Diversity for Development, Development for Diversity
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Diversity for Development, Development for Diversity

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Presentation by Parviz Koohafkan, Senior Honorary Research Fellow at Bioversity International, and Global Coordinator of Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS). ...

Presentation by Parviz Koohafkan, Senior Honorary Research Fellow at Bioversity International, and Global Coordinator of Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS).

This was presented during a seminar hosted at Bioversity International on 'The Indicators of Resilience in Socio-Ecological Production Landscapes and Seascapes (SEPLS)' in January 2014.

Find out more: http://www.bioversityinternational.org/research-portfolio/agricultural-ecosystems/landscapes/

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  • However, global achievements in production in some regions have been associated with degradation of land and water resources, and the deterioration of related ecosystem services, including biomass, carbon storage, soil health, water storage and supply, biodiversity, and social and cultural services.
  • The prevailing patterns of agricultural production need to be critically reviewed. A series of land and water systems now face the risk of progressive breakdown of their productive capacity under a combination of excessive demographic pressure and unsustainable agricultural practices.  The physical limits to land and water availability within these systems may be further exacerbated in places by external drivers, including climate change, competition with other sectors and socio-economic changes. These systems at risk warrant priority attention for remedial action simply because there are no substitutes.
  • Much evidence of protective effects of diversity of diet, in developed and developing countries.
  • Toward 2050, rising population and incomes are expected to call for 70% more food production globally, and up to 100% more in developing countries, relative to 2009 levels. rojections only, still with these projections 4 percent of chronically undernourished in developing countries (290 million)
  • Several countries with rapidly growing demand for food are also those that face high levels of land or water scarcity. The largest contribution to increases in agricultural output will most likely come from intensification of production on existing agricultural land. This will require widespread adoption of sustainable land management practices, and more efficient use of irrigation water through enhanced flexibility, reliability and timing of irrigation water delivery.
  • Picture is from Chiang Mai, Thailand.Staples, home gardens, nutritious etc


  • 1. Diversity for Development Development for Diversity Parviz Koohafkan Senior Honorary Research Fellow Bioversity International
  • 2. Land Degradation, Desertification, Climate Change, Poverty and Migration
  • 3. Systems at Risk at a Glance
  • 4. Unique Agricultural Heritage Systems at risk
  • 6. Projected Population Increase
  • 7. Changing Diet, Nutrition, health and biodiversity • Hidden hunger: missing micronutrients – More than 2 billion worldwide – Mostly women and children • Double burden: diseases of “affluence” – Type 2 diabetes, obesity, heart disease, cancers
  • 8. GRAIN CROP DIVERSITY IN FOOD BASKET Rice + Wheat + Maize = 89.4 % GLOBAL GRAIN PRODUCTION, FAO 2008 Maize (33.4 %) Wheat (28 %) Barley (6.4 %) Sorghum (2.7 %) Rice (28 %) Millet (1.4 %)
  • 9. Food diversity, Nutrition and Heath
  • 10. Biodiversity
  • 11. Malezas en floracion de las familias compositae o umbeliferae atraen insectos beneficos en busca debiodiversity Loss of functional polen y nectar
  • 12. Towards 2050… food requirements +60% food production needs globally +100% in developing countries
  • 13. The Challenges Ahead Require: A Paradigm Shift in Development(Agricultural) Policies addressing food security and Poverty While Sustaining Natural Resources Base
  • 14. Best options for the poorest? Great success in the past… but still nearly one billion people are hungry • Key questions: – to what extent can farmers improve their food production with low-cost and locally-available technologies and inputs? – What impacts do these methods have on natural resources and environmental goods and services and the livelihoods of people relying on them?
  • 15. A major opportunity: Small holders and Family Farming • Produce the bulk of the global food • Are the largest number of stewards for the – environment and its services including biodiversity, • Higher and sustainable productivity increase at their level will have a major impact on poverty reduction, economic growth and climate change mitigation and adaptation
  • 16. Intensification without Simplification
  • 17. Investing in All Assets of Rural Systems (livelihoods, communities, economies) Natural Capital: nature’s goods and services (waste assimilation, pollination, storm protection, water supply, wildlife) Social Capital: cohesiveness of people and societies trust, reciprocity, rules and norms, networks and institutions Physical Capital: Infrastructure, roads markets Human Capital: the status of individuals health, skills, knowledge Financial Capital: money, savings
  • 18. Linking Global …….. to local and local …… to global
  • 19. Conservation and Adaptive management of GLOBALLY IMPORTANT AGRICULTURAL HERITAGE SYSTEMS
  • 20. Was conceptualized and launched in 2002 at the occasion of World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg South Africa
  • 21. GIAHS selection Criteria :  Local food and livelihood security,  biodiversity and genetic resources  Local knowledge of individuals and community  Cultural Diversity of Agri ”Culture” including products and services diversity  Landscape diversity and aesthetic values
  • 22. THEY ARE UNDER THREAT BCAUSE OF: • Inappropriate policy, legal and incentive frameworks, • Industrialization of agriculture and Neglect of diversified systems and local knowledge, •Low community involvement in decision making, • Population pressure and cultural change
  • 23. Centers of Origin of the agricultural Civilizations The eight Vavilovian Centers of Origin of Crops
  • 24. China Rice Fish
  • 25. GIAHS-Satoyama in Japan
  • 26. Cultivation in waru-warus 2007
  • 27. Maasai pastoral systems Kenya-Tanzania
  • 28. Oases System in Atlas Mountains, Morocco
  • 29. Lemon Garden, Italy
  • 30. Japan Madagascar Saffron, Iran and Kashmir India
  • 31. At Global level by identification, selection and recognition of GIAHS At National level by capacity building in policy, regulatory and incentive mechanisms to safeguard these outstanding systems and use them as sustainability bench mark systems At Local Level by empowerment of local communities and technical assistance for sustainable resource management, promoting traditional knowledge and enhancing viability of these systemsHOW ? through economic incentives
  • 32. Recognition of traditional knowledge in Science Congress, Koraput Agriculture, Orissa India
  • 33. Examples of Opportunities for Traditional Farmers through GIAHS Native potatoes, Peru Ecological Farming Chiloe Rice-fish culture products , China Natives Dates Oases, Tunisia
  • 34. GIAHS is not about the past, it is about the future California USA
  • 35. For more information, visit www.giahs.org