Better Performance In Project Management! The Almost Complete Guide
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Better Performance In Project Management! The Almost Complete Guide

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An example of some (in this version not entirely complete) training handouts about Project Management. Some additions based on contributions from 'slideshare' users have been included! ...

An example of some (in this version not entirely complete) training handouts about Project Management. Some additions based on contributions from 'slideshare' users have been included!

Ein Beispiel (Auszug) für Teilnehmerunterlagen zu einem Projekt Management Kurs. Diese Version enthält einige neue Folien! Vielen Dank dafür bei den jeweiliegen 'contributors'!

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  • 1. Better Performance in Project Management (PM) the almost complete guide… p g Axel Böhm
  • 2. Performance Improvement, definition 2 The American Society of Training & Development (ASTD) defines Performance Improvement as "the process of identifying the and analyzing important organizational and individual performance gaps, planning for future performance improvement, designing and developing cost-effective and p , g g p g ethically justifiable interventions to close performance gaps, i l implementing the interventions and evaluating the ti th i t ti d l ti th financial and non-financial results."
  • 3. PROJECT MANAGEMENT MODULE TOPICS Module 1: What is a project & what is management Module 2: PMI’s nine project management knowledge areas Module 3: The triple constraint Module 4: The project life cycle Module 5: Project selection j Module 6: Project environment , factors, stakeholders and actors Module 7: Defining scope Module 8: SMART Objectives Module 9: Risk management and project assumptions Module 10: Project charter Module 11: Responsibilities and work breakdown structures Module 12: Project scheduling
  • 4. PROJECT MANAGEMENT MODULE TOPICS Module 13: Controlling and monitoring Module 14: Project management software Module 15: Project close Module 16: PMI’s project management maturity model Module 17: M d l 17 The Th project team and project structure j tt d j t t t Module 18: Project communications Module 19: Project Management Processes Module 20: The next steps
  • 5. Please note: 5 Besides its function as a PowerPoint presentation, this handout is meant to give participants additional information related to Project Management. The sequence of pages (if presented) might change due to the actual flow of the training. A copyright note: ‘The content is based on the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) and the Project Management Institute (PMI) training workshop series and is supplemented with material from Pro Consulting and Training (Pro Consulting and Training). The copyright for the pictures used is with the respective owner.
  • 6. MODULE 1 WHAT IS A PROJECT & WHAT 1: IS MANAGEMENT?
  • 7. What is a Project? 7 “A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service.”* Term M e a n s th a t a P r o je c t temporary Has a beginning and end endeavor Involves effort, work effort to create Has an intention to produce something (project "deliverables" unique One of a kind, rather than a collection of identical items product Tangible objects, but could include things like computer software, film or stage works service Might include the establishment of a day-care center, center for instance, but not its daily instance operations. *2000 PMBOK Guide (p. 4).
  • 8. What is a Project? Some more ‘definitions’ definitions 8 A project is a package of activities in a specific sector, carried out in a set region, within a limited period of time, by project executing agencies (which may be supervised by politically answerable institutions and supported by funding and consultative agencies), with the aim of obtaining certain results, g g ), g , which will lead to an agreed project purpose. A project may form part of an overall program. Several projects may be packaged where they cover similar sectoral, organisational or geographical area. Programmes may include projects which work in the same sector, sub sector sub-sector or region, and which can be put together to make a clearly defined concept. Such projects may be promoted through the same executing agency. Certain deliveries of materials and equipment, or other inputs in support of equipment sectoral or sub-sectoral objectives, may also be financed as programs. There is no sharp distinction between projects, packages of projects and programs. programs
  • 9. What is Management? 9 Theoretical scope Th ti l Mary Parker Follett (1868–1933), who wrote on the topic in the early twentieth century and defined management as "the art of getting things done through people". One can also think of management functionally, as the action of measuring a quantity on a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan; or as the actions taken to reach one's intended goal. This applies even in situations where planning does not take place.
  • 10. What is Management? 10 From this perspective, Henri Fayol considered management to consist of five functions: Planning Controlling Organizing Coordinating g Leading g
  • 11. From Management Cycle to Project M P j t Management Cycle tC l 11 Management Cycle b H. F M t C l by H Fayol (1841-1925) l Project M P j t Management Cycle tC l People Policies Initiating I iti ti Planning Closing Planning COST Controlling Organizing SCOPE TIME Processes Monitoring & Executing Coordinating Leading Controlling Procedures
  • 12. The essential Project Management questions… ti 12 I keep six honest serving men p g (They taught me all I knew); Their names are: What and Why and When and How and Where and Who (Rudyard Kipling, from ‘The Elephant’s Child’ in Just So Stories).
  • 13. Working the (management) pyramide… 13 THE TARGET ACHIEVED? WHAT and HOW Quality Management WHEN and COSTS Budget WHO and HOW MUCH Capacity Plan WHAT until WHEN Operation Chart WHAT Structured Project Plan WHY Clear Target
  • 14. Project Management… 14
  • 15. Your Turn: 15 What is ‘performance’? What is a Project & what is Management? j g … … … …
  • 16. MODULE 2: PMI’S NINE PROJECT MANAGEMENT KNOWLEDGE AREAS - AND WHAT IS PROJECT MANAGEMENT?
  • 17. PMI’s Nine P j t M Ni Project Management Knowledge Areas tK l d A 17 1. Integration Management 2. Scope Management p g 3. Time Management 4. Cost Management 5. Quality Management 6. Human Resource Management 7. 7 Communications Management 8. Risk Management 9. 9 Procurement Management
  • 18. #1 #1- Project Integration Management 18 The ’elements’: Building the Project Plan Project Execution Integrated Change Control Bringing it all together: Project Management “Nerve Center ! Nerve Center”!
  • 19. #2 - Project Scope Management 19 Staying vigilant in defining and containing scope throughout the project! Project Initiation Scope Planning S l i Scope Definition Scope Verification Scope Change Control
  • 20. #3 - Project Time Management 20 Determining What Gets Done and When through: Activity Definition Activity Sequencing Activity Duration Estimating Schedule Development Schedule Control
  • 21. #4 - Project Cost Management 21 Planning for Resources Estimating Costs Creating the Budget Managing/Controlling the Budget
  • 22. #5 - Project Quality Management 22 Quality Planning Quality Assurance Quality Control
  • 23. #6 - Project Human Resource Management 23 Organizational Planning Staff Acquisition q Team Development
  • 24. #7 #7- Project Communications Management 24 Keeping Stakeholders informed ( (and involved!) ) Communications Planning Dissemination of Information Progress Reporting Administrative Closure
  • 25. #8 - Project Risk Management 25 Expect the Unexpected! Risk Management Planning Risk Identification Qualitative Risk Analysis Quantitative Risk Analysis Risk Response Planning Risk Management and Control
  • 26. #9 - Project Procurement Management 26 For Projects Using Outside Resources: Procurement Planning Solicitation Planning Solicitation Source Selection Contract Administration Contract Closeout
  • 27. A quick analysis… 27 How would you rate on a scale from 1 – 5: How relevant  How important is  Does your  Does your Your own  is that  PMI  PMI that knowledge for  th t k l d f organization  i ti organization  i ti knowledge  k l d knowledge for  Knowledge Management Areas your  organization  have that  apply the  on this  your daily  to have? knowledge? knowledge? area? work? Integration Management Scope Management Time Management Cost Management Quality Management Human Resources Management g Communication Management Risk Management Procurement Management Procurement Management
  • 28. Your Turn: What We Know Already 28 Look back over your previous experience in project management! How many of the nine knowledge areas did you use? ( (Probably all nine!) y ) Take a quick inventory and point to your most successful application and the most difficult one to manage! Pick up at least one new tip from others right now!
  • 29. So what is Project Management? 29 The use of resources to accomplish project objectives, which objectives includes: • Applying knowledge, competencies and skills pp y g g , p • Defining, planning, scheduling and controlling • Leadership, communicating and coordinating • Starting up and dissolving project teams • Balancing requirements, schedule and resources • Being sensitive to people • Managing both deliverables and processes
  • 30. So what is Project Management? 30 AS t Systematic P ti Process for M f Managing Project Implementation i P j tI l t ti 1. Understand the project 2. Structure the organization 3. Build the team 4. Analyze the context 5. Refine objectives, scope, and other project parameters j , p , p j p 6. Prepare the work breakdown structure (WBS), Responsibility Matrix, and Master Summary Schedule 7. Plan and schedule with critical path method (CPM) 8. Obtain management approval 9. Design control and reporting systems (Time, Cost, Resources, Scope, Performance and Quality) 10. Organize procurement 11. Execute and control the work 12. Terminate the project
  • 31. Your Turn: 31 What are the 9 PM Knowledge Areas … … … … … … … … …
  • 32. MODULE 3: THE TRIPLE CONSTRAINT
  • 33. The Triple Constraint 33 The three constraints that all projects are facing and that are constantly overlooked /underestimated Time Cost Quality/Scope OR, IN Fast ast Cheap PLAIN ENGLISH Good
  • 34. Triple Constraint Trade Offs Trade-Offs 34 Cost Quality/Scope Constraint Required Adjustment Alternatives Req ired Adj stment Alternati es (One or Change Combination of Both) Shorter Time Higher Cost Reduced Quality or Narrowed Scope Reduced Cost More Time Reduced Quality or Narrowed Scope Higher Quality or More Time Higher Cost Increased Scope p
  • 35. Triple Constraint: Setting Priorities 35 Prior ity Matrix Constraint 1 2 3 Measurement Time Cost Quality/Scope Q lit /S •Must be set by customer and sponsor near startup. •May change over time, but a change is a significant event! E x a m p l e o f a C o m p l e te d P r i o r i ty M a t i x f r a C o n str u cti o n P r o je ct t t tr fo t ti j t Co n s tra i n t 1 2 3 Me a s u re m e n t Building must be completed by Time X October 31 of this year to accommodate corporate move. Costs for the project must not Cost X exceed $22.5 million. Must provide workspace for 120 call p p Quality/Scope X center staff. If these are the established priorities and measurements, what are some of the implications for the project if the project starts running late or shows signs of exceeding budget?
  • 36. Your Turn: 36 What are the triple constraints? … … …
  • 37. MODULE 4: THE PROJECT LIFE CYCLE
  • 38. The Project Life Cycle 38 General Form of a Project Life Cycle Project Phase 1 Ph Phase 2 Ph Phase 3 Ph Phase... Ph Phase " " Ph "n"
  • 39. Project Life Cycles Are Like Snowflakes! 39 Simple Three-Phase Project Life Cycle Si l Th Ph P j t Lif C l Project Initiation Execution Close Out Close-Out Nine-Phase Project Life Cycle Project Formulate Concept Evaluate Concept Verify Scope Design Construct Deploy Maintain Close
  • 40. Project Life Cycles Are Like Snowflakes! 40 Program/Project Identification Completion & Evaluation Phase PCM Model
  • 41. Project Life Cycles Are Like Snowflakes 41 Continuous I C i Improvement Lessons Learned Project IInitiation iti ti Definition D fi iti Planning Pl i IImplementation l t ti Closure Cl
  • 42. Project Life Cycles Are Like Snowflakes 42 IDENTIFICATION PREPARATION APPRAISAL NEGOTIATION IMPLEMENTATION ILO/UN Model EVALUATION
  • 43. Project Life Cycles Are Like Snowflakes 43 ILO/UN Model Implementation
  • 44. Project Life Cycles Are Like Snowflakes 44 Phase or Identification Preparation Approval Financing Implementation Operations Stage Ex Post Evaluation Project Profile Product or Pre- Prepared Process or feasi- and Deliverable bility Budget Study for Feasibility y Project j Donor Final Cons- Feasi- F i Study/ Proposal Agreement Design truction bility Preliminary for included in Study Design Project Capital Budget Financing Decision 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 maker Sector Sector Sector Central Financing Sector Sector Ministry Ministry, Ministry Planning Institution Ministry Ministry Planning Unit and Unit and Ministry y Ministry of Finance of Finance Typical Project Life Cycle for a Technical Cooperation Country Program/Project
  • 45. Benefits of a Project Life Cycle 45 • Establishes a common framework for developing the project! • Defines the system for managing projects, including phases and decision points! • Provides a common l P id language f th d for the development process! l t ! • Institutionalizes a management system! • Improves communication, coordination and control! These points do hold true for any type of project! ILO/UN
  • 46. The Project Life Cycle we will use… 46 Project Life Cycle Used in this Workshop Project Initiation Definition Planning Implementation Closure Phase Pur po se Initiation Introduce proje ct to attain approval and cre ate proje ct charte r De finition D fi iti Docume nt proje ct scope , d li rable s, and me th d f D t j t de live bl d thods for containing scope . Planning Cre ate plan docume nting the activitie s re quire d to comple te the proje ct, along w ith se que nce of activitie s, re source s assigne d to the activitie s, and re sulting sche dule and budge ts. Imple me ntation Exe cute and manage the plan, using artifacts cre ate d in the planning phase . Closure Formally re vie w the proje ct, including le ssons le arne d and turnove r of proje ct docume ntation. ntation
  • 47. Your Turn: 47 Which ‘steps/sequences’ you will find in a Project Life Cycle (make sure you get them in the right order) ? … … … …
  • 48. MODULE 5: PROJECT SELECTION
  • 49. How Projects Come to Be Be… 49 Project selection can be a difficult process, especially when there are a large number of potential projects competing for scarce money. Some selection methods are highly intuitive; others try to add rigor through more scientific selection processes.
  • 50. Sacred Cows and Pressing Needs g 50 Some selection ‘criteria’ can b S l i ‘ i i ’ be: “Sacred Cow” selection—Senior Management wants it! (it may often turn out well; many visionary projects start here)! Business opportunity (make more money)! Savings potential (save more money)! Keeping up with competition (example, many e-commerce projects were in response to competitor’s initiatives)! p p ) Government or regulatory requirements! URGENCY!!! Disaster recovery initiatives!
  • 51. An Important Selection Criterion 51 Sanity Ch k S it Check: Does the project fit in with the stated goals of the organization? Which of the following meet this criterion? Why or why not? An A environmental group proposes a project to raise money by selling aerosol cans of i l j i b lli l f a powerful new pesticide. A video store chain proposes to develop a web site for ordering and distributing deo sto e c a p oposes de e op eb s te o o de g a d d st but g videos. A bank offers a free rifle to anyone opening a new savings account. A restaurant equipment manufacturer decides to introduce a line of high-end refrigerators for the consumer market.
  • 52. Selection tools: Ishikawa diagrams 52 Also called fishbone diagrams or cause-and-effect diagrams, are diagrams that show the causes of a certain incident. Common uses of the Ishikawa diagram are product design and quality defect prevention, to identify potential factors causing an overall effect.
  • 53. Selection tools: Ishikawa diagrams 53 Ishikawa diagrams were proposed by Kaoru Ishikawa in the 1960s, who pioneered quality management processes in the Kawasaki shipyards, and in the process became one of the founding fathers of modern management. It was first used in the 1960s, and is considered one of the seven basic tools of quality management, along with the histogram, Pareto chart, l f li l i h h hi P h check sheet, control chart, flowchart, and scatter diagram. It is known as a fishbone diagram because of its shape, similar to the side view of a fish skeleton. k l t Mazda Motors famously used an Ishikawa diagram in the development of the Miata sports car, where the required result was "Jinba Ittai or "Horse and Rider as One . The main causes Jinba Ittai" Horse One" included such aspects as "touch" and "braking" with the lesser causes including highly granular factors such as "50/50 weight distribution" and "able to rest elbow on top of driver's door". Every factor identified in the diagram was included in the final design.
  • 54. Selection tools: Ishikawa diagrams 54 Causes Causes in the diagram are often categorized, such as to the 4 M's, described below. Cause-and- effect diagrams can reveal key relationships among various variables, and the possible causes g y p g p provide additional insight into process behavior. Typical (but you can define your own/add) categories are: The original 4 M's Machine (Equipment) Method (Process/Inspection) Material (Raw materials, Consumables etc.) Manpower The 4 P's (Used In Service Industry) People Process Policies Procedures
  • 55. Selection Tools 55 N u m e r i c Me th o d De s c r i p ti o n Payback Period Determines how quickly a project recoups its costs Net Present Value Estimates the current worth of anticipated cash flows resulting from the project Unweighted Selection Scores multiple projects against a set of selection criteria, with all criteria being equal Weighted Selection Scores multiple projects against a set of selection criteria, with each criterion assigned a numeric weight Pairwise Priorities Rank ordering a number of candidate projects by systematically comparing one with each of the others
  • 56. Weighted Criteria 56 Item Weight t Criteria 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total: 0 Total: 0 Total: 0 Total: 0 Total: 0
  • 57. Weighted Criteria (example, using scale of 1-5) 57 Item Weight t Project A Proje ct B Project C Criteria 4 5 3 Good ROI 3 12 15 9 0 0 2 3 5 CEO Like s It Lik 5 10 15 25 0 0 5 4 2 Provide Be tte r 4 20 16 8 0 0 Se rvice 4 4 5 Ma tch Ne w Initia tives of 3 12 12 15 0 0 Our Compe tition Winner!! ( (hmmmm…) ) 0 0 0 0 0 Total: 54 Total: 58 Total: 57 Total: 0 Total: 0
  • 58. Unweighted Criteria (example, using scale of 1-5) 58 Item Project A Project B Project C Criteria Good ROI 4 5 3 0 0 CEO Likes It 2 3 5 0 0 Provide Better 5 4 2 0 0 Our Service Winner!! Match New (Still! So the Initiatives of 4 4 5 0 0 boss Competition was right..) 0 0 0 0 0 Total: 15 Total: 16 Total: 15 Total: 0 Total: 0
  • 59. Forced Pair Comparisons for Priorities 59 Allows individuals or groups to rank order lists of candidate projects (or All i di id l t k d li t f did t j t ( anything, for that matter!) Simple Works well for fewer than 20 items 1 -- 2 1 -- 3 2 -- 3 1 -- 4 2 -- 4 3 -- 4 1 -- 5 2 -- 5 3 -- 5 4 -- 5 1 -- 6 2 -- 6 3 -- 6 4 -- 6 5 -- 6 1 -- 7 2 -- 7 3 -- 7 4 -- 7 5 -- 7 6 -- 7 1 -- 8 2 -- 8 3 -- 8 4 -- 8 5 -- 8 6 -- 8 7 -- 8 1 -- 9 2 -- 9 3 -- 9 4 -- 9 5 -- 9 6 -- 9 7 -- 9 8 -- 9 1 -- 10 2 -- 10 3 -- 10 4 -- 10 5 -- 10 6 -- 10 7 -- 10 8 -- 10 9 -- 10 Item Scores 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
  • 60. How to use the Forced Pair Comparisons 60 Generate list of items. items For project selection, this will be the list of candidate projects. Number the items for identification purposes. Use the grid to compare each item with the other items on the list, circling the item g p , g that is the more preferred of the two. (You must make a choice for each pair!) Count the number of times each item was circled and enter its score on the bottom line of the grid. grid Rank order the list using the scores you have derived. The item with the highest score is #1. The item with the second-highest score is #2. ( case of a tie, you may g (In ,y y either do a mini-grid for the tied items, or refer to your original preference when you were circling the items in the grid above.) Use less than a full grid for fewer than 10 items; expand grid for more items. items
  • 61. How to Use Forced Pair Comparisons Example: 61 Seven Books I Have Always Wanted to Read and Haven’t 1. Middlemarch 2. Ulysses 3. Remembrance of Things Past 4. War W and P d Peace 5. Moby Dick 6. Anna Karenina 7. Pride and Prejudice
  • 62. How to Use Forced Pair Comparisons Example (continued): E l ( ti d) 62 1 -- 2 1 -- 3 2 -- 3 1 -- 4 2 -- 4 3 -- 4 1 -- 5 2 -- 5 3 -- 5 4 -- 5 1 -- 6 2 -- 6 3 -- 6 4 -- 6 5 -- 6 1 -- 7 2 -- 7 3 -- 7 4 -- 7 5 -- 7 6 -- 7 1 -- 8 2 -- 8 3 -- 8 4 -- 8 5 -- 8 6 -- 8 7 -- 8 1 -- 9 2 -- 9 3 -- 9 4 -- 9 5 -- 9 6 -- 9 7 -- 9 8 -- 9 1 -- 10 2 -- 10 3 -- 10 4 -- 10 5 -- 10 6 -- 10 7 -- 10 8 -- 10 9 -- 10 Item Scores 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 * 5 1 * 4 2 1 6 * Break ties. In this case, #1 and #6 as well as #3 and #6 were tied. Ties were broken merely by referring to previous choice made in the grid.
  • 63. How to Use Forced-Pair Comparisons Example (concluded): 63 Ranked List f the Seven B k I H R k d Li t of th S Books Have Al Always W t d t R d and H Wanted to Read d Haven’t ’t 1. Pride and Prejudice 2. Ulysses 3. War and Peace 4. Middlemarch Middl h 5. Moby Dick 6. Remembrance of Things Past 7. Anna Karenina
  • 64. Practice: Placing Priorities on a Short List g 64 1 -- 2 1 -- 3 2 -- 3 1 -- 4 2 -- 4 3 -- 4 1 -- 5 2 -- 5 3 -- 5 4 -- 5 1 -- 6 2 -- 6 3 -- 6 4 -- 6 5 -- 6 1 -- 7 2 -- 7 3 -- 7 4 -- 7 5 -- 7 6 -- 7 1 -- 8 2 -- 8 3 -- 8 4 -- 8 5 -- 8 6 -- 8 7 -- 8 1 -- 9 2 -- 9 3 -- 9 4 -- 9 5 -- 9 6 -- 9 7 -- 9 8 -- 9 1 -- 10 2 -- 10 3 -- 10 4 -- 10 5 -- 10 6 -- 10 7 -- 10 8 -- 10 9 -- 10 Item Scores 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
  • 65. Your Turn: 65 How projects come to be? What could be selection methods? … … … … …
  • 66. MODULE 6: PROJECT ENVIRONMENT, FACTORS, ENVIRONMENT FACTORS STAKEHOLDERS AND ACTORS
  • 67. Project Environment… 67 Do D not forget a Project is a System … tf t P j ti S t The Environment The Project Inputs Processes Outputs
  • 68. Project Environment… 68 …aS t System in a System… i S t The Environment The Project Organization Inputs The Project Inputs Processes Outputs Outputs Customers or Beneficiaries
  • 69. Project Environment… 69 Actors and Factors as Inputs and Outputs The Environment Inputs Outputs The Project O ga at o Organization Supplies Facilities Reports School The Accounting A ti Project P j t Improved instruction Money Improved Labor economic g growth Government agencies
  • 70. Project Environment… 70 Actors (Stakeholders) Outside and Factors as Environment (outside of parent organization) Inputs and Outputs Actors • people • institutions • ... Actors A t Inputs Project Outputs Factors Factors • climate • inflation • ... Stakeholders: Actors with an interest in or who could be impacted by the project
  • 71. Project Environment… 71 Project Cycle M P j C l Management QUALITY at EX in the 2000s feedback XIT feedback 0
  • 72. Project Environment… 72 Step: Process f E i St P for Environmental Analysis t lA l i 1. Scan environment and identify y The Environment actors/factors; in terms of inputs and outputs; geopolitically and by sector! The Project 2. Screen in terms of dependency, risk, Inputs and power! Processes Outputs 3. Identify problem and beneficial actors and factors! 4. Develop strategies and act! Boundary 5. Repeat throughout implementation! p g p
  • 73. Project Environment… 73 Step: Screen A t St S Actors and Factors dF t 1. List them 2. Rate them in terms of: • Dependency: H D d How iimportant is the actor/factor to the t t i th t /f t t th successful completion of the project! • Risk: Likelihood something will go wrong • Power: Degree of control or influence Assign High, Low, or Medium rating to each in a matrix!
  • 74. Project Environment… 74 Actors & Factors Matrix A F M i Degree of Degree of Degree of Degree of dependency risk power problem Actor 1 medium high high Actor 2 low medium low Actor 3 high high low high Factor 1 low medium low Factor 2 low high low Factor 3 high high low
  • 75. Project Environment… 75 Definition of dependency D fi iti fd d • How important is the actor or factor to the successful completion p p of the project! Definition of risk • the chance that something will go wrong (hinder the completion of the project in a significant way)!
  • 76. Project Environment… 76 Definition of Power: Ability to make something occur; ability to get someone to do something one wants done! POWER: High = control Medium = influence Control Low (none) = appreciation Influence I fl Appreciation
  • 77. Project Environment… 77 After your Analysis Develop Strategies and Act Af A l i D l S i dA Use general STRATEGIES: Formulate Specific ACTIONS • Reduce dependency ? • Reduce risk ? • Increase power ? • Capitalize on beneficial ? actors acto s and factors facto s
  • 78. Project Environment… 78 Use Linkages to Increase Influence Formal Informal • committees • meetings • project coordinator • p plans • task forces • teambuilding • incorporation or merger • p g personality • rewards
  • 79. Project Environment… 79 Continuously Scan the Project Environment Scanning is not a one-time event Circumstances change Keep current • list of problem actors and factors, • Strategies and • contingency plans!
  • 80. Project Environment… 80 Worksheet 1: Sector Analysis Project: Sectors Actors Factors Infrastructure Technology Financial Commercial Political/Legal Physical
  • 81. Project Environment… 81 Worksheet 2 Actor F t G id W k h t 2: A t Factor Grid Project: Degree of Degree of Degree of Degree of risk dependency power problem Actors Factors H=High M=Medium M M di L=Low
  • 82. Project Environment… 82 Worksheet 3 Managing Problem Actors & Factors W k h t 3: M i P bl A t F t Project: Decreasing Increasing Decreasing Linkages degree of degree of degree of risk Formal/Informal dependency power Actors Factors
  • 83. Project Stakeholders 83 “Individuals “I di id l and organizations th t are actively d i ti that ti l involved in the project, or whose interest may be pos t e y o egat e y a ected positively or negatively affected as a result of project esu t o p oject execution or project completion.” 2000 PMBOK Guide Short list Project benefacto P oject benefactor Project requestor Project manager and team Those affected by the project
  • 84. Project Stakeholders: Partial List of Candidates for Stakeholder Roles 84 Project b P j t benefactor and upper management f t d t Project sponsor Project office/project advisory boards Executive management Project P j t requestor t Project manager and team If a team member has a line manager, he or she is a key stakeholder as well. (They hold the strings for your team member.) Internal Consultants Legal Audit Telecommunications IT infrastructure Quality assurance Human Resources Department External entities affected by the project Customers Vendors Governmental agencies Other regulatory bodies
  • 85. Identifying Project Stakeholders y g j 85 Potential Stakeholders Stakeholders Inside the Team Stakeholders Within the Organiz ation Stakeholders Outside the Organiz ation
  • 86. Project Stakeholders 86 Putting even more detail to the stakeholder… stakeholder Analyse the characteristics of the group e.g.: Composition (homogenous or in-homogeneous group in regard to ethnic, social, religious and cultural factors); Status of the group (informal, formal, social status, legal status, organisational structure, etc.); Purpose of their existence and main functions; Needs; Motives and interests, openly expressed or hidden; Hopes, wishes, expectations - fears, apprehensions, reservations; Attitudes (opinions, prejudices, taboos, etc.) towards project related factors, e.g. change, progress, work, strangers; Potentials and deficiencies/Strength and weaknesses of the group (e.g. knowledge, skills, behaviour, commitment, etc.); ); Resources (power, possessions, influence, monopolies, connections); What could the group contribute to or withhold from the project? Implications for the planning. planning PCM
  • 87. Your Turn: 87 Project stakeholders how to identify and categorizing them? … … … … … …
  • 88. MODULE 7: DEFINING SCOPE
  • 89. Defining Scope (The range of one's perceptions thoughts, or actions ) one s perceptions, thoughts actions.) 89 Product S P d Scope versus P j Project S Scope Product Scope: The sum of the features that make up the product or service created by the project. Project Scope: All of the activities and resources required to produce the target product or service. Describe the Project Scope by defining the: situation before situation after project start / project end contents non-contents goals non-goals
  • 90. Defining Scope 90 Situation before: Situation after: • ... • ... • ... • ... • ... Project Start: • ... • ... <date> • ... Project „xxx“ Contents: Non-Contents: Goals: Non-Goals: • ... • ... • ... • ... • ... • ... • ... • ... • ... • ... • ... • ... • ... • ... • ... • ...
  • 91. Preliminary Context Diagrams: Deconstruction D t ti 91 Widget Wid t World Manage Sell Manage Maintain Run Enterprise Widgets Systems Accounts HR (IT Dept) Manage Support Sell Support Develop Design Hire Develop Maintain Sales Sales Product y Systems y Systems Websites Staff Courses Employee Records p y (Our Context) • Here we’ve drilled down into the Widget World organization and depicted the major functions within the company. company • Ideally, the top level should encompass the entire organization. • We have been charged with evaluating a flawed sales support system that provides automated training and support to the sales staff. The scope of the training product is therefore the box labeled “Support Sales.”
  • 92. Scope (Context) Diagrams Defining the E d P d t D fi i th End Product 92 Login and Lesson Participation Usage Statistics IT Dept Sales Staff Ad Hoc Product and Procedures Inquiries Sales Staff Information Ad Hoc Product and and Access Sales Support Sales Staff Permissions Sales Performance Support Managers Course Lessons, Training Product Assessments, and Learner Sales Staff Evaluations a t c pat o Participation and Progress Reports Sales Staff Participation and P ti i ti d Course Progress Reports HR Development Department Group Content Updates
  • 93. Scope (Context) Diagrams Defining the End Product (continued) 93 Software The software product, usually drawn as a Product rounded-corner square, and always in the center of the graphic One rectangle for each class of individual Individuals Who (e.g., customer) or organization (e.g., HR) Interact Wi h I With that might interact with the software Software Product solution One rectangle ( g (with an extra line inside Systems That the top) for each class of system (e.g., Interact With your HR S ystem) that may interact with Software Product the software product One arrow for each major class of information that flows to or from the software product
  • 94. Scope (Context) Diagrams (applied to project team charged with delivery of the product) ( li d t j tt h d ith d li f th d t) 94 Request for Infrastructure IT Systems HR Dept Requirements Support Approvals/$ Interim Versions Completed System Project Internal to Develop Focus Group Sales Staff Support Recommendations/ Participants Approvals Progress Reports System Template Designs Internal Web Sales Design Managers Group Content Rules
  • 95. Scope (Context) Diagram (applied to project team charged with delivery of the product - continued) 95 Software The name of the software development project, Development usually appearing in the center of the graphic as Project a rounded-corner square Any Individuals or One rectangle for each class of individual (e.g., Organizations project sponsor) or organization (e.g., IT Interacting With Department) that may interact with your Project Team software development project team in developing the software product One rectangle (with an extra line inside the top) Systems That for each class of system (e.g., a course module Interact With Project Team library) that be used by the software development project team in developing the software product p One arrow for each major class of information that flows to or f h fl from software d f development l project team
  • 96. Your Turn: 96 How to define Scope? … … …
  • 97. MODULE 8: SMART OBJECTIVES
  • 98. Writing SMART Objectives 98 S pecific Objectives should be stated in terms that include some quantitative target for the end product. M easurable There should be some way of actually testing whether or not that stated target has been met. A ttainable The desired objective must be one that is actually possible to ac e e achieve within t e t e a d cost pa a ete s p o ded t the time and parameters provided. R elevant The desired objective should relate directly to the organization's business b siness needs and stated mission mission. T The boundaries for completion date of the desired objective should be either a specific date or time or an "offset" from the beginning of the project. (For example, must be completed within five months of project launch.) ime-Bound
  • 99. MODULE 9: RISK MANAGEMENT AND PROJECT ASSUMPTIONS
  • 100. Risk Management 100 Project Management Institute (PMI) Definition: "an uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, has a positive or negative effect on a project objective , objective”, requires that both opportunities and threats be addressed to maximize/minimize these advantages/disadvantages. How to handle them: Risks that may affect the project for better or worse can be identified and organized into risk categories. Risk categories should be well defined and should reflect common sources of risk for the industry or application area.
  • 101. Risk Management 101 Risk t Ri k categories include the following: i i l d th f ll i • Technical, quality, or performance risks —such as reliance on unproven or complex technology, unrealistic performance goals, changes to the technology used or to i d h l d industry standards d i d d during the project h j • Project-management risks —such as poor allocation of time and resources, inadequate quality of the p j , q q y project p plan, p , poor use of p j project management disciplines • Organizational risks —such as cost, time, and scope objectives that are internally inconsistent, lack of prioritization of projects, inadequacy or y , p p j , q y interruption of funding, and resource conflicts with other projects in the organization • External risks —such as shifting legal or regulatory environment, labor such issues, changing owner priorities, country risk, and weather. Force majeure risks such as earthquakes, floods, and civil unrest generally require disaster recovery actions rather than risk management.
  • 102. Risk Management 102 A risk breakdown structure (RBS) provides a hierarchical way to organize risks, proceeding from an overview of risks associated with an entire project to general categories and individual risks. The method, developed by Project Management Professional Solutions Ltd. Director of Consultancy David Hillson, mirrors the work breakdown structure. As part of this first step in the risk management process, an organization might specify the methods used to actually identify risks. For example, brainstorming sessions might identify "communication" problems under "management risk while financial models might evaluate "financial" uncertainties under "commercial risk.'' In the next steps, specific risks are identified within each of the named categories along with some ranking of their severity and strategies for managing those risks. As these strategies are successfully mapped, project managers gain a better understanding of the levels of risk prevalent within alt areas of a project, and they're able to work systematically to reduce those risks. Source: D.A. Hillson's "The Risk Breakdown Structure as an Aid to Effective Risk Management," presented in June at the PMI Europe 2002 Conference, Cannes, France.
  • 103. Risk Management 103 A risk breakdown structure (RBS) i kb kd t t
  • 104. Risk Management Risk Identification Worksheet Scenario: Risk Identification Worksheet Enter risk scenario (how an event could jeopardize project outcome). Rate probability, impact, and degree of control using Probability Impact Control Index rating scale of: 1 = Low Financial Impact: 2 = Medium Action to be Taken: Ignore Eliminate Manage 3 = High g Mitigations: Compute risk index using formula: Probability * Impact Risk Index = Control Contingencies: If possible, enter financial impact. Determine actions to take: Ignore (do nothing) Manager of This Risk: Eliminate (sidestep) Actions Taken Manage Action: Date: For managed risks, indicate mitigations and contingencies and assign risk manager. Log actions taken as they occur. L ti t k th
  • 105. Risk Management g 105 Giving Risks Priorities Maintain inventory of all risks identified—updating probabilities, impacts, and controls if changes occur. Risk Priority Worksheet Risk ID Risk Scenario Probability Impact Control Index 1 Key stakeholders unavailable during project definition phase 2 3 2 3 2 Vendors late in delivering required software for security system 2 2 1 4 3 Loss of key team member in middle of project 1 3 2 1.5 4 Power failure due to seasonal storms 1 3 1 3 5 Final regulations controlling administration of new system late 2 3 1 6 6 Scope changes require additional tasks and resources 2 3 2 3 Focus attention on the risks with the highest indices!!! Risk Priority Worksheet Risk ID Risk Scenario Probability Impact Control Index 5 Final regulations controlling administration of new system late 2 3 1 6 2 Vendors late in delivering required software for security system 2 2 1 4 1 Key stakeholders unavailable during project definition phase 2 3 2 3 4 Power failure due to seasonal storms 1 3 1 3 6 Scope changes require additional tasks and resources 2 3 2 3 3 Loss of key team member in middle of project* 1 3 2 1.5
  • 106. Your Turn: Project Risk Scenarios j 106 Risk Identification Worksheet Scenario: 1. Individually identify and jot down four possible risk scenarios this Probability Impact Control Index project might face. Financial Impact: 2. Share these within your group and create a Risk Priority Action to be Taken: Ignore Eliminate Manage Worksheet of your pooled risks. Mitigations: 3. Score the risks. 4. 4 For the top two brainstorm at two, Contingencies: least one mitigation and one contingency. Manager of This Risk: 5. 5 Use the Risk Identification Actions Taken Worksheet as a guide, but you do Action: Date: not need to complete one for this exercise.
  • 107. Project Assumptions PCM C 107 How d H does PCM d fi define, f formulate and h dl ‚Assumptions‘? l d handle A i ‘? Assumption Definition: A ti D fi iti Conditions/factors that must exist/are important if the program/project is to succeed but which are not under the succeed, direct control of the project, because they do not have e.g. : • a mandate for it and or • did choose not to control it and or • are outside the projects intervention.
  • 108. Project Assumptions 108 Risk Project Management Assumption PCM Definition: Institute (PMI) Definition: "an uncertain event or condition Conditions/factors that must exist/are important if the that, if it occurs, has a positive or , , p program/project is to succeed, negative effect on a project but which are not under the direct control of the project, objective”, requires that both because they do not have e.g. : y g opportunities and threats be • a mandate for it and or addressed to maximize/minimize • did choose not to control it and these advantages/disadvantages. or • are outside the projects intervention. intervention
  • 109. Project Assumptions PCM C 109 Where to fi d and h Wh find d how to word A d Assumptions? i ? • Assumptions can be derived from a variety of analytical tools, such Stakeholder Analysis Problem/Objective Tree, Analysis of Analysis, Tree Alternatives, SWOT, just to name a few. • Assumptions will be worded as p p positive conditions ( (i.e. like ‘Results/Outputs’). • Assumptions will be weighted according to their importance and probability • One uses the IF-AND-THEN logic, to make sure that the Assumption is on the right level: e.g. IF an Activity is done AND eg the Assumption comes true, THEN the Result/Output will be achieved.
  • 110. Project Assumptions PCM C 110
  • 111. Project Assumptions 111 Assumptions, continued A ti ti d There might be quite a number of potentially important Assumptions, which we have to make about any Result/Output or even Activity and it is neither useful nor possible to list them all. What is required is the specification of the most important Assumptions for each level of the hierarchy. Generally, the significance of these Assumptions - i.e. the ability of the factor to affect achievement - rises through the hierarchy. Uncertainty will rise at the ‘Result/Output’ to hierarchy Result/Output ‘Goal/Purpose’ linkage level and will become very significant at the ‘Goal/Purpose’ to ‘Overall Goal’ linkage level. Uncertainty at this level is high, because the achievement of the ‘Overall Goal’ depends upon the achievement of one or more complementary inputs. Some additional remarks Avoid to many Assumptions in your LogFrame. Those that are important and can be ‘managed’ by the implementation team have to be at least monitored and they might even become additional Activities, which have to be carried out! Sometimes planning teams have a tendency to 'shy-away' from stating Assumptions. Do not fall into that trap either! Even some manageable Assumptions might turn into Killer Assumptions if they are ignored!
  • 112. Risk Management 112 Finding Risks/Assumptions using a PEST analysis It is a tool that strategy consultants use to scan the external macro- environment in which an organisation or company operates. PEST is an acronym for the following factors: Political factors Economic factors Social factors, and Technological factors. PEST factors play an important role in the value creation opportunities of a strategy. However they are usually beyond the control of the corporation and must normally be considered as either threats or opportunities Remember macro opportunities. macro- economical factors can differ per continent, country or even region, so normally a PEST analysis should be performed per country. In the table on the following page y you find examples of each of these factors. p
  • 113. Risk Management 113 Example PEST matrix Political (incl. Legal) Economic Social Technological factors factors factors factors Environmental regulations Government research Economic growth g Income distribution and protection spending Demographics, Interest rates & Industry focus on Tax policies Population growth monetary policies technological effort rates, Age distribution International trade Government New inventions and regulations and Labour/ social mobility spending development restrictions Contract enforcement law Unemployment Rate of technology Lifestyle changes Consumer protection policy transfer Work/career and Life cycle and speed of Employment laws Taxation leisure attitudes technological Entrepreneurial spirit obsolescence Government organization Exchange rates Education Energy use and costs and attitude (Changes in) Competition regulation p g Inflation rates Fashion, hypes , yp Information Technology Health consciousness Stage of the Political Stability & welfare, feelings on (Changes in) Internet business cycle safety Consumer (Changes in) Mobile Safety regulations Living conditions confidence Technology
  • 114. Risk Management 114 Other f t Oth ‚factors‘ that can be included… ‘ th t b i l d d Internal factors External factors o Design o Government policy o Procedures + decision making o Economic background o Finances o Social background o Physical structure o Framework for external M+E of o Organizational structure performance o Manpower o y Information system Sustainability factors o Vision, Mission, Mandate o Policy support o Appropriate technology o Institutional and management capacity g p y o Economic and financial viability o Socio-cultural and gender issues o Environmental protection
  • 115. Project Assumptions 115 Almost every lesson includes the reminder “Don’t Assume!!” Turn that around and make it “Document Assumptions!” Don’t expect others to read your mind. Capture as many assumptions as possible to include in your initial project charter. Don t Don’t be surprised if others do not share all your assumptions. This is the time to resolve differences— before the project is underway!
  • 116. Your Turn: 116 What are Risks and Assumptions and how to deal with them? … … … … … …
  • 117. MODULE 10: THE PROJECT CHARTER
  • 118. The Project Charter 118 The Th project charter i the project’s “li j h is h j ’ “license to do b i d business.” ” It should come from someone outside the project itself with funding-access, resource-assignment and decision-making authority sufficient to support the project. This person is usually known as the project sponsor.
  • 119. Why Have a Project Charter? 119 Primary purpose: to get approval to proceed with the project and P i l d i h h j d obtain sufficient approval for resources to move to the next phase of the project. Communicate to stakeholders and other interested parties the mission and objectives of the project. i i d bj ti f th j t Communicate to the project team what they are expected to accomplish.
  • 120. Project Charter Components 120 Project Mission Project Scope Project Objectives Project Assumptions Project Constraints j Milestones Project Risks Stakeholders Signature Page Granting Authority to Proceed In some organizations, the project charter is an evolving document. Many of the components listed will change as the project moves into the project definition phase.
  • 121. Your Turn: Starting the Charter 121 List at least Three SMART Objectives Objectives. Project Assumptions List at least three Project Assumptions. Project Constraints See Project Priority Matrix in Appendix. List any other constrain Project Phases P j Ph Indicate the phases of the proposed project. Milestones List major milestones for p oject identified so far. ( c ude at st ajo esto es o project de t ed a (Include least five throughout the life of the project.) Project Risks Attach Risk Identification Worksheets and Risk Priority Stakeholders Attach Potential Stakeholders Worksheet Worksheet. Signature Page Granting Authority to Proceed Obtain signatures of Project Sponsor and Project Manager. Project Sponsor Signature: Project Manager Signature:
  • 122. The LogFrame, a P j t Cycle Management Tool Project C l M tT l 122 Project Objectively Means of Assumptions Description Verifiable Verification (MoV) Indicators (OVI) Overall Goal Why is it important for the country/ society Project Purpose What are the needs for the target group/ beneficiaries Outputs/ What will be Results the results Activities What will the Inputs Costs, etc project do to achieve the results PCM
  • 123. The LogFrame, what can it be used for? 123 It is an aid to logical thinking and an instrument by which a strategy, instrument, strategy product, program, project and implementation process may be structured and described for planning and analytical purposes. purposes It can be used as well for or be the basis for a M+E system or oven a Management Information S t M tI f ti System (MIS). One can define with it (MIS) O d fi ith services/products, budgets, breakdown of responsibilities and use it for further operational planning. planning If prepared correctly, the LogFrame is a concise document, easy to use and to apply, and eventually lessening the workload of those responsible for the various phases of the project cycle. It serves as a ‘project charter’!
  • 124. Your Turn: 124 What is the Project Charter? … … … … … …
  • 125. MODULE 11: RESPONSIBILITIES AND WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURES
  • 126. Responsibility Matrix (RM) 126 What is it? A tool for clarifying organizational roles and responsibilities Every organizational role is clear to members of the team and the co- co operating partners! Each work package has an clearly identified “owner” ,in order that no two groups think they are responsible for the same work package! Why is it the RM important? It promotes discussion and agreement about roles, responsibilities and organizational relationships! It clarifies who is responsible for each work package! It is the source of information for preparing the master summary schedule and CPM plan!
  • 127. Responsibility Matrix (RM) 127 Why is it the RM important? It promotes discussion and agreement about roles, responsibilities and organizational relationships! It clarifies who i responsible for each work package! l ifi h is ibl f h k k ! It is the source of information for preparing the master summary schedule and CPM plan
  • 128. Responsibility Matrix (RM) 128 Organizational unit, example WBS Project P oject element Owner Architect Government Contractor manager Plan A W C C C Site A C W A Code W = Does work C = Must be consulted A = Approve I = Information only
  • 129. Responsibility Matrix (RM) 129 How to do it… Draw a matrix (grid) List WBS elements down the left-hand side column left hand List organizational units along the top row Use codes for level of involvement Discuss and agree on roles g
  • 130. Assigning Responsibilities: Responsibility Matrix R ibilit M t i 130 Cross-reference of tasks and resources assigned to the project C f f k d i d h j (RACI chart), another example. Project Item Sponsor Project Manager Project Team Project Office Project Definition A A R I Risk Management A R R C Detailed Design A R R C Weekly Web Bulletin I R R I etc. R= Responsible R ibl A= Accountable C= Consulted I= Informed f
  • 131. Work Breakdown Structures 131 Breaking down the elephant… Tail Legs Body Head
  • 132. Work Breakdown Structures 132 Work B W k Breakdown Structures (WBSs) help organize the activities kd S (WBS ) h l i h i i i required to meet the objectives of the project. Focus is on deliverables! May be organized by: phase of the project component
  • 133. Work Breakdown Structures 133 8 Steps to prepare a OP/WBS 1. 1 Step: List major activities 2. Step: Break activities down into manageable tasks 3. Step: Clarify sequence and dependencies 4. Step: Estimate start-up/time, duration and completion of Activities 5. Step: Summarize scheduling of major Activities 6. Step: Define milestones 7. Step: Define expertise/personnel required p p /p q 8. Step: Allocate tasks/responsibilities among the team
  • 134. Work Breakdown Structures 134 Phase-Based WBS Ph B d Partial WBS for Software Project Based on Phase Customer Relationship Management System Project Management Requirements Design Build Planning g Client Interviews Logical Design g g Logical Design g g etc. Reporting Review of Current Workflows Process Models Process Models Administration Business Objectives Use Cases Use Cases Meetings Preliminary Test Planning Logical Data Models Physical Data Models Documentation Planning Documentation Planning Training Requirements
  • 135. Work Breakdown Structures 135 Component-Based WBS C B d Partial WBS for Luxury Townhouse Complex by Component IYHTAYCAI* Village Project (*If you have to ask, you can't affort it) Project Management Buildings Land Planning Sales and Marketing Planning Townhouse Units Water and Sewers Advertising Reporting Clubhouse Roads and Access Lanes Association Declarations Administration Gatehouses Retention Ponds General Legal Meetings M ti Pro Sh P Shop 18-Hole Golf Course 18 H l G lf C Documentation Planning Documentation Planning Permits and Inspections Maintenance Staffing Requirements Permits and Inspections
  • 136. Work Breakdown Structures 136 Project Management - Level 2 Project Level 3 Level 4 Management Project Start and Finish Contract Award Complete Project WBS element Kick-off meeting decomposition, Monthly/Quarterly Project Reviews Corporate Reviews Meetings and Reviews In-Process Review example Close-out Meeting Action Item Tracking System Monthly Progress Report Reports Annual Report Budget/Financial Status Report Project Charter Master Schedule Plans Project Plan (Current and Future Phases) Risk M Ri k Management and Oth Pl t d Other Plans Project Financing and Budget Schedule Tracking Cost Tracking Earned Value Management Controle Variance Analysis Corrective Action Work-Arounds Project Management Office Administrative Space/Relocation Correspondence Control System Procurement/Purchasing Project S P j Support Subcontract Management Contract Management
  • 137. Work Packages 137 Lowest l L level of WBS i called a Work Package, if further l f is ll d W k P k f h deconstruction into activities is possible. May be assigned as a subproject May be subordinated into WBS structure for estimating purposes Activities t thi l A ti iti at this level become the basis for time and duration lb th b i f ti dd ti estimates.
  • 138. Work Packages Should the WP be decomposed further? 138 Yes/No Y /N Is there need t improve the accuracy of costs and duration estimates? I th d to i th f t dd ti ti t ? Is there more than one individual responsible for the work contents? Is there a need to cost-out activities internal to the WP? Is there a need to know precisely the timing of activities internal to the WP? Are there any dependencies between the internal activities and or other WP‘s? Are there any significant time breaks in the execution of the work processes internal to the work elements? Do resource requirements within the WP change over time? Do the D th pre-requisites differ among the internal deliverables within the work element? i it diff th i t l d li bl ithi th k l t? Are there any acceptance criteria applicable before completion of the entire WP? Can a portion of the work to be performed within the WP be scheduled as a unit? Are there any specific risks that require focussed attention to a portion of the WP. requiring further division to separate them? Is the WP understood clearly and completely to the satisfaction of various stakeholders?
  • 139. The Master Summary Schedule (MSS) 139 What is it? A schedule of summary activities (life-cycle sub-phases and process elements) (lif l b h d l ) Combination of WBS and process structure It describes work elements (objects) and actions d ib k l t ( bj t ) d ti It is written in nouns and verbs Why is it important? For CPM planning: It will disaggregate summary activities into activities for CPM ti iti i t ti iti f It is useful for reporting to senior management
  • 140. The Master Summary Schedule (MSS) 140 How does a MSS looks like? CODE RESP. WEEKS From WBS 4 8 12 16 20 24 Prepare 10 Plan (A) 20 Site ( ) (C) Prepare Summary Activities 30 Foundation (C) Construct 40 Frame (C) 50 Roof (SC) Construct 60 Systems (SC) Plumbing (P) Construct Electrical (E) Telephone (T) 70 Project mgt (PM) Install I t ll Continuous activity
  • 141. The Master Summary Schedule (MSS) 141 How to prepare the MSS Convert WBS into outline and use as labels for left axis Use unit of time for control period along horizontal axis and draw timeline Use terminology from process structure whenever possible to name summary activities Identify, Identify assign duration (time) draw, label and code summary (time), draw activities (process sub-phases and process elements) for each work package.
  • 142. Summary 142 WBS Work breakdown structure Framework for planning budgets, F kf l i b d t schedules and control systems MSS M t summary schedule Master h d l Draft overall schedule RM Responsibility matrix Clarify roles and responsibilities Next step: Detailed planning and scheduling and assigning resources at the activity level
  • 143. Sources for Project Activities: Brainstorming B i t i 143
  • 144. More Sources for Project Activities: UsingTemplates… 144 Don’t reinvent the wheel! As you get more projects under your belt, work with other project teams to develop templates for WBS’s to use as a starting point. Remember, no two projects are ever exactly alike (remember the “unique” in the definition of a project)! The template should be a starting p g point—to be tailored to the specific needs of the current p project. Even with the time spent in tailoring, templates can be enormous time-savers.
  • 145. Your Turn: 145 What is a RM and a WBS and how to manage them? … … … … … ...
  • 146. MODULE 12: PROJECT SCHEDULING
  • 147. Project Scheduling 147 The Program (or Project) Evaluation and Review Technique, commonly abbreviated PERT, is a model for project management designed to analyze and represent the tasks involved in completing a given project.
  • 148. Project Scheduling 148 PERT an overview i PERT is a method to analyze the involved tasks in completing a given project, especially the time needed to complete each task and identifying the minimum time needed to complete the total project. PERT was developed primarily to simplify the planning and scheduling of large and complex projects. It was able t i j t bl to incorporate uncertainty b making it possible t schedule a project while t t i t by ki ibl to h d l j t hil not knowing precisely the details and durations of all the activities. It is more of an event- oriented technique rather than start- and completion-oriented and it is used more in R&D-type p ojects projects where t e, rather t a cost, is t e major factor. e e time, at e than s the ajo acto This project model was the first of its kind, a revival for scientific management, founded in Fordism and Taylorism. Only DuPont corporation's critical path method was invented at roughly the th same time as PERT. ti PERT The most recognizable feature of PERT is the "PERT Networks", a chart of interconnecting timelines. PERT is intended for very large-scale, one-time, complex, non-routine projects. y g , , p , p j
  • 149. Project Scheduling 149 Conventions C ti A PERT chart is a tool that facilitates decision making; The first draft of a PERT chart will number its events sequentially in 10s (10 20 30 etc ) to allow the later (10, 20, 30, etc.) insertion of additional events. Two consecutive events in a PERT chart are linked by activities which are activities, conventionally represented as arrows in the diagram above. The events are presented in a logical sequence and no activity can commence until its immediately preceding event is completed. The planner decides which milestones should be PERT events and also decides their “proper” sequence. A PERT chart may have multiple pages with many sub-tasks. y p p g y
  • 150. Project Scheduling 150 Terminology A PERT event: is a point that marks the start or completion of one or more tasks. It consumes no time and uses no resources. It marks the completion of one or more tasks and is not “reached” until all of the activities leading to that event have been reached completed. A predecessor event: an event (or events) that immediately precedes some other event without any other events intervening. It may be the consequence of more than intervening one activity. A successor event: an event (or events) that immediately follows some other event without any other events intervening. It may be the consequence of more than one ith t th t i t i b th f th activity. A PERT activity: is the actual performance of a task. It consumes time, it requires resources and it can be understood as representing the time, effort, and resources required to move from one event to another. A PERT activity cannot be completed until the event preceding it has occurred.
  • 151. Project Scheduling 151 Terminology Optimistic time (O): the minimum possible time required to accomplish a task, task assuming everything proceeds better than is normally expected Pessimistic time (P): the maximum possible time required to accomplish a task, assuming everything goes wrong (but excluding major catastrophes). Most likely time (M): the best estimate of the time required to accomplish a task, assuming everything proceeds as normal. Expected time (TE): the best estimate of the time required to accomplish a task, assuming everything p , g y g proceeds as normal ((the implication being that p g the expected time is the average time the task would require if the task were repeated on a number of occasions over an extended period of time). TE = (O + 4M + P) ÷ 6
  • 152. Project Scheduling 152 Critical Path: the longest possible continuous pathway taken from the initial event to the terminal event. It determines the total calendar time required for the project; and, therefore, any time delays along the critical path will delay the d l th reaching of th terminal event by at least the same amount. hi f the t i l tb tl t th t Critical Activity: An activity that has total float equal to zero. Activity with zero float does not mean it is on critical path. path Lead time : the time by which a predecessor event must be completed in order to allow sufficient time for the activities that must elapse before a specific PERT event is reached to be completed. Lag time: the earliest time by which a successor event can follow a specific PERT event.
  • 153. Project Scheduling 153 Slack: the slack of an event is a measure of the excess time and resources available in achieving this event. Positive slack(+) would indicate ahead of schedule; negative slack would indicate behind schedule; and zero slack would indicate on schedule. Fast tracking: performing more critical activities in p g p g parallel Crashing critical path: Shortening duration of critical activities Float or Slack is the amount of time that a task in a project network can be delayed without causing a delay - Subsequent tasks – (free float) or Project Completion – (total float)
  • 154. Project Scheduling 154 Implementing PERT I l ti The first step to scheduling the project is to determine the tasks that the project requires and the order in which they must be completed. The order completed may be easy to record for some tasks (e.g. When building a house the land must be graded before the foundation can house, be laid) while difficult for others (There are two areas that need to be graded, but there are only enough bulldozers to do one). Additionally, the time estimates usually reflect the normal, non-rushed time. Many times, the time required to execute the task can be reduced for an additional cost or a reduction in the quality.
  • 155. Project Scheduling 155 I thi example there are seven tasks, labeled a th In this l th t k l b l d through g. S h Some t k can be done tasks b d concurrently (a & b) while others cannot be done until their predecessor task is complete (c cannot begin until a is complete). Additionally, each task has three time estimates: the optimistic time estimate (a), the most likely or normal time estimate (m), and the pessimistic time estimate (b). The expected time (TE) i computed using th formula ( + 4 + b) /6. ti ti t (b) Th t d ti is t d i the f l (a 4m /6
  • 156. Project Scheduling 156 A Gantt Chart created using Microsoft Project. G tt Ch t t d i Mi ft P j t Note (1) the critical path is in red, (2) the slack is the black lines connect non-critical activities, (3) when using MSP, you must use the task ID when labeling predecessor activities, and (4) since Saturday S t d and Sunday are not work days ( d dS d t kd (as described above) some b ib d b ) bars on th G tt chart are the Gantt h t longer if they cut through a weekend.
  • 157. Project Scheduling 157 Network Diagrams and Critical Path Analysis Once you’ve determined the activities for the project and estimated their durations, network diagrams are the next step for creating the project schedule. There are t Th two types: t 1. Activity on Arrow (AOA) - nodes on the diagram connect arrows and represent activities 2. 2 Activity A ti it on Node (AON) - nodes represent activities that are N d d t ti iti th t connected by arrows showing the precedence of activities
  • 158. Project Scheduling 158 Network Diagram Example Activity on Arrow (AOA) N k Di E l A i i A Task Duration Predecessor(s) A 8 days - B 6ddays 1 C 3 days 1 D 0 days 3 E 12 days 4 F 5 days 2 G 5 days 6 H 5 days 7 I 0 days 5,8 F (5d) G (5d) H (5d) B (6d) I (0d) A (8d) E (12d) C (3d) D (0d) Critical path is A-B-F-G-H-I, with total duration of 29 days. There is one non-critical path A-C-D-E-I, with total duration of 23 days. p C , 3 y NOTE: Task A has no slack because it is on the critical path.
  • 159. Project Scheduling 159 Network Diagrams and Critical Path Analysis Task Duration Predecessor(s) A 8 days - B 6 days 1 C 3 days 1 D 0 days 3 E 12 days 4 F 5 days 2 G 5ddays 6 H 5 days 7 I 0 days 5,8 Once again, the critical path is A-B-F-G-H-I, with total duration of 29 days. There is one non-critical path A-C-D-E-I, with total duration of 23 days. NOTE: Task A has no slack because it is on the critical path path.
  • 160. Your turn… 160
  • 161. Project Scheduling 161 Networked Tasks Rule #1: In forward pass, ES = latest EF of predecessor Rule #2: In backward pass, LF = earliest LS of successors Rule #3: Task is CRITICAL if ES=LS and EF=LS (no Slack) Rule #4: Task is NON-CRITICAL if ES<>LS and Slack = LS – ES (or LF – EF)
  • 162. Project Scheduling 162
  • 163. Project Scheduling 163
  • 164. Your Turn: 164 How to manage Project Scheduling? … … … … … …
  • 165. MODULE 13: CONTROLLING AND MONITORING
  • 166. Controlling and Monitoring 166 Controlling has two ‚meanings‘: • Management Accounting and or a • Steering and co-ordination concept Monitoring is an ongoing analysis of project progress towards achieving planned results with the purpose of improving management decision making.
  • 167. Controlling and Monitoring 167 Definition of Management Accounting According to the Chartered Institute of Management Accountants (CIMA) Management Accounting is: (CIMA), "the process of identification, measurement, accumulation, analysis, preparation, interpretation and communication of information used by management to plan, evaluate and control within an entity and to assure appropriate use of and accountability for its resources”.
  • 168. Controlling and Monitoring 168 Management accounting also comprises the preparation of financial reports for non management groups such as shareholders, creditors, regulatory agencies and tax authorities" (CIMA Official Terminology) authorities The aims of management accountancy are: • Formulating strategies • Planning and constructing business activities • Helps in making decision • Optimal use of resources • Supporting financial reports preparation • Safeguarding assets S f di
  • 169. Controlling and Monitoring 169 Steering and Co-ordination Main task of controlling is to guard the e.g. economic efficiency of a company/an organization, but not to guarantee it! Other tasks include: e.g. eg • designing and operating qualitative and quantitative steering instruments, instruments • the arrangement of control factors and variables, • the coordination of the flow information, • analysis and interpretation of results/findings and • the assistance in the decision making process.
  • 170. Controlling and Monitoring 170 Definition of ‘Monitoring’ from the World Bank… “A continuing function that uses systematic collection of data on A specified indicators to provide management and the main stakeholders of an ongoing development intervention with t k h ld f i d l ti t ti ith indications of the extent of progress and achievement of objectives and progress in the use of allocated funds”
  • 171. Controlling and Monitoring 171 Monitoring is a continuous and or periodic surveillance of the achievements and its effects of project/program Objectives and Impacts observing the: • Overall Goal • D Development Goal l tG l • Project Purpose • External factors (Assumptions) • Unplanned events • Impacts and as well on the • Physical implementation of the project deliverables PCM
  • 172. Controlling and Monitoring 172 Monitoring, what i covered…… h is d PCM
  • 173. Controlling and Monitoring PCM C 173 E.g. E g Impact Monitoring as part of the PCM concept QUALITY at EX in the 2000s feedback XIT feedback 0
  • 174. Controlling and Monitoring 174 B re e a po cc si ou tio n n tab rie from ou l e e rs an nc el d ex ning ve The main objectives of s pe ar Le Build Monitoring (+Evaluation) capacities Making better informed decisions
  • 175. Controlling and Monitoring 175 Designing Control and Reporting Systems (Time, Cost, Resources and Scope (Performance and Quality) 1. Design a management control and reporting system to: (a) manage the project’s progress and adherence to plan in terms of time, cost, resources and scope (performance and quality) (given an approved implementation plan); and ( ) (b) control the project’s scope & design. p j p g 2. Make appropriate changes in the current operational plan and in the baseline plan.
  • 176. Controlling and Monitoring 176 Principles of Project Control - Cargo Ship Analogy Captain questions Destination 1. 1 What is the plan? (What is our planned course?) 2. What are the actuals? (What is our present position?) 3. What are the variances? Why? (Are we on course or off course?) 4. What are the trends and how do they y extrapolate to the future? 5. What actions are required? External influence Start of journey Actual travel Position surveyed
  • 177. Controlling and Monitoring 177 Project Control (CPM picture) Baseline plan = Schedule + Budget + Resources + Scope Approved at start of implementation Used to set “course” and to assess progress Current operation plan = result of day-to-day changes and decisions Slightly g y ahead of schedule Today line
  • 178. Controlling and Monitoring 178 Project C t l P j t Control (CPM picture) i t ) Planned Budget to Week 4 $110 Actual C t t W k A t l Cost to Week 4 $150 Difference ($ 40) Slightly g y ahead of schedule Today line
  • 179. Controlling and Monitoring 179 Project Control (CPM picture) j l( i ) Earned Value = Budgeted Value of Work Complete Planned Budget to Week 4 $110 Earned Value $120 Actual Cost to Week 4 $150 Actual Cost $150 Difference ($ 40) Over Budget ($ 30) Slightly g y ahead of schedule Today line
  • 180. Controlling and Monitoring 180 Time (Schedule) Cost (Budget) Project Rectangle g Resources Scope (Performance and Quality ) = Work done that meets specifications
  • 181. Controlling and Monitoring 181 Project Control Process Set the control period for the frequency of updating Determine the level of detail at which control will be exercised Control 4 key variables y time (schedule) cost (budget) resources (people, materials, equipment) scope (performance & quality) Adjust the current operational plan and revise the baseline plan if necessary
  • 182. Controlling and Monitoring 182 Controlling Schedule (Time) Control of schedule is based on the activity plan. plan How much work is completed relative to plan? Measure progress at end of each control period. Count as complete only work that meets specifications! W k directly on network diagram or bar chart. Work di tl t k di b h t Pay special attention to activities on critical path.
  • 183. Controlling and Monitoring 183 Schedule: Key Questions 1 & 2 1) What are the actuals? a) start dates? b) finish dates of completed activities? c) progress of incomplete activities? ) d) anticipated completion of incomplete activities? p p p 2) What was the plan? a) start dates? t td t ? b) finish dates? c) duration?
  • 184. Controlling and Monitoring 184 Schedule: Key Questions 3 & 4 3) What are the variances (ahead or behind)? Why was there a variance? a) planned start vs. actual start dates b) planned finish vs. actual finish dates or anticipated completion c) planned duration vs. actual or anticipated duration 4) Wh t are the trends and how do they extrapolate to the What th t d dh d th t l t t th future? a) at the project level? b) at the subproject (component) level? c) Are variances staying the same?
  • 185. Controlling and Monitoring 185 Controlling Schedule: Trend Graph Expected Total Duration Planned Project Duration in Weeks s 35 30 i 25 20 D 15 10 P 5 0 W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7 W8 W 9 W 10 W 11 W 12 W 13 W 14 W 15 W 16 W 17 W 18 P Actual Weeks into Project
  • 186. Controlling and Monitoring 186 Schedule: Key Question 4 (continued) S h d l K Q i 4) What are the trends and how do they extrapolate to the ) y p future? d) Check the critical path e) Predict the future 1. Anticipate likely start/finish dates 2. Estimate time to completion
  • 187. Controlling and Monitoring 187 Schedule: Key Question 5 5) What actions are required? a) Act on information (Analyze the WHY!) b) Make decisions 1. Modify current operational plan as needed 2. M dif baseline plan if necessary 2 Modify b li l
  • 188. Controlling and Monitoring 188 Schedule: Summary of the Process 1) Review the actual performance (work complete) 2) Compare to the planned schedule 3) Determine the schedule variance (gap) 4) Analyze trends and extrapolate to the future a) Check the expected project completion date b) Predict the future — Analyze why? 5) Take action a) Modify the current operational plan as required b) Modify the baseline plan if necessary
  • 189. Controlling and Monitoring 189 C t lli Controlling S Scope (P f (Performance and Q lit ) d Quality) Performance = work completed that meets or exceeds specifications. (Quality) Performance is measured by determining if a scheduled activity is complete. complete Activities that do not meet specs are not complete. It’s harder to assess performance for project with less tangible deliverables. Control process i similar to that for schedule. C l is i il h f h d l
  • 190. Controlling and Monitoring 190 Measuring Performance: Percent Complete Percent complete is: A Summary Ratio S mma Built up from completed work of all components Difficult Diffi l to use (especially for less tangible deliverables) ( i ll f l ibl d li bl ) and Do not base percent complete on time and budget (50% of time and 50% of budget is often not equal to 50% complete!) Must actually measure progress (work accomplished) Use Earned Value as a better measure of performance
  • 191. Controlling and Monitoring 191 C Controlling R lli Resources Resources are: People Equipment Materials Facilities Th project manager must: The j Strive to hold functional managers to their commitments to provide required resources Track the actual resources assigned to their project Compare the actual resources with the resource plan
  • 192. Controlling and Monitoring 192 C Controlling C lli Cost (B d (Budget) ) Sound cost control begins with a realistic budget. Plan what needs to be done and then budget! Then d Th develop a b d t b l budget based on th t plan! d that l ! It is a mistake to budget first and then try to make the project fit the budget without reducing scope!
  • 193. Controlling and Monitoring 193 Analyzing Cost (Budget): 5 Key Questions At the end of each control period ask: 1) Wh t are the actuals? What th t l ? What did we actually spend? (commitments treated as expended) 2) What is the plan (budget)? What did we plan to spend? 3) What are the variances? Why? How does planned cost compare with actual cost? 4) What are the trends and how do they extrapolate into the future? 5) What actions are required?
  • 194. Controlling and Monitoring 194 A l i Analyzing C Cost (B d (Budget) ) Three ways to analyze expenditures: Type of expenditure (labor, capital, materials) Organization (engineering operations) (engineering, Project component (activity, work package, subproject) Computers can generate a variety of reports and combinations.
  • 195. Controlling and Monitoring 195 Cost A l i Graph: The S C C Analysis G h Th S-Curve Cumulative $ 110 100 90 80 70 Plan and Budget 60 50 40 30 20 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Time
  • 196. Controlling and Monitoring 196 Money/Time: Earned Value Estimated Total Cumulative $ Cost to Complete Today Line 110 100 90 Plan and Budget g Actual Cost 80 of Work Performed 70 60 { { Over Budget V i O B d Variance $30 50 40 { 30 Earned Value (Budgeted Cost of Work Complete) Behind 20 Schedule Variance, 10 2 weeks 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Time
  • 197. Controlling and Monitoring 197 D fi i i Definitions of E f Earned V l d Value Earned value integrates time performance and actual cost time, performance, information into one metric. Definition 1: the budgeted value of work complete at a point in time. Definition 2: the value of the actual work completed p expressed in terms of current budgeted dollars. Overcomes problems with percent complete.
  • 198. Controlling and Monitoring 198 Status: End of Week 4 Schedule Cross Hatch shows completion Total Cost Actual Cost Budget Task A 50 60 50 Task B 50 80 70 Task C 10 10 10 Task D 0 0 5 TOTAL O 110 0 150 50 135 35
  • 199. Controlling and Monitoring 199 Planned Budget, Actual Cost, and Earned Value by Week Note: Planned l d Budget W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7 Earned value for task B for Week 4 Task A 25 25 is 25 plus 10 from Task B 25 25 20 Week 5 for a Total of 35. Task C 10 Total And actual cost is 35 plus Actual 10 from Week 5 for a Cost 30 30 45 45 150 Total of 45. Earned Value 25 25 35 35 120 = 30 overrun
  • 200. Controlling and Monitoring 200 Where does overrun of $30 come f Wh d f from? ? Budget Actual Overrun Task A, Weeks 1 + 2 $50 $60 $10 Task B W k T k B, Weeks 3 + 4 $50 $80 $30 =$40 less Task B, $10 of Week 5 completed ahead of schedule in Week 4 - $10 = $30
  • 201. Controlling and Monitoring 201 Earned Value Calculation Cumulative Note: Budget Actual Total Earned Actual Cost is W4 Cost Budget Value 150 whereas Task T kA 50 60 50 50 Earned Value E dV l Task B 50 80 70 60 is 120. Task C 10 10 10 10 Task D 0 0 5 0 TOTAL 110 150 135 120 Variance=40 Variance=30
  • 202. Controlling and Monitoring 202 Actual expenditure (Cost of work performed to date) = $150 Cash flow: Actual expenditure $150 Planned expenditure $110 Variance (cash flow overrun) +$40 Budget: Cost of work performed to date: $150 Earned value: budgeted value of work performed to date: $120 Variance (budget overrun) V i (b d t ) +$30 $30 = 25% Over $120
  • 203. Controlling and Monitoring 203 Example: Estimated Cost to Completion Cost of remaining work exceeds plan: Variance as percent of actual: 30/150 = 25% Actual = $150 Earned value t date: E d l to d t = $120 Variance, 25% = +$30 Original total budget is $135 minus earned value of $120 equals $15 to complete. Adjusted cost to complete: $15 plus 25% = ($15 + $3.75 ) = $18.75 + $150 = $168.75 Note: The project will end over budget Final cost = Original Budget + Variance to date + Cost to complete
  • 204. Controlling and Monitoring 204 Comparisons Actual $ vs. Budget $ (rate of spending) vs Actual work in place vs. Planned work in place (performance and schedule progress) Actual $ vs. Earned Value (cost/schedule/performance) Estimated cost to complete vs. Original budget (forecasted total budget) Estimated time to complete vs. Original schedule (forecasted schedule)
  • 205. Controlling and Monitoring 205 Estimating Cost to Completion What is the cost to complete Task G? 1. Planned budgeted cost Original budgeted cost: 1 unit of cost / unit of work Estimated cost to complete: 2 units of work x 1 unit of cost = 2 cost units 2. Most recent cost Last cost for 2 units: 4.1 Estimated cost to complete next two units at same rate: 4.1 cost units 3. Average cost First Fi t 2 units: 3.9 (Average = (3.9 + 4.1) / 4 = 2 per unit) it 3 9 (A (3 9 4 1) it) Next 2 units: 4.1 Estimated cost to complete: 2 units of work x average cost per unit = 2 units of work x 2 units of cost = 4 cost units
  • 206. Controlling and Monitoring 206 Estimating Cost to Completion Trend Analysis ( ti d) (continued) 4. Trend analysis Week 1 Cost for G: 3.9 3 9 units Week 2 Cost for G: 4.1 units Increase Week 1 to 2: 0.2 units (5% increase Week 1 to 2 in cost per 2 units of G) Week 3 Cost for G: Week 2 cost plus 5% = 4.1 units + 0.2 = 4.3 units
  • 207. Controlling and Monitoring 207 Estimating the Total Cost for Task G Estimated Cost to Completion + Actual to Date = E ti Estimated Total Cost at C t d T t l C t t Completion l ti Our assumptions about cost to completion affect our estimate of total cost at completion p Most Recent Average Trend Original Cost Cost Cost Estimate Actual 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 Est. C E t Com. 4.1 41 4.0 40 4.3 43 2.0 12.1 12.0 12.3 10.0 Actual to Date 3.9 + 4.1 = 8 39 41
  • 208. Controlling and Monitoring 208 Anticipating Control Challenges Control problems (challenges) result from: Budgeting first and planning second Poor initial planning Everyday challenges of project management in a changing environment Predictable types of control problems (challenges): Cost Progress Plan Administration
  • 209. Controlling and Monitoring 209 Cost-Related Control Challenges 1. Accounting systems not project-oriented! 2. Delays in getting information! 3. Commitments not tracked! 4. Down payments not accounted for!
  • 210. Controlling and Monitoring 210 P Progress-Related C R l d Control Ch ll l Challenges Assessing progress is easier for some projects than others: How tangible are the activities? How easy is it to determine if quality standards are met? How can incomplete work be measured? 50/50 rule! Percent complete! Rework can be an issue
  • 211. Controlling and Monitoring 211 P Progress-Related C R l d Control Ch ll l Challenges (continued) Changes in scope (crawl) Baseline plan (definition) Three views of the baseline plan p Concrete plan Rubber plan Rational plan Reasons for changing the baseline p g g plan a change in scope of project a change in the environment
  • 212. Controlling and Monitoring 212 Administrative Issues d i i i Avoid too much detail! Focus on the future, not the past ! Manage, don’t monitor! don t Pay attention to early warnings! T k h i th M it i fl ti t d i Track changes in the economy: Monitor inflation rates and price escalation!
  • 213. Controlling and Monitoring 213 Causes of Cost Overruns and Schedule Slips Bad estimates Inflation Delayed management decisions Poor management control Changes in design (scope) Shortage of p g planned resources Force Majeure (war, riot, revolution, disaster) Problems with suppliers Changes in environment Underestimate of risks
  • 214. Controlling and Monitoring 214 S Summary: P i i l Principles The Project Manager is like the captain of a ship. PM must manage (not only monitor) the project rectangle: time (schedule) ( ) cost (budget) resources scope ( f d lit ) (performance and quality) The control period determines how often the project’s status is assessed. d Earned value integrates time, cost and performance.
  • 215. Controlling and Monitoring 215 Summary: 5 K Q S Key Questions ti Key questions concerning time, cost, resources and quality of performance (scope): 1. What are the actuals? 2. What is the plan? 3. What are the variances? Why? 4. What are the trends and how do they extrapolate into the future? 5. What actions are required? q
  • 216. Controlling and Monitoring 216 Summary: Types of Plans Current operational plan Day-to-day plan Adjusted regularly Goal is to match baseline plan Baseline plan Approved project plan Approaches to revision • concrete • rubber • rational
  • 217. Controlling and Monitoring 217 Summary: Think Ahead! The project manager must constantly be thinking ahead and actively managing: Time to completion Cost to completion Cost at completion Quality of performance to specifications (scope)
  • 218. Your Turn: 218 Controlling and Monitoring how and what to do? … … … … … …
  • 219. MODULE 14: PROJECT MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE
  • 220. A Word About Software & other Tools 220 • Many people assume that project management is all about management software. • That’s like saying that residential construction is all about hammers! • Such tools will often make your work y simpler and handle complex calculations with ease. • However, without a solid , understanding of PM concepts, the tools often provide an illusion of project control that does not exist. • Learn the concepts, then the tool.
  • 221. Project Management Software 221
  • 222. Project Management Software 222 Project management software is a term covering many types of software (open source and commercial) , including: • scheduling, h d li • cost control and • budget management, • resource allocation, • collaboration software, • co communication, u cat o , • quality management and • documentation or administration systems, which are used to d l with the complexity of large projects. hi h d t deal ith th l it f l j t Link to open source project management software http://www.project-open.org
  • 223. Project Management Software 223 Tasks f T k of project management software j f Scheduling One of the most common tasks is to schedule a series of events, and the complexity of this task can vary considerably depending on how p y y y p g the tool is used. Some common challenges include: • Events which depend on one another in different ways or dependencies • Scheduling people to work on, and resources required by, the various tasks commonly termed resource scheduling • Dealing with uncertainties in the estimates of the duration of each task g • Arranging tasks to meet various deadlines • Juggling multiple projects simultaneously to meet a variety of q requirements
  • 224. Project Management Software 224 Tasks of project management software Calculating critical path In many complex schedules, there will be a critical path, or series of events that depend on each other and whose durations directly other, determine the length of the whole project (see also critical chain). Some software applications (for example, Dependency Structure f li i (f l d Matrix solutions) can highlight these tasks, which are often a good candidate for any optimization effort.
  • 225. Project Management Software 225 Tasks f T k of project management software j f Providing information Project planning software needs to provide a lot of information to various people, to j p p , justify the time spent using it. Typical y p g yp requirements might include: • Tasks lists for people, and allocation schedules for resources • Overview information on how long tasks will take to complete • Early warning of any risks to the project • Information on workload, for planning holidays , p g y • Evidence • Historical information on how projects have progressed, and in p particular, how actual and pplanned pperformance are related
  • 226. Project Management Software 226 Approaches to project management software • Desktop • Web-based • Personal • Single User • Collaborative • Integrated • Non specialized
  • 227. Your Turn: 227 Project Management Software, what is it good for? … … … … … …
  • 228. MODULE 15: PROJECT CLOSE
  • 229. You ve You’ve already seen the value of this! 229 POST-PROJECT POST PROJECT REVIEW Project Name: Overall Evaluation of the Project What was the overall mission of the project? Provide a short description based on your understanding of the project. p j p y g p j All in all would you say that the project was successful? Why or why not? How close was the project to meeting its scheduled completion date? How close was the project to being completed within budget? Did the project meet its final stated objectives? Why or why not?
  • 230. Post Project Post-Project Review (continued) 230 Project Management Issues j g Did the project have a sponsor? If so, what was his or her role during the project? What t l Wh t tools and techniques were used in planning and tracking the project? dt h i di l i d t ki th j t? Did the scope of the project change after the project was underway? If so, what was the overall impact of the change of scope? How were changes approved? How was project status communicated during the course of the project? How were risks managed for the project? Were they identified ahead of time? Did any unforeseen occurrerences hinder the p g progress of the project? p j At the end of the project, was there a formal lessons-learned process or any sort of review similar to the one used here?
  • 231. Post-Project Review (continued) j ( ) 231 Collaboration and Team Issues How effective was the overall leadership of the project? Did the project manager have the resources and support required to be as effective as she or he could be? In general, how well did the team members collaborate? Why was this so? Did team members work together in a single physical area or were they physically separated? What were the primary modes of team communication? Which ones worked best? Which ones worked least well? Were all team members available at the times they were needed for project work or status meetings? What impact did this have on the project? Were all stakeholders and subject matter experts available to answer questions when needed? What impact did this have on the project?
  • 232. Post Project Post-Project Review (continued) 232 Technology and Knowledge Management Issues gy g g How did technology help (or hinder) the progress of the project? Were any new technologiy tools introduced for this project? Was any kind of project management software, such as Microsoft Project, used for the project? What are the ways it was used (for example, scheduling, reporting, and cost reporting). What other tools (word-processors, spreadsheets, presentation software, or diagramming tools) were used in the project? Was the project team able to obtain adequate advice and technical support for the technology tools used in the project? How could it improve? Are there any areas about which you would like to learn more in order to make you more effective in working on your next project? What resources are available for obtaining that knowledge or skill? Participant Name: Participant Signature: Evaluation Date:
  • 233. Stakeholders Report/Celebration 233 Communicate Results C i t R lt Pinpoint Successes po t Propose Maintenance/Corrective Measures if needed share contributing success factors p present p plans for corrective action “Sharpen the Saw” for the future Project Best Practices Celebrate Successes!!!!
  • 234. Your Turn: 234 Project Close, how to mange it? … … … … … …
  • 235. MODULE 16: PMI’S PROJECT MANAGEMENT MATURITY MODEL = CONSTANT PROCESS IMPROVEMENT
  • 236. Project Management Maturity Model (PMMM) 236 PMI defines process improvement as the “Systematic and sustained improvement of processes d fi i t th “S t ti d t i di t f and thus the products they produce.” The Five Levels of PMMM: Level 1—Initial Process Project management practices are ad hoc and inconsistent within organization. Level 2—Repeatable Process Project management practices are commonly understood and followed, but most followed knowledge is commonly understood rather than documented. Level 3—Defined Process Project methodology usually in place, with written guidelines for p j j gy y p g project deliverables and processes. Level 4—Managed Process Systematic collection of project performance data to set baselines for performance goals. f l Level 5—Optimization Proactive approach applying metrics and best practices to achieve highest level of project excellence.
  • 237. Rewards of PMMM 237 The promise of continuous process improvement through repeatable processes, benchmarking, and optimization. To break the triple constraint and to be: Faster!! F t !! Cheaper!! Ch !! Gooder.. oops, Gooder oops Better!!!
  • 238. Your Turn: 238 What is the PMMM? … … … … … …
  • 239. MODULE 17: THE PROJECT TEAM
  • 240. Team work and team work models 240
  • 241. Team work and team work models 241 What i Wh is a team ? ‚group’ ‚team’ Term is derived from sociology Term is derived from psychology Major task: Major task: Problem solving (identifying) clearing relationships α - Ω hierarchy No hierarchy Comrades Friendship p (high degree of reliability) Lots of emotions Few emotions
  • 242. Team work and team work models 242 4 Stages of team development As below As below + High flexibility Stage 4 S + Appropriate leadership Mature team + Maximum use of abilities + Developing priorities + Needs (incl. social) considered Stage 3 As below + Methodological working Consolidating team + Agreed procedures + Established ground/basic rules g / Stage 2 Experimentation takes places. Risky issues are debated/discussed. Wider options Experimenting team are considered. Personal feelings are raised. Concern for others is shown. Feelings not dealt with. Workplace is for work only. Established lines prevail. Stage 1 Nobody ‘rocks the boat’. Poor listening. Weaknesses are covered up. Unclear Undeveloped team objectives. Low involvement in planning. Bureaucracy. Boss makes most of the decisions.
  • 243. Team work and team work models 243 Some of the most common team models/approaches used S f h d l / h d Belbin‘s team model Patrick Lencioni, dysfunctional teams Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
  • 244. Team work and team work models 244 Description Based on the saying, «no one is perfect but a team can be», the Belbin method is a rational and rigorous tool that allows individuals and groups to reach their full potential. After identifying the roles of each individual, you increase the efficiency of the team by changing its composition or the way it works internally. y g g p y y Objectives To made a rapid diagnosis of the business, the team and the individual according to the Belbin method. To enable each individual to develop and make full use of his p p potential within his working team. To encourage cohesion and communication and to promote team spirit.
  • 245. Team work and team work models 245 The Belbin Th B lbi method i based on 3 questionnaires: th d is b d ti i • The self-perception form: determines t e preferred roles, the roles that e se pe cept o o dete es the p e e ed o es, t e o es t at can be carried out and the roles to be avoided. • The observers’ form: through appraisals by at least 4 observers,, this g pp y questionnaire goes beyond the subjective nature of the self-perception report. • The job observation form: identifies the main personal characteristics required to fulfill the target role.
  • 246. Team work and team work models 246
  • 247. Team work and team work models 247 Patrick Lencioni’s ‘approach to team work’ Inattention Dysfunctional teams show to typically the following elements RESULTS in an ascending order and in different degrees of severeness. Avoidance of ACCOUNTABILITY With the help of a questionnaire and some guided group Lack of work/consultancy the team can COMMITMENT determine the weak elements and then act accordingly. Fear of CONFLICT Absence of TRUST
  • 248. Team work and team work models 248 The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) assessment is a psychometric q questionnaire designed to identify certain psychological differences according g y p y g g to the typological theories of Carl Gustav Jung. Applications of the MBTI The indicator is frequently used in the areas of career counseling, pedagogy, group dynamics, employee training, leadership training, life coaching, executive coaching, marriage counseling, Workers' compensation claims and personal development.
  • 249. Team work and team work models 249 The 16 personality types of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® instrument are listed here as they are often shown in what is called a “type type table.” Favorite world: Do you prefer to focus on the outer world or on your own inner world? This is called Extraversion (E) or Introversion (I). Information: Do you prefer to focus on the basic information you take in or do you prefer to interpret and add meaning? This is called Sensing (S) or Intuition (N). Decisions: When making decisions, do you prefer to first look at logic and decisions consistency or first look at the people and special circumstances? This is called Thinking (T) or Feeling (F). Structure: In dealing with the outside world, do you prefer to get things decided or do you prefer to stay open to new information and options? This is called Judging (J) or Perceiving (P). Your Personality Type: When you decide on your preference in each category, you have your own personality type, which can be expressed as a code with four letters type letters.
  • 250. Your Turn: Using the questionnaire… 250 Use the provided questionnaire and evaluate your…
  • 251. Moving up into Management 251 FATAL ASSUMPTIONS For employees who are Success as an individual contributor will promoted into management, translate into management success! many anticipate new avenues for professional It's out of my control-someone else could and should fix this! growth and leadership. leadership Being the expert is the most important factor But an increasing number of for my credibility managers - b th new and both d It’s the rational and logical approach or experienced - report facing solution that counts! many obstacles when making a complete transition into The people I manage are just like me in their management roles. thinking, expectations, priorities and goals! Competent people do not need help!
  • 252. Project Structure and Organization… 252 Organization is: Structuring To Accomplish People Objectives j
  • 253. Definitions: Organization 253 An organization is a social arrangement which pursues collective goals, which controls its own performance and which has a boundary separating it from its environment. Management is interested in organization mainly from an instrumental point of view. For a company, organization is a means to an end, to achieve its goals. p y, g , g
  • 254. Definitions: Institutions 254 Institutions are structures and mechanisms of social order and cooperation governing the behavior of a set of individuals. Institutions are identified with a social purpose and permanence, transcending individual human lives and intentions, and with the making intentions and enforcing of rules governing cooperative human behavior. The term "institution" is commonly applied to customs and behavior patterns important to a society, as well as to particular formal organizations of government and public service.
  • 255. Project Structure and Organization… 255 Division of Labor ol Classic Management Theory - Fayo Specialization Functional processes y Line vs. staff Li t ff Scalar Processes Hierarchical structure Chain of command Unity of control Authority A th it and responsibility d ibilit Span of control Organizational Structure Around objectives and activities, not individuals Table of organization (chart) C Written position description
  • 256. Project Structure and Organization… 256 zations Functional Organization ypes of organiz Projectized Organization Three major ty Matrix Organization
  • 257. Project Structure and Organization 257 Organization Matrix Type anizational structure an ist Functional Projectized Project Balanced Strong Weak Matrix Matrix Characteristics Matrix nd Project influen on projects Manager’s — Low to Moderate to High to Almost Total Limited Authority Moderate High Percent of p Project j Personnel — 85-100% 0-25% 25-50 % 50- Assigned Full- 85% time to Project Work nce Project — Part-Time Full- Full-Time Full-Time Manager’s Role Time Project Project Common Titles for — Project Project g Manager Manager/ g / Orga Project Manger s Manger’s Manager Manager / Project Project Role Officer Coordinator Project Management Part-time Administrative Staff — Part-Time Full-Time Full-time Reference: Adapted from Project Management Body of Knowledge, Project Management Institute, 1996.
  • 258. Your Turn: 258 Team, Structure and Organization, what and why is it so important? … … …
  • 259. MODULE 18: PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS
  • 260. Communication Made Simple 260 The Two Floor Rule Two-Floor Every stakeholder should receive information at just the right level of detail for them! High-level managers won’t want to see all the gory details of the g g g y project! Your team members need to see a great deal more! If your level of reporting is appropriate, and one of your stakeholders steps into the elevator and asks about the status of the project, you should be able to brief him or her by the time the elevator stops two floors away!
  • 261. Communication Plan 261 Communication Format Frequency Distribution Team Briefing Restricted Intranet Daily at 9:00 Team and stakeholders with access to secure project info area j ti f W eekly W eb Bulletin Internal Intranet W eekly Team, sponsor, senior management Technical Incident Email Immediately after W ebmaster, IT Report Incident Department Budget and Schedule Spreadsheets and Bi-W eekly Sponsor, Senior Detail Detailed Gantt Chart Management Accomplishments a d cco p s e ts and Email a d Intranet a and t a et W eekly ee y All internal sta e o de s te a stakeholders Setbacks Schedule Milestones Email and Intranet W eekly All internal stakeholders Cost-to-Date Cost to Date Email and Intranet W eekly All internal stakeholders Milestones Current Top 5 Risks Email and Intranet W eekly All internal stakeholders
  • 262. Some Simple Tools 262 Accomplishments and Setbacks for Period Starting 2/9/04 – 2/15/04 Accomplishments for Setbacks for Period Period P i d
  • 263. Some Simple Tools (continued) 263 Schedule Milestones as of 2/15/2004 ID Milestone Scheduled Actual Variance Completion Completion in Days
  • 264. Some Simple Tools (continued) 264 Cost-to-Date Milestones as of 2/15/2004 ID Milestone Scheduled Actual Cost- Cost to Cost to to-Date Date Date Variance
  • 265. Some Simple Tools (continued) 265 Top Five Risks as of 2/15/2004 Rank/ Risk Status Activities Activities Previous This Period Planned for Rank Next Period
  • 266. And Don t Forget… Don’t 266 Example of a Comple te d Priority Matrix for a Construction Proje ct Constraint 1 2 3 Measurement Building must be completed by Time October 31 of this year to accommodate corporate move move. Costs for the project must not Cost exceed $22.5 million. + Changes to either are significant!
  • 267. Project Reporting to Top Management Visuals for a Project Status Review Vi l f P j t St t R i 267 Information Requirements of Top Management Overview: Schedule & Cost-2 A. Wh t i th A What is the project background? j tb k d? Project T P j t Terms-3 3 Organization-4 Project Appraisal-5 Appraisal 5 B. What does our “Customer” think? Major Milestones-6 Schedule Status-7 C. What do our management systems say? Resource P f R Performance-8 8 Value of Work Accomplished-9 D. What are the critical problems? Current C i i l P bl C Critical Problems-10 10 Anticipated Critical Problems-11
  • 268. Reporting… 268 Overview S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A SCHEDULE: COST: P R O J E C T University Computer Lab Schedule Status Cost Status Meeting Date
  • 269. Reporting… 269 Terms… T Description Under signed contract (#123-4) with university to design, assemble, install and test hardware and software for university computer lab. Terms Cost $811.0 K + Incentive Fee 545.3 K Direct Cost 105.6 105 6 K Indirect (Overhead) 160.1 K Projected Profit 40.55 K I. F.* 5 percent of Budgeted Cost for Performance Quality and Target Delivery ( -1 percent per Week Late Delivery) 200.6 K Max Profit including Incentive Fee *I. F. = Incentive Fee
  • 270. Reporting… 270 Organization J. BROWN PROJECT MANAGER Project B. BULB, FINANCIAL J. RAPPS, MGT. SYS. S. MATZ, MGR. R. RACE, MGR. E. SELLER, MGR. SOFTWARE DESIGN MARKETING F. FITS, MGR SYSTEMS ASSEMBLY B. BLAT, MGR. R. WATTS, MGR O. CHECK, MGR INSTALLATION TEST Q.C. R. CLEAN, DIR. Customer UNIVERSITY COMPUTER LAB S. ADAMS DEPUTY DIRECTOR N. NESS, MGR. J. JONNS, MGR. P. PETERS, MGR. SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT APPLICATIONS
  • 271. Reporting… 271 Major Major Milestones Milestones S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A Start Design review Spec. (Final) Start Procurement Finish Test Parts All Parts available Finish Assembly Ship Install Test Approval
  • 272. Reporting… 272 Schedule S h d l Schedule Status Status S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A Remarks Software Systems Redesign Design of Test equip. Procure- P ment Modems Assembly Delayed Installation Q.C. Test
  • 273. Reporting… 273 Resource Performance Resource Performance J F M A M J J A S O N D Remarks 1000 Projected Cost Cost @ Comp. ($841K) Overrun 900 ($30K) Target Cost 841 00) 800 811 Dollars (00 Actual Cost 700 700 680 Budget 670 Earned Value 600 500 100 er alent Manpowe 80 Planned 60 40 Equiva Actual 20
  • 274. Reporting… 274 Current Problems Testing Problem: System test equipment fails to measure telecom output signals at the required sensitivity. sensitivity Impact: Schedule may slip by two weeks because of redesign of test equipment. Resolution: Review test criteria with customer with the objective of relaxing specifications. Responsibility: J. Powers, Systems Engineer Receiver Availability Problem: Customer furnished modems are currently one week late. Impact: Item is critical and will cause day-by-day slippage in end item delivery starting first of September. September Resolution: Support receiver manufacturer with our engineer to solve interface problems. Responsibility: F. Funk, Design Engineer
  • 275. Reporting… 275 Anticipated Problem(s) Cost Overrun: Redesign of Test Equipment Problem: Design changes are resulting in projected cost overrun of $30K Impact: Loss of part of incentive fee Resolution: Tighter configuration control and offset from expected under-run from power protection equipment Responsibility: J. Brown, Project Manager Installation Problem: Additional slippage in other projects will cause resource stacking problems within installation Impact: Compound project slippage and possible loss of incentive fee Resolution: Reschedule conflicting projects or acquire additional manpower Responsibility: B. Blat, Director B Blat Director, Installation
  • 276. Your Turn: 276 What has to be communicated? … … … … … …
  • 277. MODULE 19 PROJECT MANAGEMENT 19: PROCESSES (INPUTS, TOOLS & TECHNIQUES, OUTPUTS)
  • 278. Project Management Processes (Inputs, Tools & Techniques, Outputs) 278 Project Management Processes Initiating Plann ing Executing Monitoring & Closing Con trollin g Me asure against the Determine how you Sele ct project performance Deve lop closure will do planning – part Acquire final team mana ger of mana gement plans measurement procedures base lines Determine company Initiating culture and existing systems Cre ate project scope statement Execute the PM plan Me asure according to the management plans Complete contract closure Dete rmine variances Collecting processes, W ork to produce and if they warrant Confirm work is done proce dures and Determine tea m product scope corrective action or a to requirements historical informa tion change Gain forma l Divide large projects Cre ate WBS and W BS Recommend changes into phase s dictionary a nd corrective actions Scope verification acceptance of the product Send and receive Configuration Final performance Ide ntify stakeholders Cre ate activity list information mana gement reporting Implement approved Recommend cha nges, Document business Cre ate network changes, defect defect repair , Index and archive need diagra m repair, preventive and pre ventive and records corrective actions corrective action Update lessons Determine project Estimate re source Continuous Integrate d change Closing Planning objective s require ments improve ment control base g learned knowle dge Document Approve changes, Estimate time a nd defect repair , Hand off comple ted assumptions and F ollow processes costs pre ventive and product constraints corrective action Develop project Determine critical path Team building Risk audits Release resources charter Develop preliminary Give recognition and project scope Develop schedule Ma nage reserves rewa rds statement Hold progress Develop budget meetings Use issue logs Determine qua lity Use work authorization Facilitate conflict standards, processes systems resolution and metrics Determine roles and Reque st seller Me asure team responsibilities response member performa nce Determine communication Select se llers Report on performance require ments Risk identification, qualitative a nd quantitative risk Create forecasts analysis and response Monitoring planning Itera tions, go back Administer contracts & Executing Determine what to purchase Prepare procurement Controlling docume nts Finalize the ‘how to execute and control’ aspects of all management plans Cre ate process improvement plans Develop fina l PM plan p p and performance measurement baselines Gain formal approval for plan Hold kick-off meeting  
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  • 298. Project Management Processes (Inputs, Tools & Techniques, Outputs) 298 P r o j e c t  T i m e  M a n a g e m e n t Project Time Management Schedule Development Organizational process assets Schedule network analysis Project schedule Project scope statement Project scope statement Critical path method Critical path method Schedule model data Schedule model data n i q u e s Activity list Schedule compression Schedule baseline Resource requirements  Activity attributes Activity attributes What‐if scenario analysis  What if scenario analysis d   T e c h n (updates) u t p u t s n p u t s Project schedule network  Resource leveling Activity attributes (updates) diagrams Activity resource  Critical chain method Critical chain method Project calendar (updates) Project calendar (updates) o l s   a n d I n O u requirements Project management  Resource calendars software Requested changes  Project management plan  T o o Activity duration estimates Activity duration estimates Applying calendars Applying calendars (updates) Schedule management plan  Project Management plan Adjusting leads and lags (updates) Risk register Schedule model
  • 299. Project Management Processes (Inputs, Tools & Techniques, Outputs) 299
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  • 332. NOT A MODULE: ADDITIONAL INTERESTING INFORMATION
  • 333. What makes a good Project Manager? 333 Methodological competency Correct The text book answer… Technical handling of a Personality competency task/job competency requires ... Social S i l competency t
  • 334. Motivation… 334 Who needs motivation? 26% Employees not engaged in their job Employees actively disengaged 55% in their jobs Employee engaged in their jobs 19% Source: Gallup Management Journal, 2001
  • 335. Amazing Information… 335 2 hours i the average time per day managers search f i f h is th ti d h for information. ti 50 % of the information has no value to the managers (IT managers were the least likely to feel the information they receive has value- despite spending the most time trying to find it). 59 % of managers who say they miss out on information that might be valuable to them almost every day because it exists somewhere else in y y the company-and they just can't find it. Part of the problem may lie in the way managers are gathering and storing all that information. Only 16% of respondents said they use a collaborative workplace tool, tool such as their company's Intranet. Source PMI 2007
  • 336. The top 9 causes for project failure 336 Source PMI 2007 4,3 4,4 1. Poor commuincation 1 P i ti 4,8 2. Insufficient resource planning 28,0 5,2 3. Unrealistic schedules 4. Poor project requirements 6,7 5. Lack of stakeholder buy in 6. Undefined project success/clusre criteria 9,8 7. Unrealistic budgets 8. Insufficient or non risk planning 18,0 13,2 9. Lack of control/change process
  • 337. Project Management Concepts/Approaches 337 Prince 2 History PRINCE2 is derived from the earlier PRINCE project management method, which i d i df th li j t t th d hi h was initially developed in 1989 by the Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency (CC ) as a UK Government standard for information systems (IT) project ge cy (CCTA) U Go e e t sta da d o o at o syste s ( ) p oject management; however, it soon became regularly applied outside the purely IT environment. PRINCE2 was released in 1996 as a generic project management method. PRINCE2 has become increasingly popular and is now a de facto standard for project management in the UK. Its use has spread beyond the UK to more than 50 other countries. The most current revision was released in 2009 by the Office of Government Commerce.
  • 338. Project Management Concepts/Approaches 338 Prince 2 Description of the PRINCE2 method: The graphic below shows the processes involved in managing a PRINCE2 project and how they link with each other, creating the normal content of a PRINCE2 project.
  • 339. Project Management Concepts/Approaches 339 Prince 2
  • 340. Total Quality Management (TQM) 340 W. Edwards Deming made the ‘Shewhart’ cycle as a TQM model/tool popular: Plan: Design or revise business process components to improve results Do: Implement the plan and measure its performance Check: Assess the measurements and report the results to decision makers Act: Decide on changes needed to improve the process
  • 341. Action Plan: Plan – Do- Check - Act Do 341 Using the ‘Shewhart’ cycle t b ild an A ti U i th ‘Sh h t’ l to build Action Plan Pl Action Plan Who will With whom to When Stage/ To whom to Nr. Activity Plan, Do, cooperate/ should it be Degree of report Check, Act work together completed Progress P D 1 A C P D 2 A C P = Action Planned; D = Start of Action/Intervention/Do; C = Check if suitable/Control; PL CT AN A AP CD A = Act on Activity Achieved/Measure integrated or corrective action if not completed/achieved CH O EC D K
  • 342. Action Plans: PCM Operational Plan 342 An example for an ‚Operational Plan as it is used in PCM Operational Plan’ Plan of Operation for Project name: Monitoring symbols: Date prepared: Project number: Date adjusted: Partner organisation(s): g () By: y Result 0: Project management activities Time in quarters Resources required Objectively Man- Finances, Finances, Activities Verifiable Responsibilities 1/99 2/99 3/99 4/99 1/2000 2/2000 3/2000 4/2000 Remarks power partner other Indicators Result b t t R lt 0 sub-totall 0 PCM
  • 343. Some important definitions 343 strat·e·gy strat·e·gy (stràt¹e-jê) noun plural strat·e·gies 1. a. The science and art of using all the forces of a nation to execute approved plans as effectively as possible during peace or war. b. war b The science and art of military command as applied to the overall planning and conduct of large scale combat operations. large-scale operations 2. A plan of action resulting from strategy or intended to accomplish a specific goal. See synonyms at plan. 3. The art or skill of using stratagems in endeavors such as politics and business. [French stratégie, from Greek stratêgia, office of a general, from stratêgos, general. See stratagem.] strategical - adjective behaving: tactical, strategical cunning: tactical, strategical, deep-laid, well-planned warlike: operational, strategical, tactical[1] strat·a·gem strat·a·gem (stràt¹e-jem) noun 1. A military maneuver designed to deceive or surprise an enemy. 2. clever 2 A clever, often underhand scheme for achieving an objective See synonyms at artifice objective. artifice. [Middle English, from Old French stratageme, from Old Italian stratagemma, from Latin stratêgêma, from Greek, from stratêgein, to be a general, from stratêgos, general : stratos, army + agein, to lead.]
  • 344. Some important definitions 344 plan plan (plàn) noun 1. A scheme, program, or method worked out beforehand for the accomplishment of an objective: a plan of attack. 2. A proposed or tentative project or course of action: had no plans for the evening. 3. A systematic arrangement of important parts; an outline or a sketch: the plan of a story. 4. d 4 A drawing or diagram made to scale showing the structure or arrangement of something. i di d t l h i th t t t f thi 5. In perspective rendering, one of several imaginary planes perpendicular to the line of vision between the viewer and the object being depicted. verb planned, plan·ning, plans verb, transitive 1. To formulate a scheme or program for the accomplishment, enactment, or attainment of: plan a campaign. 2. To have as a specific aim or purpose; intend: They plan to buy a house. 3. To draw or make a graphic representation of. verb, intransitive To make plans. [French, alteration (influenced by plan, flat surface). See plain, of plant, ground plan, map (from planter, to plant, from Latin plantâre, from planta, sole of the foot).] — plan¹ner noun Synonyms: plan, blueprint, design, project, scheme, strategy. The central meaning shared by these nouns is “a method or program in accordance with which something is to be done or accomplished”: has no vacation plans; a blueprint for the reorganization of the company; social conventions that are a product of human design; an urban-renewal project; a new scheme for power conservation; a strategy for capturing a major market share.
  • 345. Strategies… 345 How to do the Analysis of Alternatives/Strategies Step 1 Identify Objectives you do not want to pursue. Those that are not desirable or achievable. Step 2 Identify differing ‘Means and Ends ladders as possible Means Ends’ ladders, alternative project strategies or project components. PCM
  • 346. Strategies… 346 Step 3: Assess which Alternative/Strategy in your opinion represents an option to have a successful project by using criteria such as: Expected contribution to key policy objectives/development priorities Benefits to Target Groups Complementary with other ongoing or planned interventions Local ability to meet recurrent costs Financial and economic cost – benefit Contribution to institutional capacity building Technical feasibility Social/Environmental impact You might expand the list with e.g. : time horizon, sustainability and other relevant criteria PCM
  • 347. Strategies… 347 Sample matrix Assessment Weighing Politically Economically Priority of Follow-up Gender Environ- Matrix factor acceptable efficient/ the Target costs/ impact mental (ad criteria if % effective Group additional impact necessary) (national costs level) Alternative/ Strategy A Alternative/ Strategy B Alternative/ Strategy C Sum Assessment +, ++,+++ ; -, --, --- Symbol PCM
  • 348. Some times misinterpreted… 348 A simple way to distinguish among effectiveness, efficacy and efficiency: Efficiency: doing the "right" things Effectiveness: getting things done g g g Effectivity: a level of getting things done Efficacy: Doing things "right" right Sustainability is a characteristic of a process or state that can be maintained at a certain level indefinitely.
  • 349. Ignorance… 349 Problems known to management 4 % An Problems known Iceberg I b to managers 9 % of Ignorance Problems known to supervisors 74 % Problems known to front line staff 100%
  • 350. Todays PM quality needs… 350 The superior Project Manger…
  • 351. The Ideal Project Manager 351 What managers should do/have/be Ascetic Age To t T transfer/take action f /t k ti Cost consciousness Self-steering Team-orientation Communication competency Social S i l competencyt Capability to handle conflicts Participative leadership Civil courage Ethics Family F il Loyalty Authoritarian leadership Being open towards information technology Project management experience Change management competency Ch t t Vision Entrepreneurship Strategy -40,0 , -20,0 , 0,0 , 20,0 , 40,0 , 60,0 ,
  • 352. Ten critical factors for project success 352 1) PROJECT MISSION: A clear sense of direction with clear initial goals 2) TOP MANAGEMENT SUPPORT: A willingness and ability to provide resources, authority and influence 3) PROJECT/SCHEDULE & PLAN: A detailed specification and schedule for project implementation 4) CLIENT CONSULTATION Ad CONSULTATION: Adequate communication, consultation and active listening to t i ti lt ti d ti li t i t and with the client. 5) PERSONNEL: Necessary personnel were selected, recruited and trained. 6) TECHNICAL TASKS: Required technologies and expertise were available. 7) CLIENT ACCEPTANCE: Final project was sold to the end user. 8) MONITORING & FEEDBACK: Provision of comprehensive information at each ) p implementation stage. 9) TROUBLESHOOTING: An ability to handle unexpected crises and plan deviations.
  • 353. Ten critical factors for project success 353 The 10 CSF s, their sequence and interdependence CSF’s
  • 354. Some simple but useful check‘s check s 354 Checklist Ch kli project characteristics j h i i Check whether your project is really a project… Is there a project specific organization? Is there a clearly defined starting and ending point? Is there a clear conceptual project formulation? Is the assignment of tasks complex? h l l l ‘f d ’i h Is there a clearly spelt out ‘form and content’ in the target (description)? If you can at least answer three questions with a solid YES, then you are on the safe side!
  • 355. Some simple but useful check‘s check s 355 A good frame work for team work df kf k Good team composition Co-operative working relationship Give and take relationship (being able to make good compromises) Jointly defined and accepted target(s) Joint description and definition of tasks and j p jobs Jointly developed ‚laws of the game‘ Good purposeful communication between the team members If you can at least answer three questions with a solid YES, then you are on the safe side!
  • 356. Some simple but useful check‘s check s 356 Is the target definition un-ambigious and complete Yes Partially No Target establishment was done ‚three dimensionally‘ (Target content; Target degree; Target time) Target is clear and traceable g Target is measurable Target is complete (target system and hierachy) Target is unambigious Target is realistically achieveable Target is accepted by ‚all‘ all‘ Target has been re-confirmed with ‚donor/contractor‘ Target is written down
  • 357. Some simple but useful check‘s check s 357 Has your project been planned holistically and or a holistic approach CONTEXT LEVEL Yes Partially No Project specific organization Process and task responsibilities are clearly defined and assigned to specific staff Structured action Systematic planning Continuous monitoring Consistent cause analysis Comprehensive Information Management SOCIAL LEVEL Yes Y Partially P ti ll No N Getting acceptance for the project(work) Confidence building amongst working partners/team etc. Active involvement of ALL (stakeholders project team etc.) into the project (stakeholders, etc ) Participative leadership Strengthening of personal responsibility Increasing/facilitating motivation g/ g
  • 358. MODULE 20: WHAT’S NEXT?
  • 359. Personal Action Plan 359 This l Thi plan is your plan and you need not share i with anyone else i l d d h it i h l in the workshop. However, find a colleague with whom you can share your plan. Make this “Project Management In the First Person” and set out to put in place the steps you listed to meet your stated goals. Lots of success in the future!!
  • 360. Personal Action Plan 360 Personal Self E al ation and Action Plan for Follow-Up after This Workshop Self-Evaluation Follo Up These are the knowledge areas and skills that I already knew and had reinforced by this workshop. These are the knowledge areas and skills that were new to me that I will be Th th k l d d kill th t t th t ill b able to use in my project work in the future. These are the knowledge areas and skills introduced in the workshop on which I might need a refresher to use comfortably. g y
  • 361. Personal Action Plan (continued) 361 These are the knowledge areas and skills that were not covered (or not Th h k l d d kill h d( covered in sufficient detail), but about which I would like to learn more. These are the steps I plan to take immediately. These are the steps I want to take within the next six months These are goals related to project management that I want to achieve within the next two years. h
  • 362. How to proceed? 362 What can you (after you have had  On which of the knowledge areas do  What  project would you  PMI  some ‘basic’ training contribute  you want to have in the second  like to ‚plan‘ as an  Knowledge Management Areas to, to improve this knowledge  course more theoretical/practical example for MoAF? example for MoAF? management area in MoAF? input? Integration Management Scope Management Time Management Cost Management Quality Management Human Resources Management Communication Management Risk Management Procurement Management
  • 363. NOT A MODULE: WHAT OTHERS DO MODULE EXAMPLE ILO/UN/WB
  • 364. Project IDENTIFICATION 364 JOINT BORROWER (CAS) /BANK (PCD) INVOLVEMENT SOURCES BANK COUNTRY / SECTOR WORK COUNTRY OFFICES PRIOR PROJECTS MULTILATERAL / BILATERAL AGENCIES ILO/UN/ WB
  • 365. Project IDENTIFICATION 365 JOINT BORROWER / BANK INVOLVEMENT PROVIDES OUTLINE OF PROJECT BENEFICIARIES ALTERNATIVES ISSUES PROCESSING REQUIREMENTS ILO/UN/ WB
  • 366. Project PREPARATION 366 RESPONSIBILITY OF BORROWER AVAILABLE ASSISTANCE (TECHNICAL/FINANCIAL) BORROWER (own resources) BANK PREVIOUS LOANS (technical assistance) RETROACTIVE FINANCING PROJECT PREPARATION FACILITY TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE LOANS ENGINEERING LOANS MULTILATERAL/BILATERAL AGENCIES (e.g. Grants from donors: USAID, Japan, etc.) ILO/UN/ WB
  • 367. Project PREPARATION 367 STUDIES (TECHNICAL, SOCIOLOGICAL, ENVIRONMENTAL, FINANCIAL) TASK (SURVEYS MAPPING) (SURVEYS, FINAL DESIGNS, BIDDING DOCUMENTS STAFFING AND TRAINING OFFICE EQUIPMENT, VEHICLES ILO/UN/ WB
  • 368. Project APPRAISAL 368 RESPONSIBILITY OF BANK MULTI-DISCIPLINARY TEAM (Field) PROJECT APPRAISAL DOCUMENT (PAD) ECONOMIC ANALYSIS BENEFIT TO COUNTRY POVERTY ALLEVIATION TECHNICAL REVIEW OF DESIGNS, COST ESTIMATES IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE ILO/UN/ WB
  • 369. Project APPRAISAL 369 INSTITUTIONAL CAPABILITY TO IMPLEMENT PROJECT TRAINING STAFF NEEDS TRAINING, FINANCIAL PROJECT FINANCIAL VIABILITY SOCIOLOGICAL BENEFICIARIES ENVIRONMENTAL ILO/UN/ WB
  • 370. NEGOTIATION / BOARD PRESENTATION 370 PREPARATION OF LEGAL AGREEMENT COVENANTS / CONDITIONALITIES SCHEDULES PRESENTATION TO EXECUTIVE DIRECTORS SIGNING EFFECTIVENESS ADVANCE CONTRACTING / RETROACTIVE FINANCING ILO/UN/ WB
  • 371. Implementation/Supervision 371 IMPLEMENTATION IS RESPONSIBILITY OF BORROWER BANK RESPONSIBILITY MONITOR PROGRESS ADVISE ENSURE LOAN PROCEEDS USED FOR PURPOSE INTENDED ENSURE PROCUREMENT IS ECONOMIC AND PROVIDES FAIR OPPORTUNITIES ILO/UN/ WB
  • 372. Implementation/Supervision 372 SUPERVISION METHODOLOGY FIELD VISITS REVIEW AND APPROVE CONSULTANT SELECTION BID DOCUMENTS CONTRACT AWARDS CHANGES IN SCOPE/COSTS ILO/UN/ WB
  • 373. Project Evaluation 373 COMPLETION REPORT PREPARED BY: BANK OPERATIONS STAFF DESK AND FIELD REVIEWS RE-ESTIMATES COST/BENEFITS INCLUDES BORROWER’S COMMENTS ANALYSIS OF SUCCESS AND FAILURES ILO/UN/ WB
  • 374. Project Evaluation 374 AUDIT REPORT BY INDEPENDENT DEPARTMENT OF BANK (OED) SPECIAL REVIEWS BY OED ANALYSIS USED FOR FUTURE PROJECT DESIGN EVALUATION OF IMPACT AUDIT REPORT BY INDEPENDENT DEPARTMENT OF BANK (OED) SPECIAL REVIEWS BY OED ANALYSIS USED FOR FUTURE PROJECT DESIGN EVALUATION OF IMPACT ILO/UN/ WB
  • 375. NOT A MODULE : BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • 376. Bibliography 376 • Adams John R., and Campbell, Bryan, Roles and Responsibilities of the Project Manager 4th Edition Adams, R Campbell Bryan Manager, Edition, Project Management Institute, 1990 • Baker, Sunny and Kim, The Complete Idiot's Guide to Project Management, New York, NY: Alpha Books, 1998. • Bennatan E.M, On Time Within Budget: Software Project Management Practices and Techniques 3rd Bennatan, E M Techniques, Edition, New York, Wiley. 2000. • Brooks, Fredrick. The Mythical Man-Month. Addison Wesley. 1995. • DeWeaver, Mary F. and Gillespie, Lori C., Real-World Project Management: New Approaches for Adapting to Change and Uncertainty New York: Quality Resources, 1997 Uncertainty. Resources 1997. • Dinsmore, Paul C., Human Factors in Project Management. New York: AMACOM, 1990. • Doyle, Michael and Straus, David, How to Make Meetings Work, New York: Jove Books, 1982. • Greer, Michael, The Manager's Pocket Guide to Project Management, Amherst, MA: HRD Press, , , g j g , , , 1999. • Greer, Michael, The Project Manager's Partner: A Step-by-Step Guide to Project Management, Amherst, MA: HRD Press, 1996. • Haynes, Marion E., Project Management. Crisp Publications, 1989. y , , j g p , • Laufer, Alexander and Hoffman, Edward J., Project Management Success Stories: Lessons of Project Leadership, New York, Wiley. 2000. • Lewis, James P., Fundamentals of Project Management. New York: AMACOM, 1997. • Lock Dennis Project Management (Sixth Edition). New York: Wiley, 1996. Lock, Dennis, Edition) Wiley 1996
  • 377. Bibliography 377 • Martin, Martin Paula and Tate Karen Getting Started in Project Management New York, Wiley, 2001. Tate, Karen. Management. York Wiley 2001 • Meredith, Jack R. and Mantel, Jr., Samuel J., Project Management: A Managerial Approach. 5th Edition. New York. Wiley. 2003. • Penner, Donald. The Project Manager’s Survival Guide. Battelle Press, 1994. , j g , • Peters, Tom, Reinventing Work: The Project 50: Fifty Ways to Transform Every "Task" Into a Project That Matters. New York. Alfred A. Knopf, 1999. • Project Management Institute. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) -- 2000 Edition 2001 Edition, 2001. • Roberts, W. Leadership Secrets of Attila the Hun. Warner Books, 1987. • Schrage, Michael. Shared Minds: The New Technologies of Collaboration. New York: Random House. 1990. • Thomsett, R. People and Project Management. Yourdon Press, 1980. • Verzuh, Eric. The Fast Forward MBA in Project Management: Quick Tips, Speedy Solutions, and Cutting-Edge Ideas. New York, Wiley. 1999. • Wideman, R. Max (Editor). Project and Program Risk Management: A Guide to Managing Project Risks and Opportunities. Project Management Institute, 1992. • Wysocki, Robert K. et al, Building Effective Project Teams. New York: Wiley, 2001. • Wysocki, Wysocki Robert K. et al, Effective Project Management New York: Wiley, 1995. K al Management. Wiley 1995
  • 378. NOT A MODULE: TRAINER THINGS
  • 379. Never forget… 379 Projects are made for people and made by people…
  • 380. Chasing the plan… 380 If reality hits you… Changing plans (because reality has its own plan), does not mean y you have planned badly! It is your obligation to adjust to reality! p y y g j y
  • 381. The ’egg drop project egg drop’ 381 Suitable f for: Team work – Decision making, Planning/Co-ordination/ Co-operation, Working under ‘pressure’, Monitoring + Evaluation. Group work: G k Maximum seven persons per group. M i One person from each group will get the assignment to be a neutral observer/monitor on how the group performs and has to act strictly neutral (see observer sheet) sheet). Task: Produce a package, only from the materials provided, that will prevent that an egg that is enclosed in it will break, if it break is dropped from a fixed height (of 2.50 meter)!
  • 382. The ’egg drop project egg drop’ 382 Time available: Ti il bl 30 minutes, not extendable! i t t t d bl ! Material supplied to complete the task: - One fresh (not boiled) egg - 25 drinking straws (plastic), - 125 cm of ‘scotch-tape’ f‘ t h t ’ No other material then the supplied one is allowed (e.g. sc sso s, poc et scissors, pocket knifes, additional padding material, etc. is es, add t o a padd g ate a , etc s forbidden! No manipulation on the egg (e.g. blowing it out, boiling it, etc.)! You are not allowed to visit any competing group! You are not allowed to conduct any pre- t t! Y t ll dt d t test!
  • 383. The ’egg drop project egg drop’ 383 Working steps: • Assign tasks/functions to person in your group/team (e.g. designer, engineer, manager, material supplier/holder etc) and label the group member visibly, so that she/he can be easily identified. • Design a package within 30 minutes from the official start, only from the materials supplied, with the egg enclosed inside (so that the egg will supplied survive a drop from a height of 2.50 meter)! Stand for the contest: Select a member of your team who has to drop your package (with the egg inside) from a height of 2.50 meter! The winning group will be that one, where the egg is not broken! * In case of a ‘draw’ situation the audience will select the ‘winner’, based on additional criteria, such as ‘overall group performance, product appearance’ etc.
  • 384. What happens when we learn? 384 V “diencephalon” E We do not send/exchange information but signals g I N 20 % of impulses are new Values 80 % are from our ‚inventory inventory’ Interests Expectations Needs Often used container metaphor – Morse code; sender and receiver is wrong
  • 385. Learning & Retention 385 Knowledge by Kno ledge b itself is useless and it’s only in the application of knowledge where it seless onl kno ledge he e becomes valuable. Retention is the key because you cannot apply what you don’t retain. Learning – Registering Retention 83% by sight 10% of what we read 11% by sound 20% of what we hear 3.5% 3 5% by smell 30% of what we see hat e 1.5% by touch 50% of what we see and hear 1% by taste 70% of what we discuss 90% of what we say and do
  • 386. Leadership styles 386 Kurt Lewin's Leadership styles Kurt Lewin and colleagues identified different styles of leadership: Dictator Autocratic Participative Laissez Faire
  • 387. Leadership styles 387 Dictator Leaders A leader who uses fear and threats to get the jobs done. As similar with a leader who uses an autocratic style of leadership, this style of leader also makes all the decisions. Autocratic or Authoritarian Leaders Under the autocratic leadership styles, all decision making powers are centralized in the leader as shown such styles decision-making leaders are dictators. They do not entertain any suggestions or initiative from subordinates. The autocratic management has been successful as it provides strong motivation to the manger. It permits quick decision-making as only one person decides for the whole group, and keeps it to themselves until they feel it is needed by the rest of the group. An autocratic leader does not trust anybody. Participative or Democratic Leaders The democratic leadership style favors decision-making by the group as shown, such as leader gives instruction after consulting the group. He can win the cooperation of his group and can motivate them effectively and positively. The decisions of the democratic leader are not unilateral as with the autocrat because they arise from consultation with the group members and participation by them. Laissez Faire or Free Rein Leaders A free rein leader does not lead, but leaves the group entirely to itself as shown; such a leader allows maximum freedom to subordinates. They are given a freehand in deciding their own policies and methods. Free rein leadership style is considered better than the authoritarian style. But it is not as effective as the democratic style.
  • 388. Management/Leadership styles 388
  • 389. Management & Leadership 389 A clear distinction between management and leadership may nevertheless prove useful. This would allow for a reciprocal relationship between leadership and management, implying that an effective manager should possess leadership skills, and an effective leader should demonstrate management skills. One clear distinction could provide the following definition: Management involves power by position. Leadership involves power by influence.
  • 390. Manager versus Leader 390 Here are twelve distinctions between the two groups: Managers administer; leaders innovate! Managers ask how and when; leaders ask what and why! Managers focus on systems; leaders focus on people! Managers do things right; leaders do the right things! Managers maintain; leaders develop! Managers rely on control; leaders inspire trust! Managers have short-term perspective; leaders have long-term perspective! Managers accept the status quo; leaders challenge the status quo! Managers have an eye on the bottom line; leaders have an eye on the horizon! Managers imitate; leaders originate! Managers emulate the classic good soldier; leaders are their own person! Managers copy; leaders show originality!
  • 391. Project Management Competencies 391
  • 392. NOT A MODULE: FUN STUFF, MOSTLY…
  • 393. Better Performance in P j t M i Project Management (PM) t 393
  • 394. Remind yourself… 394 Fix your focus… … constantly!
  • 395. Wisdom… 395 You don’t need to know everything, but you should y g, y know who does…. Henry F d H Ford
  • 396. Team work… 396 Do you want to do donkey work or t team work? k?
  • 397. Things that can go wrong… 397 Murphy s Murphy's Laws 1. If anything can go wrong, it will. 2. If there is a possibility of several things going wrong, the one that will cause the most damage will be the first one to go wrong. 3. 3 If anything just cannot go wrong, it will anyway. wrong anyway 4. If you perceive that there are four possible ways in which something can go wrong, and circumvent these, then a fifth way, unprepared for, will promptly develop. 5. Left to themselves, things tend to go from bad to worse. 6. If everything seems to be going well, you have obviously overlooked something. 7. Nature always sides with the hidden flaw. 8. Mother nature is a bitch.
  • 398. What was planned…? 398
  • 399. Just graffiti… 399
  • 400. Just graffiti… 400
  • 401. Just graffiti… 401
  • 402. Just graffiti… 402
  • 403. Just graffiti… 403
  • 404. Just graffiti… 404
  • 405. Just graffiti… 405
  • 406. Be aware… 406 What we have done this week… …Project Management j g
  • 407. An Engineering and Project M P j t Management Marvel tM l 407 The Burj Dubai http://www.burjdubai.com/
  • 408. Please… 408
  • 409. Funny??? 409 The form of management = mis-managment Imagine: An advisor knows 96 different positions and no women is interested
  • 410. Good/Bad Project Management… 410 Noah‘s Ark Idea of one; Designed, build and implemented by b one!! Idea of one; Designing engineers three; (3000 workers) Two captains! Titanic Possible factors in the sinking: • Construction • Rudder construction and turning ability • Orientation of impact p • Adverse weather conditions • Excessive speed • Insufficient lifeboats
  • 411. Different Management Styles (not always a joke…) 411 Management by Helicopter To hover above everything, touch down from time to time, whirl up a lot of dust and up again. Mushroom Management Leave you staff in the dark, sprinkle them with shit, the moment some heads are appearing, cut them. Ping-Pong M Pi P Management Repeatedly return every file until it is obsolete . Darwin Management Promote the winner, sack the looser. Robinson Crusoe Management Everybody is waiting for Friday Friday.
  • 412. Three problems you will face as a Project M P j t Manager… 412