Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Climate-Smart Agriculture 
Climate change, agriculture and food security 
Aslihan Arslan 
EPIC – FAO 
Centre for Developme...
Outline 
I. Agriculture 
II. Climate Change 
III. Food Security 
IV. Overview of Climate-Smart Agriculture 
(CSA) 
V. Evol...
Population & Agriculture 
• World’s population will 
reach 9 billion by 2050 
•FAO estimates that 
agricultural production...
Pressures on Agriculture 
FAO, 2009.
Agriculture and food security
Climate Change
Climate change impacts on 
crop production
Climate Change 
Four potential yield outcomes for maize in 2045 under RCP 8.5† 
Source: Müller and Robertson (2014). 
Sour...
Climate Change 
Simulated impacts for the four climate scenarios: 
global average for major crops in 2050 wrt reference 
5...
Food Security 
“Food security exists when all people, at all 
times, have physical, social and economic 
access to suffici...
Food and Nutrition 
Security 
Food Availability 
Food production 
Storage and processing 
of food 
Transport and distribut...
Food Security
Overview of CSA
Overview of CSA 
CSA seeks to… 
Enhance 
food 
security 
Mitigate 
climate 
change 
Preserve natural resource base 
and vi...
Overview of CSA 
CSA seeks to… 
Enhance 
food 
security 
Mitigate 
climate 
change 
Preserve natural resource base 
and vi...
Overview of CSA 
CSA seeks to… 
Enhance 
food 
security 
Mitigate 
climate 
change 
Preserve natural resource base 
and vi...
Overview of CSA 
CSA seeks to… 
Enhance 
food 
security 
Mitigate 
climate 
change 
Preserve natural resource base 
and vi...
Overview of CSA 
CSA seeks to… 
Enhance 
food 
security 
Mitigate 
climate 
change 
Preserve natural resource base 
and vi...
Overview of CSA 
Addresses the complex interrelated challenges of food 
security, development and climate change, and iden...
Overview of CSA 
Seeks to create enabling environments through a better 
alignment of policies, investments and institutio...
Overview of CSA 
Considers climate change mitigation as a 
potential secondary co-benefit, especially in 
low-income, agri...
Evolution of CSA 
2009 
Food Security and Agricultural 
Mitigation in Developing 
Countries: Options for Capturing 
Synerg...
Links to 
Previous Approaches 
 CSA contributes to the 
achievement of sustainable 
development goals: 
economic, social ...
Evolution of CSA 
So what’s new about it ? 
Harmonization 
and 
synchronization 
of practices and 
policies 
Objective of ...
Overview of CSA 
How to address the multiple demands placed on 
agriculture? 
Create synergies between food 
security, ada...
Agriculture 
CSA requires coordination across agricultural sectors… 
Fisheries Livestock Forestry Crops
CSA & Synergies 
Concepts of mitigation and adaptation 
Mitigation Adaptation 
I attack the 
problem 
I act in response to...
CSA & Synergies 
Main differences between adaptation and mitigation 
Longer-term 
effect 
Shorter-term 
effect 
Especially...
Various levels of CSA 
Farm level 
Landscape 
Markets 
Regional, national global 
policies
Farm Level 
At farm level, CSA can aim at improving: 
Crop Management 
Soil 
Manage 
ment 
Water 
Management 
Livestock 
a...
Conventional Agricultural 
 Conversion of energy sources from 
human to fossil fuel dependent 
machinery. 
 Increased us...
Farm Level 
Crop Management: Conservation Agriculture and Soil-Water Conservation 
improved and sustained productivity, in...
Farm Level 
Crop Management 
Diversify crop types and varieties, including crop 
substitution, 
Develop new crop varieties...
Farm Level 
CSA can also involve changing a production system 
entirely: 
Maize System 
Livestock system 
or 
Integrated C...
Landscape Approach 
Objective: Need to achieve food security and climate change 
mitigation and adaptation goals without c...
Landscape Approach 
Example: Ecosystem services of peatlands of the 
Ruoergai Plateau 
The Ruoergai 
peatland 
pastures on...
Landscape Approach 
• Herders fenced parts of the winter pastures near their 
winter houses to create hay meadows to suppl...
Market Approach 
CSA can also be a market approach: 
Such as introducing sustainable value chains to help 
farmers in a co...
Policy level 
Example: Disaster Risk Management 
Develop early warning systems 
Invest in infrastructure to protect agains...
Key Messages 
 Climate-smart agriculture is not a new agricultural system, 
nor a set of practices. 
 It is a new approa...
Thank you! 
http://www.fao.org/climatechange/climatesmart/en/ 
www.fao.org/climatechange/epic
References 
 Burchi, F., Fanzo, J. & Frison, E. 2011. The role of food and nutrition system 
approaches in tackling hidde...
CSA among other concepts of 
`green‘ agriculture 
From farm-based to comprehensive 
development concepts 
Conservation agr...
Climate-Smart Agriculture: Climate change, agriculture and food security
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Climate-Smart Agriculture: Climate change, agriculture and food security

11,147 views

Published on

www.fao.org/climatechange/epic

This presentation was prepared to conduct a training session on Climate-Smart Agriculture at the University of Wageningen, The Netherlands, in September 2014. It provides an overview of the CSA concept and its evolution over the last decade.


©FAO/www.fao.org

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Climate-Smart Agriculture: Climate change, agriculture and food security

  1. 1. Climate-Smart Agriculture Climate change, agriculture and food security Aslihan Arslan EPIC – FAO Centre for Development Innovation, WUR – September 17, 2014
  2. 2. Outline I. Agriculture II. Climate Change III. Food Security IV. Overview of Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA) V. Evolution of CSA VI. CSA at various levels VII. References
  3. 3. Population & Agriculture • World’s population will reach 9 billion by 2050 •FAO estimates that agricultural production will have to increase by 60% by then •Agriculture should undergo a significant transformation to feed the growing global population •Climate change adds extra challenges in reaching this goal – esp. developing countries where food insecurity & poverty are prevalent
  4. 4. Pressures on Agriculture FAO, 2009.
  5. 5. Agriculture and food security
  6. 6. Climate Change
  7. 7. Climate change impacts on crop production
  8. 8. Climate Change Four potential yield outcomes for maize in 2045 under RCP 8.5† Source: Müller and Robertson (2014). Source: Müller and Robertson (2014). Excludes CO2 effects
  9. 9. Climate Change Simulated impacts for the four climate scenarios: global average for major crops in 2050 wrt reference 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 Wheat Rice Coarse grains Oil seeds Sugar CR5 IPSL/LPJ HADGEM2/LPJ IPSL/DSSAT HADGEM2/DSSAT Source: Shocks from IFPRI as interpreted for use in the ENVISAGE model, Nelson et al. (2014).
  10. 10. Food Security “Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food which meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.” -World Food Summit, 1996
  11. 11. Food and Nutrition Security Food Availability Food production Storage and processing of food Transport and distribution Food trade Food Access Intra-household distribution of food Income Markets Food Utilization Food preparation Nutrition knowledge Cultural traditions Health care Child care Illness management Clean drinking water Sanitation & Hygiene Stability Energy saving cookstoves In food availability: Natural and man-made disasters Accumulation of stocks Diversification In food access: Seasonal vs. constant job Diversification Livelihood & coping strategies Safety nets In food utilization: Constant access to health care Clean drinking water & sanitation Burchi et al., 2011 Food Security
  12. 12. Food Security
  13. 13. Overview of CSA
  14. 14. Overview of CSA CSA seeks to… Enhance food security Mitigate climate change Preserve natural resource base and vital ecosystem services Transition to agricultural production systems
  15. 15. Overview of CSA CSA seeks to… Enhance food security Mitigate climate change Preserve natural resource base and vital ecosystem services Transition to agricultural production systems More productive
  16. 16. Overview of CSA CSA seeks to… Enhance food security Mitigate climate change Preserve natural resource base and vital ecosystem services Transition to agricultural production systems More productive Use inputs more efficiently
  17. 17. Overview of CSA CSA seeks to… Enhance food security Mitigate climate change Preserve natural resource base and vital ecosystem services Transition to agricultural production systems More productive Use inputs more efficiently Less variability and more stability in outputs
  18. 18. Overview of CSA CSA seeks to… Enhance food security Mitigate climate change Preserve natural resource base and vital ecosystem services Transition to agricultural production systems More productive Use inputs more efficiently Less variability and more stability in outputs More resilient to risks, shocks and long-term climate variability
  19. 19. Overview of CSA Addresses the complex interrelated challenges of food security, development and climate change, and identifies integrated options that create synergies and reduce trade-offs Recognizes that these options will be shaped by specific country contexts and capacities as well as socio-economic and environmental situations Assesses the interactions between sectors and the needs of different stakeholders Identifies barriers to adoption (esp. for farmers), and provides appropriate solutions in terms of policies, strategies, actions and incentives
  20. 20. Overview of CSA Seeks to create enabling environments through a better alignment of policies, investments and institutions Strives to achieve multiple objectives with the understanding that priorities need to be set and collective decisions made on different benefits and trade-offs Prioritizes the strengthening of livelihoods (esp. those of smallholders) by improving access to services, knowledge, resources (including genetic resources), financial products and markets Addresses adaptation and builds resilience to shocks, especially those related to climate change
  21. 21. Overview of CSA Considers climate change mitigation as a potential secondary co-benefit, especially in low-income, agricultural-based populations Seeks to identify opportunities to access climate-related financing and integrate it with traditional sources of agricultural investment finance
  22. 22. Evolution of CSA 2009 Food Security and Agricultural Mitigation in Developing Countries: Options for Capturing Synergies 2010 “Climate-smart” Agriculture: Policies, Practices and Financing for Food Security, Adaptation and Mitigation 2013 Climate-smart Agriculture Sourcebook 2014 FAO Success Stories on Climate-smart Agriculture
  23. 23. Links to Previous Approaches  CSA contributes to the achievement of sustainable development goals: economic, social and environmental  Uses green economy’s need for more resource efficiency and resilience  Sustainable intensification: focuses on availability dimension of food security (CSA covers also accessibility, Sustainable development Sustainable intensification Green Economy Climate-Smart Agriculture utilization and stability)
  24. 24. Evolution of CSA So what’s new about it ? Harmonization and synchronization of practices and policies Objective of avoiding contradictory and conflicting policies by internally managing trade-offs and synergies CSA is a new approach to guide the needed changes of agricultural systems to address food security and climate change Not a new agricultural system or a set of practices
  25. 25. Overview of CSA How to address the multiple demands placed on agriculture? Create synergies between food security, adaptation and climate change mitigation Main objective:  Pathway towards enhanced food security and development goals  ALL AGRICULTURAL SECTORS CLIMATE-SMART AGRICULTURE Adaptation Mitigation Synergies Productivity & income increase
  26. 26. Agriculture CSA requires coordination across agricultural sectors… Fisheries Livestock Forestry Crops
  27. 27. CSA & Synergies Concepts of mitigation and adaptation Mitigation Adaptation I attack the problem I act in response to the impacts of the problem …can and should be both implemented Decrease GHG sources Increase sinks of GHG Risk management Strenghtening institutions Trainings Investments in rural economy Decrease sources Increase sinks
  28. 28. CSA & Synergies Main differences between adaptation and mitigation Longer-term effect Shorter-term effect Especially motivated with countries less vulnerable to CC “victims” not always responsible for causing CC Global Local Causes of climate change Effects of climate change Mitigation Objectives Spatial scale Time scale Equity Adaptation  Same final common target: Sustainable development
  29. 29. Various levels of CSA Farm level Landscape Markets Regional, national global policies
  30. 30. Farm Level At farm level, CSA can aim at improving: Crop Management Soil Manage ment Water Management Livestock and Pasture Manage ment
  31. 31. Conventional Agricultural  Conversion of energy sources from human to fossil fuel dependent machinery.  Increased use of fertilizer, pesticides and herbicides (dependent on fossil fuels) generally very inefficiently applied.  Expansion of agricultural land area through deforestation and conversion from grasslands to cropland.  Increased specialization in ag production and marketing systems.  Emphasizing improved and hybrid crop varieties • Use of energy efficient technologies for agricultural power (irrigation or tillage). • Increased efficiency of fertilizer /inputs and wider use of organic fertilizer. • Intensification on existing land as main source of production increase rather than expansion to new areas. • Greater diversification in production, input and output marketing systems. • Valuing the resilience of traditional varieties •Energy •Inputs •Land use •System •Varieties Intensification Climate Smart Agriculture
  32. 32. Farm Level Crop Management: Conservation Agriculture and Soil-Water Conservation improved and sustained productivity, increased profits and food security while preserving and enhancing the 3 main principles of CA: “approach to managing agro-ecosystems for  minimal soil disturbance,  permanent soil cover, and  crop rotations/associations • Ongoing international debate on the effects of CA on yields and resilience. • Need to customize & modify the 3 principles to various agro-ecological systems • Need to explicitly account for climate change impacts resource base and the environment” Conservation agriculture (e.g cover crops, intercropping, fallowing, alley cropping,no till, legume rotation) Other soil and water conservation (e.g. ridging, shelterbelts, terracing, bunding, agro-forestry, woodlots, taungya, stone lines, strip cropping, vetiver, animal traction, drainage ditches) 89.7-90.9 % 61.4-70% Source: Knowler, 2003. Positive net present values (NPV) for conservation agriculture and other soil and water conservation practices at the farm-level from a total sample of 130 studies.
  33. 33. Farm Level Crop Management Diversify crop types and varieties, including crop substitution, Develop new crop varieties, including hybrids, to increase the tolerance, resistance and suitability (research) Promote seed banks so as to help farmers diversify crops and crop varieties Increase livelihood diversification, including off-farm income sources
  34. 34. Farm Level CSA can also involve changing a production system entirely: Maize System Livestock system or Integrated Crop & Livestock system
  35. 35. Landscape Approach Objective: Need to achieve food security and climate change mitigation and adaptation goals without compromising environment DEFINITION  integrated multidisciplinary process where trade-offs and synergies are carefully assessed and appropriate landscape-scale management interventions are identified and implemented.  recognizes that the root causes of problems may not be site-specific and that a development agenda requires multi-stakeholder interventions to negotiate and implement actions.  combines natural resources management with environmental and livelihood considerations  places human well-being and needs at the centre of the land use decision-making process, respects rights and cultural values
  36. 36. Landscape Approach Example: Ecosystem services of peatlands of the Ruoergai Plateau The Ruoergai peatland pastures on the Tibetan Plateau: a major milk and meat producing area in China FAO, CSA Sourcebook, Module 2, p 68, 2013
  37. 37. Landscape Approach • Herders fenced parts of the winter pastures near their winter houses to create hay meadows to supply supplementary fodder to animals and decrease grazing pressures on the peatlands in spring. Farm level • Pilot projects by national and international organizations supported peatland restoration by replanting vegetation (forage cultivation), rewetting (ditch blocking) and establishing co-management systems. Community and local level • The Provincial People’s Congresses of Gansu and Sichuan approved Wetland Conservation Regulations in 2007 and 2010 to promote the conservation of biodiversity and enhance the livelihood of local communities. Regional level • The government of China has encouraged the ecological restoration of degraded rangelands and forage cultivation in winter pastures to reduce grazing pressure on peatlands in winter and spring. The national level FAO, CSA Sourcebook, Module 2, p 68, 2013
  38. 38. Market Approach CSA can also be a market approach: Such as introducing sustainable value chains to help farmers in a competitive sector.
  39. 39. Policy level Example: Disaster Risk Management Develop early warning systems Invest in infrastructure to protect against asset loss Protect equipped areas from flood damage and maintain drainage outlets Support the meteorological department in collecting, analysing & disseminating weather/climate info Strengthen community and municipality capacities in disaster management Align national development, climate change and agricultural policies to minimize contradictions and harness synergies
  40. 40. Key Messages  Climate-smart agriculture is not a new agricultural system, nor a set of practices.  It is a new approach, a way to guide the needed changes of agricultural systems, given the necessity to jointly address food security and climate change.  CSA brings together practices, policies and institutions that are not necessarily new but are used in the context of climatic changes.  Addresses multiple challenges faced by agriculture and food systems simultaneously and holistically, which helps avoid counterproductive policies, legislation or financing.
  41. 41. Thank you! http://www.fao.org/climatechange/climatesmart/en/ www.fao.org/climatechange/epic
  42. 42. References  Burchi, F., Fanzo, J. & Frison, E. 2011. The role of food and nutrition system approaches in tackling hidden hunger. International Journal Environ. Res. Public Health.  Grainger-Jones, E. 2011. Climate-smart smallholder agriculture: what’s different? IFAD occasional paper No.3. Rome. (available at http://www.ifad.org/pub/op/3.pdf).  FAO. 2009. Profile for Climate Change.  FAO. 2013. Climate-smart agriculture sourcebook.  United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). 2010. Assessing the environmental impacts of consumption and production: priority products and materials.  UN-Water. 2010. Climate change adaptation: the pivotal role of water. UN-Water policy brief. (available at http://www.unwater.org/downloads/unw_ccpol_web.pdf)  Nelson et al., “Climate change effects on agriculture: Economic responses to biophysical shocks” PNAS, 2014. Vol 111(9): http://www.pnas.org/content/111/9/3274
  43. 43. CSA among other concepts of `green‘ agriculture From farm-based to comprehensive development concepts Conservation agriculture The EX-Ante Carbon balance Tool EX-ACT Training Workshop www.fao.org/tc/exact Sustainable land management Agroecology Organic farming Macro Micro Farming technics Area - based management Climate smart agriculture Multi-function planning and policies Value chain

×