulations on maize shoot and root DM <ul><li>Significant response to mineral P addition in both soils </li></ul><ul><li>Positive effect of soil conditioner and seed treatment on shoot and root DM, respectively in sandy soil </li></ul><ul><li>Shoot P uptake significantly increased with soil conditioner, only in sandy soil </li></ul>
  26. 30. Effect of P-based products on maize grain yield in Kenya None of the products increased grain yield but significantly higher biomass yield was found with seed P treatment
  27. 31. CAT- III products on Wheat at Kulumsa (Averaged over all the locations) EIAR Treatments Biological Yield of 100 plants Yield (Kg/ha) No Input 302.0 3.2 D RD N 309.0 3.3 CD RD N + 1/2 RD P 369.9 3.7 BC RD N/P 375.5 4.1 AB Agroleaf HIgh P + RD N + 1/2 RD P 350.87 4.2 A Turbotop + RD N + 1/2 RD P 382.87 4.0 AB F test * ** CV (%) 12.6
  28. 32. On-going field activities Agroblen slow-release fertilizer Cat. III in maize: Confirmation of SR2010 results in DEMO-trials + new products Regular fertilizer (DAP + urea)
  29. 33. Economic Valuation
  30. 34. Progress with field activities Progress with farmer-managed trials on Rhizatech and Legumefix (2 nd season)
  31. 35. Progress with field activities Progress with farmer-managed trials on Rhizatech and Legumefix (2 nd season)
  32. 36. Progress with field activities Progress with farmer-managed trials on Rhizatech and Legumefix (2 nd season) >30% increase <30% increase 36% 64%
  33. 37. Progress with field activities Progress with farmer-managed trials on Rhizatech and Legumefix (2 nd season) Legumefix cost = 13 USD ha -1 , soybean grain price = 0.53 USD kg -1 .
  34. 38. Progress with field activities Progress with farmer-managed trials on Rhizatech and Legumefix (2 nd season) B/C > 2 B/C < 2 48% 52% Legumefix cost = 13 USD ha -1 , soybean grain price = 0.53 USD kg -1 .
  35. 39. Progress with field activities Progress with farmer-managed trials on Rhizatech and Legumefix (2 nd season) B/C > 2 B/C < 2 Rhizatech cost = 220 USD ha -1 , soybean grain price = 0.53 USD kg -1 .
  36. 40. CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>Effective Cat. I products </li></ul><ul><li>Previously: Legumefix, Histick and 1495MAR On Soy bean in Kenya and Legumefix and MAR 1495 </li></ul><ul><li>In Ehtiopia </li></ul><ul><li>Rhizoliq top 2 to be added to the list of effective products. </li></ul><ul><li>None of the products are currently registration, but process underway for Legumefix and Rhizoliq. </li></ul><ul><li>No response of Faba bean to inoculation with products </li></ul><ul><li>Faba bean nodulates wiith Indigenous strains </li></ul>
  37. 41. CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>Effective Cat. II products </li></ul><ul><li>Rhizatech: costly and little effect – should not be promoted in legumes and cereals </li></ul><ul><li>Rhizatech: significant in one out of three sites in banana. </li></ul><ul><li>EcoT for Fusarium control in bananas (See Poster by Ruth Muhongo) </li></ul><ul><li>MycoApply Soluble Maxx: small but positive effect, and profitability to be evaluated </li></ul><ul><li>Little or no interaction with Cat. I products </li></ul>
  38. 42. CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>Effective Cat. III products </li></ul><ul><li>Previously: Teprosyn and Agroleaf high P. </li></ul><ul><li>New products under evaluation with potential: Growplus and Agroblen (to be confirmed). </li></ul><ul><li>Mavuno as a commercial product? </li></ul><ul><li>Turbotop on Wheat in Ethiopia </li></ul>
  39. 43. Acknowledgements <ul><li>We would like to acknowledge CTA for sponsorship to participate in the Conference </li></ul><ul><li>The Organizing Committee for giving us the opportunity to present and organizing logistics </li></ul><ul><li>The Audience for Listening </li></ul>

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