Is a participative programme. It is a very effective approach to improving our work,environment and total quality. It becomes a base for continuous improvement in the organisation 5S---
5 s is a systematic approach to good housekeeping.
It is today gaining strong support in most industries, especially in Japan and there are increasing number of companies which are implementing 5s with greater involvement of people within the organisation.
Why is it becoming popular among companies in Japan? Simply because:
Workplace becomes clean and better organised
Shopfloor and office operations become easier and safer
Results are visible to everyone insiders and outsiders
Visible results enhance generation of more new ideas
People are automatically disciplined
People become proud of a clean and organised workplace
Resultant good company image generates more business etc.
Some significant benefits observed at companies practising 5s include:
Happier employees with high morale.
Greater people involvement.
Low employee turnover.
Increased number of suggestions.
Better use of floor space.
Less work-in-progress and inventories.
Better flow of work.
Low machine breakdown rates.
Low accident rates.
High yield of materials.
High product quality.
The assumption why 5S is becoming so popular in Japan in recent years and in other countries today is that it emphasizes a people-oriented and also practice-oriented approach.
5S expects everyone-indeed everyone-to participate in it.
It is based on the belief that every individual can contribute to improving his/her workplace where he/she spends one-third of his/her life.
What is 5S?
The concept of good housekeeping has been with the Japanese for a very long time.At home and in school ,children are disciplined to adhere to good housekeeping practices.However, it was only in the early 1980s that good houskepping became a pertinent issue in Japanese industries as companies realised its powerful contribution to productivity and quality improvement.
The basis for good housekeeping in Japanese companies is a concept popularly known as 5S.This stands for the five good housekeeping concepts in Japanese.
Why a “5-S”movement
Human beings feel good if work place is clean and well organised.
Helps in reducing time
a. For searching things
b. For handling
Helps in reducing
a. Waste, inconsistencies & strain
b. Unnecessary items & reserve stock
c. Space requirement
d. Machine downtime
e. Rejection / Rework
f. Number of accidents
a. In seeing things more clearly
b. In changing mindsets-develop a proactive attitude
Meaning of “5S”
Maintenance of standards (SEIKETSU)
What is 5S?? Train people to follow good housekeeping discipline automatically SHITSUKE 5S Maintain high standards of workplace at all times SEIKETSU 4S Clean your workplace thoroughly so that there is no dust on floors,machines and equipments SEISO 3S
Arrange necessary items in good order so that they can be easily picked for use
A place for everything
Everything in its place
SEITON 2S Sort out unnecessary items in the workplace and discard them SEIRI 1S Meaning in English Original Japanese 5S
It helps to segregate necessary and unnecessary items and eliminate unnecessary items. It essentially means organising / putting things in order.
Go through what you have
Segregate/identify what you need
Categorise needed/not needed items
Discard What Is Unnecessary
INDICATOR OF SUCCESS
Decrease in unnecessary items and reserve stock
Percentage of area / space saved
Arrangement --- SEITON
This step essentially means arranging items efficiently,for easy accessibility and using them in best order
Set things in order by creating a place for everything.
Put everything in its place
Keep accessibility as easy as possible.
Use the principle of wide range and shallow depth for storage.
INDICATOR OF SUCCESS
Time saved in searching
Time saved in handling material
How to promote good order Putting in order Things needed Things not needed Things used Constantly Things used occasionally Seldom used But still needed Place as close as possible Place a little further Enclose in a sepearate Designated Place Potentially usefull No potential use Consider where usefull and move to designated place Disposal after careful analysis
This step eliminates dirt, dust and other foreign matter to make workplace clean and polished.
Clean equipment, tools, furniture, records,etc.
Keep the workplace spotless
Sweeping, wiping, polishing, painting,etc.
INDICATOR OF SUCCESS
Reduction in machine downtime
Increased life of the machine parts
Reduction in number of accidents
Reduction in rejection / rework
Maintenance to standards ---SEIKETSU
This Step is Combination of segregation (seiri), arrangement (seiton) and cleaning (seiso). As as,an on-going programme to maintain a clean and well – organised workplace.
Create standards and initiate steps to maintain them
Devise ways to
a. Expose hidden problems
b. Surface abnormalities
Create visual control systems
Indicator of success
Number of areas / covers made transparent
Number of new problems exposed and solved
What is an Abnormality ?
An abnormality is any gap between actual performance and the appropriate standard
What is the visual control ?
A visual control communicates required important information to people who need it.
It grabs one or more of our senses in order to :
Alert us to an abnormality
Help us monitor quickly
Promote adherance and prevention
Enable successful self management
Reduce errors / waste by making problems visible
Identify gap between standard and actual performance
Help in early identification of problems
Visual control system
A visual control system (VCS) is a series of visual and other sensory devices integrated in order to achieve a particular outcome,ensure conformance and prevent waste
Illustration of correct manual operation
Part containers colour coded to match the parts
Red colour light above the line that goes on when help is needed
Important Points for preparation of visual controls
Easy to see from distance
Easy to understand
Ensure correct location/ placement
Use colours for brightness/contrast
Important areas of visual displays
Instructions to people to avoid “OPERATION ERRORS”
Preventive maintenance/Calibration displays
Discipline --- SHITSUKE
This step is to ensure that everyone sticks to the rules scrupulously and makes it a habit
Create general awareness about 4S
Training to everyone
Share success to get more enthusiasm
INDICATORS OF SUCCESS
High employee morale
Involvement of people in the movement
The Elements of “5S”
5 Levels of housekeeping
Horizontal surfaces/floor full of unwanted material.
Vertical surfaces / areas near walls having clutter.
Horizontal ,vertical surfaces clean and have no unwanted items.However,storage areas, record rooms disorganised.
Storage areas ,machines,offices are clean.All materials ,furtinuture,documents properly organised,labelled and numbered.
Factory/office is immaculate at all times.
Level 1 of Housekeeping
Work area is in level 1 of housekeeping if,
Cigarette butts/Gutkha pouches
Scraps of paper
Tools (Used or Unused)
Packing and clamping materials
Left -over raw material
Unused equipment,machine etc
are scattered around all over the workplace.
Corrective action for level 1
Look at all horizontal surfaces
Examine the entire work floor.Eliminate all garbage and
non- essential items on floor,shelves,tabletops etc
Remove unnecessary papers from files
Discard old files,stationery etc
Make a definite place for all tools/documents,files and parts that are lying on the floor tabletops
HINTS FOR IMPROVEMENT
Do not put anything directly on the floor
As much as possible, throw/dispose off things that have no clear foreseeable use.
Level 2 of housekeeping
Work area is in level 2 of housekeeping if there is no litter or unused material on the floor/horizontal surface, but
Clutter is found by the walls
The passage ways are not clear
Unused items,documents,furniture etc are leaning against the walls or columns
Unused tools and equipment ,paper left beneath or beside the equipment
Corrective action for level 2
Look at vertical surfaces
Examine walls and columns
Eliminate all garbage and non- essential items leaning against the walls/columns
Paint all walls and columns that can be reached by hand
Hint for improvement
Divide responsibilities (For area and walls)
Level 3 of housekeeping
Work area is in level 3 of housekeeping if the walkways are clear and the factory/office is clean,but the tools,materials,papers and files are still disorganised in the storage areas,record rooms,drawers,filing racks etc.
Tools ,parts,clamps are all mixed together
Gloves,shoes etc are thrown in with tools in the toolbox
Drawers,shelves are disorganised
All tools are in locked storage units
Drawers,shelves are locked and keys are missing
Unused and worthless items found inside closed cabinets
Corrective action for level 3
Look inside the shelves and sort the papers, material ,parts and tools
Get rid of locked cabinets
Make separate storages for tools,parts,clamps, documents etc.
Make the above area distinct and clear
HINT FOR IMPROVEMENT
Remove the back and sides of all the storage cabinets
At level 4,the work area will have,
Machines,equipment,furnitures spotlessly clean
Storage areas clearly marked and distinguished
Scrap material found in its designated scrap bin
Items placed in shelves are properly labelled/ tagged
Storage areas show many parallel lines and right angles for grid alignment
Tools/files are colour coded and numbered
Level 4 of housekeeping
Clean ,straighten and organise automatically
Storage system designed for “First In First Out” philosophy
Develop other visual controls
Hints for improvement
Scrap and chips should fall directly into waste containers/dust bins
Make a model line with super market type display of parts and tools
Well defined scrap & waste collection & disposal system
Further improvement at Level 4
At level 5,the work place is immaculate at all times.It witnesses,
Constant and continual cleaning by all employees
Origins of rubbish are removed so that dirt,clutter and garbage are eliminated at source
Tools,items and materials can be found at a glance
Inventory levels can be found visually
Production runs smoothly
High product quality achieved
Level 5 of Housekeeping
In third rate workplace ,people leave trash and no one stops to pick it up
In second rate workplace, people leave trash but others pick it up
In first rate workplace, no one leaves trash,but people would pick it up, if they saw it.
What does 5(S) require?
Consciousness revolution through,
To see / judge what is important
Attention to details
Continuous implementation through
Total participation by all employees
8 crucial points for successful implementation of 5S
PARTICIPATION BY ALL PEOPLE
5S programme should be participated by all People in the organisation.
One day should be set aside for the launching of the programme.
6 objectives or why’s of 5S programme should be understood by all people in the organisation,
A clean workplace is high in PRODUCTIVITY
A clean workplace has high QUALITY
A clean workplace keeps COST down
A clean workplace ensures DELIVERY on time
A clean workplace is SAFE for people to work
A clean workplace is high in MORALE
The programme would be more effective when it is included in the small group activities like Quality Circles.
The programme requires top management commitment
The programme should be practised during working hours as an authorized programme,but should not be treated as casual or extra activity during overtime or off duty hours.
Everyone should be officially informed of the significance of the programme.
The CEO should personally make an official announcement of the launching of the programme at an information sharing meeting attended by all people of the organisation.
The CEO should take leadership of the programme
The CEO himself should be keen and committed and have a vested interest in the programme.
The CEO should not delegate the leadership to other people.
The CEO should exercise his leadership in 5S steering committee.
The programme should be supported by all
Such doubts “Why are the disposal notices posted for SEIRI ? ” “ Why is 5S improvement for shopfloor improvement?” should be eliminated.
Each committee member should keep everyone informed of the current progress of 5S implementation on a departmental level.
Each committee member should encourage and guide his people for involvement in 5S implementation activities.
5S Programme should be self- sustaining
Banners,slogans,posters and newsletters should be fully utilized to draw attention of everyone to this programme
An easy handbook or a pamphlet illustrating “Why 5S” “What is 5S” and “How to implement 5S” should be printed and distributed to everyone.
Periodic 5S implementation review should be conducted by CEO or an external expert for comments and updating the status quo.
Basic in-house training and introduction to model companies that have successfully implemented 5S practices would not only provide the necessary skills but also give an insight into how other companies implement 5S.
After the company has attained a certain level of implementation,participation in “Inter- company 5S competition” should provide greater motivation for further improvement.
The CEO should make a periodic factory tour in person
The CEO should tour the factory from time to time and point out strengths and weaknesses of 5S implementation in each workplace.
The CEO should advise 5S steering committee to take corrective action in the areas identified.
The CEO should check the progress of the implementation.
The CEO should give recognition to improved or better practice.
The programme should generate sufficient impact at the initial stage
Slow implementation of decisions by the 5S steering committee should be avoided.
“Disposal notice” approach for SEIRI which is the first step to 5S should especially be implemented company-wide for a specified time before proceeding to SEITON which is the second step for 5S.
Implementation of 5S should go hand –in –hand with other Kaizen programme
5S especially at SEITON requires certain Kaizen principles and skills which can be acquired via external or well organised in-house training programmes.
SEITON requires logical problem-solving approaches.In this sense,it can well be a good theme for Quality Circle activities.
SEITON also requires creative ideas from everyone.Therefore,it can be tied in with and employee suggestion scheme.
Successful implementation of 5S will,by itself,bring about various tangible results.It is also a necessary step for a company to go through before implementing advanced management technologies such as TQC,JIT and TPM because 5S buildsup a solid foundation for SHITSUKE.
Tangible results expected from 5S practice
Employees will be disciplined to be more aware of untidy workplace and motivated to improve the level of cleanliness.
Greater team spirit and co-operation can be built up through involvement of all within an organisation.
Employees will be disciplined to follow safer and better ways of work,resulting in lesser risks to accidents.
Employees would be more conscious of improvement which leads to greater efficiency and effectiveness.
From Machines and Tools
Machine troubles can be detected at an earlier stage to prevent a major breakdown, when machines are cleaned daily by people operating them.
Daily cleaning of measuring instruments will ensure accuracy and reliability.
Life of machines and tools can be extended significantly when they are handled with care and placed in the designated locations.
From materials and Work –in -Progress
Flow of materials and work-in-progress will become smoother.
Floor space will become organised and possible areas for improvement can be easily identified by quick observation.
Inventory of materials and work-in-progress will become clearly visible and easily handled.
Material yield ratios can be improved
From Products and Customers
Clean workplace will ensure that final products will be free from dust.
Sales people will be eager to show customers the plant as a marketing tool.