Bridging the gaps: Challenges and Opportunities


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Bridging the gaps between AR and ARD Challenges and Opportunities- presented by Alain Vidal, Senior Advisor, Capacity Development and Partnerships, CGIAR Consortium at the AKIS-ARCH Workshop, Brussels, 26-27 May 2014

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Bridging the gaps: Challenges and Opportunities

  1. 1. Bridging the gaps between AR and ARD Challenges and Opportunities Alain Vidal AKIS-ARCH Workshop, Brussels, 26-27 May 2014 Photo:A.Vidal
  2. 2. CGIAR Centers developed high yielding varieties for staple cereals that were the engine of the Green Revolution
  3. 3. CGIAR: agricultural research for a food-secure future
  4. 4. CGIAR’s research is carried out by 16 Research Programs (CRPs), working in close collaboration with hundreds of partners worldwide
  5. 5. Bridging the gaps between AR and ARD 3 examples • Climate-Smart Agriculture  Combining mitigation and adaptation • The Wheat initiative • Ecological intensification through healthier water, land and ecosystems
  6. 6. What is Climate-Smart Agriculture?
  7. 7. 2013 Why is CSA important? – Adaptation Global wheat and maize yields: response to warming
  8. 8. 2013 Why is CSA important? – Food SecurityMaíz T-Max T-Max Yield Yield Arroz Climate drives yield variation: our systems are sensitive to climate, not resilient to it
  9. 9. 2013 Why is CSA important? – Mitigation 13 Agriculture-related activities are 19-29% of global greenhouse gas emissions (2010) Agriculture production (e.g., fertilizers, rice, livestock, energy) Land-use change and forestry including drained peatlands Industrial processes Waste Percent, 100% = 50 gigatonnes CO2e per year Non-Ag Energy 70 11 4 2
  10. 10. 2013 Why is CSA important? – Mitigation “Business as usual” (BAU) agriculture emissions would comprise >70% of allowable emissions to achieve a 2°C world Gt CO2e per year 12 15 36 70 2010 2050 (Business as usual) 2050 (2°C target) Non-agricultural emissions Agricultural and land- use change emissions >70% 48 85 21
  11. 11. 2013 Significant successes in CSA
  12. 12. CHINA Paying for ecosystem services  2.5 million farmers paid to set aside land and plant trees Sequestered over 700,000 tonnes of carbon 2 million ha rehabilitated – reducing erosion  Increased yields
  13. 13. Climate-smart coffee-banana systems  Microclimate: shading can reduce temperature by >2° Celsius  Shade biomass increases carbon stock→ CC mitigation  Shade plants increase revenue and food security for smallholders income up > 50% Van Asten et al (2014)
  14. 14. What if… - we spread agroforestry across Africa? Analysis based on WRI 2013 Approximate area suitable for Agroforestry in Africa: ~ 300 Million Ha 140+ Million People below $1.25 per day
  15. 15. What if… - we spread agroforestry across Africa? PRODUCTIVITY Multiple benefits include:  Reduced soil erosion  Additional diversified income from wood products  Strengthened drought resistance from increased water storage RESILIENCE FOOTPRINT  +615 Calories per person/day for 140+ Million poor people  Average yield increase 50%  Savings of over 6 Million tons of synthetic fertilizerAdoption on 150 Million Ha Adoption on 300 Million Ha +44 Million Tons +88 Million Tons Food Production Carbon Sequestration - 1 Gt of CO2e per year - 2 Gt of CO2e per year Adoption on 150 Million Ha Adoption on 300 Million Ha  2 Gt Co2e storage per year corresponds to ~1/3 of Global Direct Ag Emissions  Significantly higher mitigation potential by further increasing tree density and in humid systems Agroforestry can be combined with other practices such as water harvesting for additional impact.
  16. 16. Direct agricultural emissions are spread across regions and across production sectors 18 Source: FAOStat data from 2010 (accessed 2013); area of pie charts scaled to regional emissions. “Ag soils” includes synthetic fertilizers, manure applied to crops, field application of crop residues, and nitrous oxide from cultivated organic soils.
  17. 17. Mitigation opportunities by country 19 Source: CEA analysis. Mitigation opportunities are clustered primarily in the major agricultural economies.
  18. 18.  12 million farmers & 40 different crops insured INDIA Weather-based insurance  Reduces pressure to bring more land under cultivation Reduces risks  Allows farmers to access fertilizer and better seed
  19. 19. Adaptations to deal with higher climate variability and climate risks Towards more transformative change • Better weather forecasts and climate information reaching farmers, governments, emergency relief • Social safety nets to help vulnerable people recover from climate shocks • Weather insurance in agriculture reaching more farmers
  20. 20. CSA Alliance: AR and ARD institutions united with International Organizations and NGOs
  21. 21. Minimum Goals for 2050 Environmental Goals Development Goals Total Agricultural Production Nutritionally Complete Production Biodiversity Conserved Carbon Sequestered Improved Water Quality Water Conserved Soil Formed Food Security Goals Food Distribution and Access Conserve agrobiodiversity Increased Farmer Livelihoods And Resilience Improve Human Health Increase Farm Self Reliance Adapted from Foley et al 2011 Production Goals An agriculture that contributes to environmental protection rather than environmental degradation
  22. 22. N-S Partnerships for ecological intensification
  23. 23. THANK YOU