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Introduction to Operations Management by Stevenson

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Notes for 1st chapter in Operations Management

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Introduction to Operations Management by Stevenson

  1. 1. CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Operations Management 1-1
  2. 2. Learning objectives • After completing this chapter, you should be able to: • Define the term operations management • Identify the three major functional areas of organizations and describe how they interrelate • Compare and contrast service and manufacturing operations • Describe the operations function and the nature of the operations manager’s job • Differentiate between design and operation of production systems • Describe the key aspects of operations management decision making • Briefly describe the historical evolution of operations management • Identify current trends in business that impact operations management 1-2
  3. 3. (I) Operations Management • What is operations? – The part of a business organization that is responsible for producing goods or services • How can we define Operations Management? – The management of systems or processes that create goods and/or provide services • Operations Management affects: – Companies’ ability to compete – Nation’s ability to compete internationally 1-3
  4. 4. Basic Functions of the Business Organization Organization Finance Operations Marketing 1-4
  5. 5. The Transformation Process (Value – Added Process) Value-Added Inputs Outputs Transformation/ Conversion Process •Land •Labor •Capital •Information •Goods •Services Feedback Feedback Control Feedback Feedback = measurements taken at various points in the transformation process Control = The comparison of feedback against previously established standards to determine if corrective action is needed. The operations function involves the conversion of inputs into outputs 1-5
  6. 6. Goods-service Continuum Products are typically neither purely service- or purely goodsbased. Goods Services Surgery, Teaching Songwriting, Software Development Computer Repair, Restaurant Meal Home Remodeling, Retail Sales Automobile Assembly, Steelmaking 1-6
  7. 7. Example: Hospital Inputs Doctors, nurses Hospital Medical supplies Equipment Laboratories Processing Outputs Examination Surgery Monitoring Medication Therapy Treated patients 1-7
  8. 8. Manufacturing vs. Service? Manufacturing and Service Organizations differ clearly because manufacturing is goods-oriented and service is act-oriented. Goods Services Tangible Act-Oriented 1-8
  9. 9. Production of Goods vs. Delivery of Services • Production of goods – tangible output • Delivery of services – an act • Service job categories Government – Wholesale/retail – Financial services – Healthcare – Personal services – Business services – Education – 1-9
  10. 10. Key Differences 1. Customer contact 2. Uniformity of input 3. Labor content of jobs 4. Uniformity of output 5. Measurement of productivity 6. Production and delivery 7. Quality assurance 8. Amount of inventory 9. Evaluation of work 10. Ability to patent design 1-10
  11. 11. Goods vs Service Characteristic Goods Service Customer contact Low High Uniformity of input High Low Labor content Low High Uniformity of output High Low Tangible Intangible Measurement of productivity Easy Difficult Opportunity to correct problems High Low Inventory Much Little Evaluation Easier Difficult Patentable Usually Not usual Output 1-11
  12. 12. Managing Services is Challenging 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Jobs in services are often less structured than in manufacturing Customer contact is generally much higher in services compared to manufacturing In many services, worker skill levels are low compared to those of manufacturing employees Services are adding many new workers in low-skill, entrylevel positions Employee turnover is high in services, especially in low-skill jobs Input variability tends to be higher in many service environments than in manufacturing Service performance can be adversely affected by many factors outside of the manager’s control (e.g., employee and customer attitudes) 1-12
  13. 13. U.S. Manufacturing vs. Service Employment • Insert Figure 1.7 1-13
  14. 14. Figure 1.4b Singapore Manufacturing vs. Service Employment 90 Services 80 Manufacturing 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 1-14
  15. 15. (II) Scope of Operations Management The scope of operations management ranges across the organization. The operations function includes many interrelated activities such as: – – – – – – – – Forecasting Capacity planning Scheduling Managing inventories Assuring quality Motivating employees Deciding where to locate facilities And more . . . 1-15
  16. 16. Table 1.4 Types of Operations Operations Examples Goods Producing Farming, mining, construction , manufacturing, power generation Storage/Transportation Warehousing, trucking, mail service, moving, taxis, buses, hotels, airlines Exchange Retailing, wholesaling, financial advising, renting or leasing Entertainment Films, radio and television, concerts, recording Communication Newspapers, radio and TV newscasts, telephone, satellites 1-16
  17. 17. Role of the Operations Manager The Operations Function consists of all activities directly related to producing goods or providing services. A primary function of the operations manager is to guide the system by decision making. – System Design Decisions – System Operation Decisions 1-17
  18. 18. System Design Decisions • System Design – Capacity – Facility location – Facility layout – Product and service planning – Acquisition and placement of equipment • These are typically strategic decisions that require • long-term commitment of resources • Determine parameters of system operation 1-18
  19. 19. System Operation Decisions • System Operation – Management of personnel – Inventory management and control – Scheduling – Project management – Quality assurance • Operations managers spend more time on system operation decision than any other decision area • They still have a vital stake in system design 1-19
  20. 20. (III) Key Decisions of Operations Managers • Most operations decisions involve many alternatives that can have quite different impacts on costs or profits • Typical operations decisions include: – What: What resources are needed, and in what amounts? – When: When will each resource be needed? When should the work be scheduled? When should materials and other supplies be ordered? – Where: Where will the work be done? – How: How will he product or service be designed? How will the work be done? How will resources be allocated? – Who: Who will do the work? 1-20
  21. 21. Operations Management Decision Making • Models • Quantitative approaches • Performance metrics • Analysis of trade-offs • Systems approach • Establishing priorities • Ethics 1-21
  22. 22. General Approach to Decision Making • A) Modeling is a key tool used by all decision makers – Model - an abstraction of reality; a simplification of something. – Common features of models: • They are simplifications of real-life phenomena • They omit unimportant details of the real-life systems they mimic so that attention can be focused on the most important aspects of the real-life system 1-22
  23. 23. Models • Types of Models: – Physical Models • Look like their real-life counterparts – Schematic Models • Look less like their real-life counterparts than physical models – Mathematical Models • Do not look at all like their real-life counterparts 1-23
  24. 24. Understanding Models • Keys to successfully using a model in decision making – What is its purpose? – How is it used to generate results? – How are the results interpreted and used? – What are the model’s assumptions and limitations? 1-24
  25. 25. Benefits of Models • Models are generally easier to use and less expensive than dealing with the real system • Require users to organize and sometimes quantify information • Increase understanding of the problem • Enable managers to analyze “What if?” questions • Serve as a consistent tool for evaluation and provide a standardized format for analyzing a problem • Enable users to bring the power of mathematics to bear on a problem. 1-25
  26. 26. Limitations of Models • Quantitative information may be emphasized at the expense of qualitative information • Models may be incorrectly applied and the results misinterpreted – This is a real risk with the widespread availability of sophisticated, computerized models are placed in the hands of uninformed users. • The use of models does not guarantee good decisions. • Nonqualified users may not comprehend the rules on how to use the model 1-26
  27. 27. B) Quantitative Methods • A decision making approach that frequently seeks to obtain a mathematically optimal solution – Linear programming – Queuing techniques – Inventory models – Project models – Forecasting techniques – Statistical models 1-27
  28. 28. C) Metrics and Trade - Offs • Performance Metrics – All managers use metrics to manage and control operations: – Profits, costs, productivity and forecast accuracy. • Analysis of Trade – Offs – A trade off is giving up one thing in return for something else. – Carrying more inventory (an expense) in order to achieve a greater level of customer service. 1-28
  29. 29. D) Systems Approach • System - a set of interrelated parts that must work together – The business organization is a system composed of subsystems • marketing subsystem • operations subsystem • finance subsystem • The systems approach – Emphasizes interrelationships among subsystems – Main theme is that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts – The output and objectives of the organization take precedence over those of any one subsystem 1-29
  30. 30. E) Establishing Priorities • In nearly all cases, certain issues or items are more important than others • Recognizing this allows managers to focus their attention to those efforts that will do the most good – Pareto Phenomenon - a few factors account for a high percentage of occurrence of some event(s) • 80–20 Rule: 80% of problems are caused by 20% of the activities. • The critical few factors should receive the highest priority • This is a concept that is appropriately applied to all areas and levels of management 1-30
  31. 31. F) Ethical Issues in Operations • Ethical issues arise in many aspects of operations management: • • • • • • • • • Financial statements Worker safety Product safety Quality The environment The community Hiring and firing workers Closing facilities Workers rights 1-31
  32. 32. (IV) Historical Evolution of OM • Industrial Revolution • Scientific Management – – – Mass production Interchangeable parts Division of labor • Human Relations Movement • Decision Models and Management Science • Influence of Japanese Manufacturers 1-32
  33. 33. A) Industrial Revolution (1770s) • Pre-Industrial Revolution – Craft production - System in which highly skilled workers use simple, flexible tools to produce small quantities of customized goods • Some key elements of the industrial revolution – Began in England in the 1770s – Division of labor - Adam Smith, 1776 – Application of the “rotative” steam engine, 1780s – Cotton Gin and Interchangeable parts - Eli Whitney, 1792 • Management theory and practice did not advance appreciably during this period 1-33
  34. 34. B) Scientific Management (1911) • Movement was led by efficiency engineer, Frederick Winslow Taylor – Believed in a “science of management” based on observation, measurement, analysis and improvement of work methods, and economic incentives – Management is responsible for planning, carefully selecting and training workers, finding the best way to perform each job, achieving cooperate between management and workers, and separating management activities from work activities – Emphasis was on maximizing output 1-34
  35. 35. Scientific Management - contributors • Frank Gilbreth - father of motion studies • Henry Gantt - developed the Gantt chart scheduling system and recognized the value of non-monetary rewards for motivating employees • Harrington Emerson - applied Taylor’s ideas to organization structure • Henry Ford - employed scientific management techniques to his factories • Moving assembly line • Mass production 1-35
  36. 36. C) Human Relations Movement (1920–60) • The human relations movement emphasized the importance of the human element in job design – Lillian Gilbreth – Elton Mayo – Hawthorne studies on worker motivation, 1930 – Abraham Maslow – motivation theory, 1940s; hierarchy of needs, 1954 – Frederick Hertzberg – Two Factor Theory, 1959 – Douglas McGregor – Theory X and Theory Y, 1960s – William Ouchi – Theory Z, 1981 1-36
  37. 37. D) Decision Models & Management Science (1915, 1960 – 70s) • F.W. Harris – mathematical model for inventory management, 1915 • Dodge, Romig, and Shewart – statistical procedures for sampling and quality control, 1930s • Tippett – statistical sampling theory, 1935 • Operations Research (OR) Groups – OR applications in warfare • George Dantzig – linear programming, 1947 1-37
  38. 38. E) Influence of Japanese Manufacturers • Refined and developed management practices that increased productivity – Credited with fueling the “quality revolution – Just-in-Time production 1-38
  39. 39. (V) Key Trends and Issues in Business • Internet, E-Business & E-Commerce • Management of Technology • Globalization • Management of Supply Chains • Outsourcing • Agility • Ethical Behavior 1-39
  40. 40. Simple Product Supply Chain Figure 1.7 Suppliers’ Suppliers Direct Suppliers Producer Distributor Final Consumer Supply Chain: A sequence of activities and organizations involved in producing and delivering a good or service 1-40
  41. 41. Elements of Supply Chain Management • Customers – what products/services do customers want • Forecasting – predicting timing and volume of customer demand • Design – incorporating customer wants, manufacturability, and time to market • • • • Capacity planning – matching supply and demand Processing – controlling quality, scheduling work Inventory – meeting demand requirements while managing costs Purchasing – evaluating potential suppliers, supporting the needs of operations on purchased goods and services • Suppliers – monitoring supplier quality, on-time delivery, and flexibility; maintaining supplier relations • Location – determining the location of facilities • Logistics – deciding how to best move information and materials 1-41

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