• Like
Use of neo technology for new enterprises – I
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Use of neo technology for new enterprises – I

  • 743 views
Published

Enterprises & Entrepreneurs inside of an Ecosystem ; Technologies used in the Business Value Chain; Business Performance Model

Enterprises & Entrepreneurs inside of an Ecosystem ; Technologies used in the Business Value Chain; Business Performance Model

Published in Business , Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
743
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
10
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1.
    • Ecosystem:
    • Biotope - environment that surrounds, influences and is utilized by a community
    • Biocoenosis - the interacting organisms living together in a biotope, in a state of dynamic equilibrium, and forming a closely integrated community
    Entrepreneur Tools Enterprises & Entrepreneurs inside of an Ecosystem Initiative Consume Process Own Consume Process Own Business Architecture Technical Architecture Outcome resources Income resources Technology pool Enterprise Ecosystem Enterprise Enterprise Enterprise Fig. 1: Enterprises & Entrepreneurs inside of an Ecosystem
  • 2. Enterprises & Entrepreneurs inside of an Ecosystem Generic architectural / design concepts can be mapped on various technologies Fig. 2: Defining Business Architecture – timeforapause.com
  • 3.
    • Humans in the Ecosystem
    • Humans are a subjective resource in the ecosystem, and have the capability of
      • Consuming
      • Processing
      • Owning
    • other living / non-living resources
    • Humans can only exist in groups (social determinism)
    • Enterprise = a group of humans processing ecosystem resources
    Enterprises & Entrepreneurs inside of an Ecosystem Humans Resources Consume Process Own
  • 4.
    • Considering the Theory of Value, Resources have two important properties (Object - Oriented approach):
    • Renewability (resources are replaced by natural processes and replenished with the passage of time)
    • Homogeneity (resources are alike, interchangeable, or uniform)
    • Subclasses of Resources :
    • Quasi-unlimited (homogeneous & renewable)
    • Scarce (non-homogeneous & non-renewable)
    • Resource ownership can be defined by possession, use and transmission of resources
    Enterprises & Entrepreneurs inside of an Ecosystem Ecosystem: a morphism of resources in a continuous transformation process
  • 5.
    • Methods / Operations applicable to resources
    • Generic method: “ Convert / Process resource ” -> can be instantiated by “ Consume resource ”
    • Living resources are capable of consuming both living and nonliving resources, but certain conversion processes can be started without a Living resource initiator
    • Consumption = a way of converting resources into other resources
    • Resources consumption generates competition for limited resources and generates value for those particular resources
    • Types of resources that may be transformed:
    • materials
    • information
    • energy
    Enterprises & Entrepreneurs inside of an Ecosystem
  • 6.
    • Enterprise : an entity subjectively created, with the purpose of producing and delivering goods or services to its customers
    • Prerequisites for the creation of an Enterprise:
      • Demand of resources
      • Human initiative (Entrepreneur)
    • Inputs:
    • transformed resources – those that are transformed in some way by the operation to produce the goods or services that are its outputs
    • transforming resources – those that are used to perform the transformation process:
      • staff – the people involved directly in the transformation process or supporting it
      • facilities – land, buildings, machines and equipment
    Enterprises & Entrepreneurs inside of an Ecosystem Fig. 3: Resource transformation process Inputs Outputs Transformation process Feedback
  • 7.
    • Outputs:
    • Goods & services
    • Waste (undesirable outputs)
    • Feedback loop - is used to control the operations by adjusting the inputs and transformation processes that are used to achieve desired outputs
      • Feedback from internal sources: testing, evaluation and continuously improving goods and services;
      • Feedback from external sources: intermediaries, final consumers
    • Types of transformation :
    • manufacture – the physical creation of products
    • transport – the movement of materials or customers
    • supply – change in ownership of goods
    • service – the treatment of customers or the storage of materials
    Enterprises & Entrepreneurs inside of an Ecosystem
  • 8.
    • Transformation processes include :
    • changes in the physical characteristics of materials or customers
    • changes in the location of materials, information or customers
    • changes in the ownership of materials or information
    • storage or accommodation of materials, information or customers
    • changes in the purpose or form of information
    • changes in the physiological or psychological state of customers
    • Operations management : the systematic direction and control of the business processes that transform resources (inputs) into finished goods or services for customers or clients (outputs).
    • Enterprises operate with Universal Business Process Models, but use different Tools & Technologies
    Enterprises & Entrepreneurs inside of an Ecosystem
  • 9.
    • In order to survive in an constantly changing Ecosystem, the Enterprise must adopt a holistic management approach , promoting business effectiveness and efficiency while striving for innovation , flexibility, and integration with technology
    • The Enterprise must develop its ability to manage transformation processes / business processes in order to respond swiftly and effectively to the environment challenges
    • B usiness Process Management allow s the Entrepreneurs to:
      • Vision - strategize functions and processes
      • Define - baseline the process or the process improvement
      • Model - simulate the change to the process.
      • Analyze - compare the various simulations to determine an optimal improvement
      • Improve - select and implement the improvement
      • Control - deploy this implementation and by use of User defined dashboards monitor the improvement in real time and feed the performance information back into the simulation model in preparation for the next improvement iteration.
      • Re-engineer - revamp the processes from scratch for better results
    Enterprises & Entrepreneurs inside of an Ecosystem
  • 10. Enterprises & Entrepreneurs inside of an Ecosystem Business Process Management core elements Fig. 4: BPM core elements
  • 11.
    • Strategic Alignment: the tight linkage of organizational priorities and enterprise processes, enabling continuous and effective action to improve business performance
    • Governance: appropriate and transparent accountability in terms of roles and responsibilities for different levels of BPM (portfolio, program, project, and operations)
    • Methods: the tools and techniques that support and enable consistent activities on all levels of BPM; methods dimension focuses on the specific needs of each process lifecycle
    Enterprises & Entrepreneurs inside of an Ecosystem
  • 12.
    • Information Technology: the software, hardware, and information systems that enable and support process activities
    • People: the individuals and groups who continually enhance and apply their process and process management skills and knowledge to improve business performance
    • Culture: the collective values and beliefs that shape process-related attitudes and behavior to improve business performance
    Enterprises & Entrepreneurs inside of an Ecosystem
  • 13. Technologies used in the Business Value Chain
    • The boundaries of an Enterprise in the Ecosystem include:
      • Suppliers – providing inputs ( raw materials, components, finished products or services);
      • Customers - the users of the outputs of the transformation process;
      • Environment - the legal, political, social and economic conditions within which it is operating.
    Fig. 5 : Enterprise vs. Ecosystem
  • 14.
    • V alue C hain : the chain of activities in the transformation process;
    • P roducts pass through all activities of the chain in order, and at each activity the product gains some value.
    • Eg.: SCOR Reference Model , based on five distinct management processes: Plan, Source, Make, Deliver, and Return
    • Primary activities:
      • inbound logistics
      • operations (production)
      • outbound logistics
      • marketing and sales (demand)
      • services (maintenance)
    • Support activities:
      • administrative infrastructure management
      • human resource management
      • technology (R&D)
      • procurement
    Technologies used in the Business Value Chain
  • 15.
    • SCOR
    • Reference
    • Model
    Technologies used in the Business Value Chain Fig. 6: Process Modeling on SCOR methodology
  • 16.
    • Suppliers <-> Enterprise <-> Customers : E-commerce B2B
    • Tools:
      • External Web
      • B2B Portal
    • B2B Portal Types:
      • Company Web sites , since the target audience for many company Web sites is other companies and their employees. Company sites can be thought of as round-the-clock mini-trade exhibits. Sometimes a company Web site serves as the entrance to an exclusive extranet available only to customers or registered site users. Some company Web sites sell directly from the site, effectively e-tailing to other businesses.
      • Product supply and procurement exchanges : a company purchasing agent can shop for supplies from vendors, request proposals, and, in some cases, bid to make a purchase at a desired price ( e-procurement )
      • Specialized / vertical industry portals : provide a &quot;subWeb&quot; of information, product listings, discussion groups, and other features.
      • Brokering sites : act as an intermediary between someone wanting a product or service and potential providers.
      • Information sites : provide information about a particular industry for its companies and their employees. These include specialized search sites and trade and industry standards organization sites.
    Technologies used in the Business Value Chain
  • 17. Technologies used in the Business Value Chain
    • B2B Portal can accommodate several steps of the Order Fulfilment Process :
    • Product Inquiry
    • Sales Quote
    • Order Configuration
    • Order Booking
    • Order Acknowledgment / Confirmation
    • Invoicing / Billing
    • Order Sourcing / Planning
    • Order Changes
    • Delivery Confirmation
    • Returns
    Fig. 7: RUSBIZ B2B Portal solutions – rusbiz.com
  • 18.
    • Suppliers <-> Enterprise <-> Customers : E-banking
    • Online banking - Enterprises may conduct financial transactions on a secure website operated by their retail or virtual bank, credit union
    • Online platforms allow
      • importing data into personal accounting software
      • account aggregation across different financial institutions
    • Mobile banking
    • Tools:
      • Internet
      • ATM’s
      • Smartphones
      • PDAs
    Technologies used in the Business Value Chain
  • 19. Technologies used in the Business Value Chain
    • Enterprise -> Purchasing
    • Quality assurance: prequalification of products and manufacturers, purchasing, storage and distribution
    • Tools:
      • Elemental analyzers
      • Physical Properties analyzers
      • Lab automation software
    • Inventory management : replenishment lead time, asset management, inventory forecasting, inventory valuation, inventory visibility, future inventory price forecasting, physical inventory, available physical space for inventory etc.
    • Tools:
      • Barcoding
      • RFID readers
      • Mobile asset management software
      • V ertical lift module, storage and retrieval system s
  • 20.
    • Enterprise -> Production
    • Production lines - Process welding, heat treatment, drying and curing processes ; Hydro pneumatic crimping, swaging, piercing and staking
    • Assembly systems - Component handling & t ransportation , washing and cleaning processes ; Integrated gauging, weighing, testing and measurement stations
    • Packing & bottling lines - Automatic component setting and adjustment ; Component packing, stacking, palletising and storage facilities
    • Tools:
    • Robot automation
    • Vision systems using cameras and image processing software.
    • Rotary indexing assembly machines
    • Platens
    • Hopper car s
    • B owl feeder s
    • C onveyors
    • Forklifts
    Technologies used in the Business Value Chain
  • 21.
    • Enterprise -> Distribution
    • Warehouse Management Systems - Automate picking, packing and shipping and minimize the number of moves per order ; c onsolidate orders to reduce transportation and shipping costs ; workforce planning and scheduling; slotting optimization
    • Tools:
      • RFID ( Radio-frequency identification ) readers
      • Barcode scanners
      • Magnetic stripes
      • OCR ( Optical character recognition )
      • Wireless LANs
      • V ertical lift module, storage and retrieval system s
    Technologies used in the Business Value Chain Fig. 8: WMS Benefits – dqlogistics.com
  • 22.
    • Enterprise <-> Customers
    • E-shopping
    • Networking
    • E-services
    • Digital marketing
    • Tools:
      • CRM systems
      • Internet – company website, online advertising
      • E-commerce
      • Social media – Facebook, Twitter, Youtube, Linkedin, blogs, forums
      • Barcoding on print ads
      • Online reservation systems
      • E-mail & mobile (SMS/MMS) marketing
    Technologies used in the Business Value Chain
  • 23.
    • Enterprise <-> Business Processes
    • Semantics in business – need for a graphic representation of the reality
    • Business process modeling - business users are able to model their business processes, implement and execute those models, and refine the models based on as-executed data.
    • Modelling techniques:
      • Unified Modeling Language (UML)
      • Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN)
      • Cognition enhanced Natural language Information Analysis Method (CogNIAM)
      • Extended Business Modeling Language (xBML)
      • Event-driven process chain (EPC)
      • ICAM DEFinition (IDEF0)
    Technologies used in the Business Value Chain Fig. 9: Benefits of Business Process Modeling - thakursahib.com
  • 24.
    • SCOR methodology - used to identify, measure, reorganize and improve supply chain processes
    • Management processes - govern the operation of an enterprise (Corporate Governance, Strategic Management)
    • Operational processes - constitute the core business and create the primary value stream (Purchasing, Manufacturing, Marketing, Sales)
    • Supporting processes - support the core processes (Accounting, Recruitment, Technical support)
    Technologies used in the Business Value Chain Fig. 10: SCOR Model Scope and Structure - supply-chain.org
  • 25.
    • BPM Tools :
      • Process mapping / modeling tools
      • Modelers for software development
      • Modeling tools embedded in BPM systems
    • Capturing of process details (implementation of business rules, end-to-end process view, comprehensible to all process stakeholders)
    • Simulation capabilities
    • Support for the Enterprise Architecture development
    • Report generation and document management
    • Repository options, version control capabilities, support for collaborative work
    Technologies used in the Business Value Chain
  • 26.
    • Hype Cycle for Business Process Management
    • (Gartner 2010)
    Technologies used in the Business Value Chain
  • 27.
    • Enterprise Architecture - defines the structure and operation of an organization in order to determine how it can most effectively achieve its current and future objectives
      • business perspective - defines the processes and standards by which the business operates on a day-to-day basis
      • application perspective - defines the interactions among the processes and standards used by the organization
      • information perspective - defines and classifies the raw data (such as document files, databases, images, presentations, and spreadsheets) that the organization requires in order to efficiently operate
      • technology perspective - defines the hardware, operating systems, programming, and networking solutions used by the organization
    Technologies used in the Business Value Chain
  • 28. Technologies used in the Business Value Chain
    • EA Tools:
      • Store, integrate & structure enterprise architecture information
      • Support the creation, collection, analysis and presentation of EA information to meet stakeholders’ needs
    Fig. 11: Enterprise Architecture Domains – simplicable.com
  • 29.
    • Business Performance Monitoring - an essential process that helps your understand how well your business is progressing toward its goals and objectives
      • Measure Critical Few Performance Criteria
      • Analyze Results and Recommend Actions
      • Implement Focused Improvement Activities
    • Tools:
      • OLAP — online analytical processing, sometimes simply called &quot;analytics&quot; (based on dimensional analysis and the so-called &quot;hypercube&quot; or &quot;cube&quot;)
      • scorecarding, dashboarding and data visualization
      • data warehouses
      • do cument warehouses
      • text mining
      • data mining
      • business performance optimization
      • enterprise performance management
      • KPI monitoring
      • decision support systems
      • management information systems
      • strategic enterprise management software
    Business Performance Model
  • 30.
    • Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) :
      • a process improvement approach that provides organizations with the essential elements of effective processes, which will improve their performance.
      • includes identifying your organization’s process strengths and weaknesses and making process changes to turn weaknesses into strengths.
    Business Performance Model Fig. 12: CMMI’s Five Levels of Maturity - computerworld.com
  • 31.
    • Niche markets: groups of consumers (market segments) within the larger marketplace who have similar demographic, buying behavior, and/or lifestyle characteristics
    • Niche business:
      • Create a simple product / service
      • Identify a niche market (address a need for a product or service that is not being addressed by mainstream providers )
      • Become niche’s marketplace leader
      • Be specific, distinctive, relevant (brand recognition is a key factor)
      • Use viral marketing, online communities and new technologies
      • Turn into a “trendy business”
    • Long Tail strategy : selling small volumes of hard-to-find items to many customers instead of only selling large volumes of a reduced number of popular items
    Business Performance Model
  • 32.
    • Performance criteria:
      • Effectiveness - the extent to which goals are accomplished
      • Efficiency - getting the job done using the minimum resources to produce maximum output (the value of the resources delivered to the ecosystem is greater than the value of consumed resources)
      • Ethics - the extent to which the business rules are followed
      • Aesthetics – the extent to which the business processes fit into time and space constraint (harmonious behavior in terms of rhythm and proportions)
    • An enterprise that processes resources meeting all the 4 criteria above can be called an EcoEnterprise
    Business Performance Model
  • 33.
    • D igital E cosystem :
    • a self-organising digital infrastructure aimed at creating a digital environment for networked organisations that supports the cooperation, the knowledge sharing, the development of open and adaptive technologies and evolutionary business models.
    Business Performance Model
    • the ICT-enabling technology for business ecosystems based on the dynamic and amorphous interaction among a multiplicity of organisations
    Fig. 13: Digital Business Ecosystems Layers - digital-ecosystems.org
  • 34.
    • Business Performance Management = =a business management approach which looks at the business as a whole instead of on a division level, reviewing the overall business performance and determining how the business can better reach its goals
    • Business process = a series of logically related activities or tasks (such as planning, production, or sales) performed together to produce a defined set of results
    • Business Process Management = activity undertaken by businesses to identify, evaluate, and improve business processes
    • Business process model = a sequential representation of all functions associated with a specific business activity
    • Consumption = the process in which the substance of a thing is completely destroyed, used up, or incorporated or transformed into something else
    • Customer = a party that receives or consumes products (goods or services) and has the ability to choose between different products and suppliers
    • Distribution = The movement of goods and services from the source through a distribution channel, right up to the final customer, consumer, or user
    Glossary
  • 35.
    • Ecosystem = a self-sustaining community comprised of interdependent organisms and their natural environment.
    • Entrepreneur = a person who exercises initiative by organizing a venture to take benefit of an opportunity and, as the decision maker, decides what, how, and how much of a good or service will be produced
    • Feedback = a process in which the effect or output of an action is 'returned' (fed-back) to modify the next action
    • Feedback loop = a channel or pathway formed by an 'effect' returning to its 'cause,' and generating either more or less of the same effect
    • Inbound logistics = the activities of receiving, storing, and disseminating incoming goods or material for use
    • Inventory Management = activities employed in maintaining the optimum number or amount of each inventory item
    • Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) = Key business statistics which measure a firm's performance in critical areas
    Glossary
  • 36.
    • Production = the processes and methods employed to transform tangible inputs (raw materials, semi-finished goods, or subassemblies) and intangible inputs (ideas, information, knowledge) into goods or services
    • Purchasing = the activity of acquiring goods or services to accomplish the goals of an organization
    • Resource = an economic or productive factor required to accomplish an activity, or as means to undertake an enterprise and achieve desired outcome
    • Supplier = a party that supplies goods or services to the enterprise
    • Supply Chain = a system of organizations, people, technology, activities, information and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer
    • Warehouse Management System (WMS) = a software application which supports the daily operations of a warehouse, including inventory control, tracking, and the location of stock items
    Glossary
  • 37.
    • Anderson, Chris (2008): The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More , Hyperion
    • Beimborn, D. , Joachim, N. (2010): The joint impact of service-oriented architectures and business process management on business process quality: an empirical evaluation and comparison , Springer-Verlag
    • Galloway, L. (1998): Principles of Operations Management , ITP
    • Hammer M, Champy J (1993): Reengineering the corporation: a manifesto for business revolution, Harper Business Press, New York
    • Kidd , P. T. (1994): Agile Manufacturing: Forging New Frontiers , Addison-Wesley
    • Laguna, M., Marklund, J. (2004): Business Process Modeling, Simulation, and Design Pearson/Prentice Hall
    • McCoy, David W. (2010): Gartner, Hype Cycle for Business Process Management
    • Porter, Michael. E (1998): Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance, Free Press
    • Weber B, Mutschler B, Reichert M (2010): Investigating the effect of using BPM technology: results from a controlled experiment . Sci Comput Program 75:292–310No. 2 (2004)
    Further Reading