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Corporate Social Responsibility

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Risks, sustainable development, corporate social responsibility.
Lecture given @IAE Toulouse 1 Capitole School of Management.

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Corporate Social Responsibility

  1. 1. Risks Sustainable Development & CSR
  2. 2. Sébastien Chantelot Prof. Entrepreneurship & Innovation @GroupeESCPau Ph. D in Economics #sebchnt Speaker
  3. 3. #sebchnt
  4. 4. Sustainable Developement Corporate Social Responsability Social Responsible Investment ISO 26000 Greenwashing Greenwashing ADEME Responsible Management Stakeholders NGO Green IT Global Reporting Initiative Triple Bottom Line Grenelle 1 and 2 Environment What’s the big deal with CSR?
  5. 5. Plan Introduction The world we are living in Global indicators of development Preliminary notions Corporate Social Responsibility Angel or Devil? Stakeholder management Social Business Models Conclusion
  6. 6. Q&A
  7. 7. Introduction 1.
  8. 8. Rules of the Game
  9. 9. Drivers
  10. 10. Sustainability
  11. 11. Financial crisis
  12. 12. « It’s my turn » economy
  13. 13. New Markets
  14. 14. ICT
  15. 15. 20051995 2000 2010
  16. 16. 1999 38millionpeople 2013 1.2billionpeople
  17. 17. 23%
  18. 18. 2005
  19. 19. 2013
  20. 20. Mobile data traffic by application type (Monthly ExaBytes)
  21. 21. Theworld weareliving in 2.
  22. 22. Inequalities?
  23. 23. Inequalities?
  24. 24. Creativity or poverty?
  25. 25. Pessures’increasing Climate Change Biodiversity’s collapse Demographics
  26. 26. Limited resources vs. unlimited needs
  27. 27. Economics law
  28. 28. Environment
  29. 29. Global inequalities The World We are Living in
  30. 30. The world we are living in >1billion >100million >50million >25million >10million >1million <1million
  31. 31. The world we are living in
  32. 32. The world we are living in
  33. 33. Population & Continents I 2010 1,000M 750M 650M 350M 4,200M 50M 7,000M 14% 11% 9% 5% 60% 1% 100% 53 46 12 23 44 24 202 countries
  34. 34. Trends of world population by continent until 2050, United Nations The world we are living in
  35. 35. ( x 100) / 7,000,000,000 = The village we are living in Population 7 billion 100 Scale
  36. 36. The village we are living in
  37. 37. The village we are living in
  38. 38. The village we are living in
  39. 39. The village we are living in
  40. 40. The village we are living in
  41. 41. The village we are living in
  42. 42. The village we are living in 20% own 80% of wealth 80% own 20% of wealth
  43. 43. The village we are living in
  44. 44. The village we are living in
  45. 45. < 8 < 7 The village we are living in
  46. 46. The World is spiky
  47. 47. The World is spiky
  48. 48. The World is spiky
  49. 49. The World is spiky
  50. 50. Spiky bonus
  51. 51. MEDC ’ s Manufacturing or in Services industries Vast communication and transportation networks Annual Capita Income > $7,620 Adequate food and housing Many schools - High literacy rate Low infant mortality rate Long life expectancy LEDC ’s Mining, Farming or Forestry Few natural resources for industry Few communication & transportation networks Few schools - Low literacy rate Food and housing inadequate or poor High infant mortality rate Short life expectancy The World is spiky
  52. 52. Inequalities
  53. 53. Global Indicators of Development 3.
  54. 54. This is a the value of all goods and services produced within a country, usually over one year. This is useful to measure wealth. The GDP of a country divided by the total population (GDP per capita or per person). It often use as a measure of the relative income of people within different countries. GDP per capita
  55. 55. The GDP of the poorest 48 nations (i.e. a quarter of the world’s countries) is less than the wealth of the world’s 3 richest people combined GDP per capita
  56. 56. www.Gapminder.org
  57. 57. www.Gapminder.org Hans Rosling is a Swedish doctor Director of New insights on poverty @
  58. 58. Hans Rosling The Joy of Stats BBC Four, 2010 The Joy of Stats
  59. 59. The HDI is a composite statistic used to rank countries by level of ‘human development’ The statistic is composed from data on life expectancy, education and per-capita GNI (as an indicator of standard of living) collected at the national level. HD index
  60. 60. HD index Very high high Medium Low Very Low Data not available
  61. 61. PPI The Purchasing Parity Index is a comparative of the cost of a basket of goods in different countries. It contains basic goods and services that are needed. The comparison is often made between the numbers of hours needed to work to make enough income to buy it in different countries.
  62. 62. UK $.77 $3.61 $286 $139 $31,800 USA $1 $3.29 $249 $90 $44,000 China $.44 $1.31 $299 $89.93 $7,700 South Africa $.73 $2.30 $321 $181.59 $13,300 Russia $1.41 $1.78 $299 $126.71 $12,200 PPI
  63. 63. The Ecological Footprint measurement provides an estimation per unit of surface area and per inhabitant of the pressure that human activities exert on the planet’s ecosystems. Bonus Ecological Footprint
  64. 64. “!Si l'humanité entière se comportait comme les pays du Nord, il faudrait deux planètes supplémentaires pour faire face à nos besoins Ecological Footprint Extrait du discours de Jacques Chirac, Président de la République Française Sommet mondial du développement durable - Johannesburg - Afrique du Sud Lundi 2 Septembre 2002
  65. 65. Preliminary Notions 4.
  66. 66. Ethics and Regulation Human rights, Corruption, Mafias, etc. International regulation Relevant governance Cultural Identities Quality of information Transmission values and heritage Education access Financial Solvability of institutions Business Ethics Debt management Retirement funds Risk prevention Sanitary Treatment and medicine access Control of dangerous and toxic products Disease eradication (AIDS, malaria, etc.) Economy Access to essential goods (energy, water, etc.) Poverty reduction Economic and Job growth Environment Greenhouse gas emission (C02) Global warming Deforestation Waste treatment Water resources Biodiversity Social Women Work security Well-being Relocation Disparities lead to new major Issues
  67. 67. Economic growth Growth “Sustainable increase of a volume indicator over a long period” François Perroux, economist GDP indicator Measurement of the total G&S production in a country over a year
  68. 68. A damaged or polluted environment can contribute to GDP growth Comments on GDP A disaster can lead to an increase of the GDP (war also) Going further with externalities GDP does not take into account non-profit economic activities
  69. 69. GDP Growth (Base 100 in 1991) Antidepressant Sales (Base 100 in 1991) Comments on GDP
  70. 70. Comments on GDP Limit of the Planet Growth Sustainable Development postulate An infinite growth is not conceivable in a bounded world
  71. 71. Sustainable Development 4.
  72. 72. Development means qualitative issue Growth is different from development Development means wealth creation & progress for society An infinite growth is not conceivable in a bounded world Growth means quantitative issue and aim Useful insights
  73. 73. Sustainable Development G.H. Bruntland, 1987 World Commission on Environment and Development “!SD is a development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
  74. 74. Equality between generations Present /future Equality within a same generation Between youth graduates, active adults, retired, men/women Equality between countries North/South divide Interactions Environment-Economy-Society Triple bottom line = Equality
  75. 75. Overexploitation of natural resources Water resources Climate change Ethics? Environment D. Guggenheim, 2006 An inconvenient truth
  76. 76. Income inequality Poverty Market liberalization Ethics? Economic O. Stone, 1987 Wall Street
  77. 77. Economic M. Scorcese, 2013 The Wolf of Wall Street J.C. Chandor, 2011 Margin Call O. Stone, 2010 Wall Street, Money never sleeps J. Dearden, 1999 Rogue Trader
  78. 78. Economic M. Scorcese, 2013 The Wolf of Wall Street J.C. Chandor, 2011 Margin Call O. Stone, 2010 Wall Street, Money never sleeps J. Dearden, 1999 Rogue Trader C.H. Ferguson, 2010 Inside Job
  79. 79. Economic
  80. 80. Demography, nutrition, health Education, technology access Internal vs. International conflicts Ethics? Social M. Moore, 1997 The Big One
  81. 81. Equitable Environment Economic Social BearableViable Sustainable Triple Bottom Line
  82. 82. 1909 1949 1968 1972 1972 1972 1979 1980 1987 1989 1990 1991 1992 1994 1997 2002 2005 2009 Concept de géonomie en Europe « Développement », Harry Truman Club de Rome Rapport Meadows Rapport Brundtland Premier Code de Conduite Environnemental Le Principe Responsabilité, Hans Jonas La Stratégie Mondiale pour la Conservation The Limits to Growth Conférence des NU, Stockholm GIEC : Réchauffement Climatique Ministère dédié à l’Environnement en France Sommet de la Terre, Rio : Agenda 21, Convention Charte d’Aalborg sur les villes durables UE : Application Protocole de Kyoto Conférence de Copenhague sur le Climat Sommet de Johannesburg Nations Unies : Protocole de Kyoto 2007Grenelle de l’Environnement -Etc. Key Dates
  83. 83. 1972 Conférence des Nations Unies sur l’environnement 1987 Commission Brundtland 1992 Sommet de la Terre à Rio 2002 Sommet mondial du DD à Johannesburg 1970 1980 1990 2000 Evolution des Concepts Evolution des Acteurs Scientifiques & ONG Nations, Gouvernements Entreprises Triple Performance RSE DDEcodéveloppement Key Dates
  84. 84. Awareness
  85. 85. Corporate Social Responsibility 5.
  86. 86. Corporate Social Responsibility
  87. 87. Corporate Social Responsibility
  88. 88. Corporate Social Responsibility The Past The Business of the Business is the Business
  89. 89. Ad run in Fortune magazine by Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos's government in October 1975 To attract companies ... like yours ... we have felled mountains, razed jungles, filled swamps, moved rivers, relocated towns, and in their place built power plants, dams, roads.... All to make it easier for you and your business to do business here CSR
  90. 90. Basically, an American concept… Corporate Social Responsibility, Bowen (1953) Basically, roots of CSR …based on biblical precepts… Stewardship principle & Charity principle …which specifically addresses U.S. concerns. Social, Cultural, Institutional
  91. 91. Profit first, Philanthropy next
  92. 92. Industrial Revolution I First half of the XXth century Paternalism and Patronage Three main milestones
  93. 93. Diffusion of the Taylor-Ford model Second half of the XXth century Rise of the welfare state Three main milestones
  94. 94. 1980’s Companies are economic & political international strengths Three main milestones
  95. 95. Production function Y=ƒ(K,L)
  96. 96. CSR in the past “!Making profit is fundamentally incompatible with CSR {…} The first CSR in the future decade is to create capital, which alone can fund the jobs of tomorrow Peter Drucker (1984)
  97. 97. “! CSR in the past There is one and only one social responsibility of business – to use its resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits so long as it stays within the rules of the game, which is to say, engages in open and free competition without deception or fraud Milton Friedman I 1970
  98. 98. “!CSR in the past There is no more dangerous trend to the foundations of our free society as the acceptance by corporate executives of a CSR conception different than the one serving the best interests of their shareholders Milton Friedman I 1970
  99. 99. CSR in the past
  100. 100. Greed is good. Greed is right. Greed works. Greed clarifies, cuts through, and captures the essence of the evolutionary spirit. CSR in the past
  101. 101. We have to accept that inequality is a way of achieving greater opportunity and prosperity for all Lord Griffiths, Vice chairman, 2009 CSR in the past
  102. 102. Maximize financial RETURN for shareholders ROA ROE ROICash- flow EBITDA Generate TRUST on the market Marketing Business Model Financial results Track Record Control RISK Payment Risk Debt/ Equity ratio Rating CSR in the past
  103. 103. Ad run in Newsweek by Shell in November 2003 within its campaign “Profits. Principles. Or both?” “Somebody once said that a principle isn’t a principle until it costs you money. So where does this leave those companies which have embraced a more responsible social and environmental attitude? Does this make them a risky investment? Or an investment you can’t risk ignoring? (…) All of which tends to suggest two things. A company which cares as much about how it makes money, as how much money it makes, will make money. For its shareholders, its investors and employees. And whoever coined that phrase about principles was living in the past. A past which grows dimmer and ever more distant by the day.” CSR now
  104. 104. CSR now Triple Bottom Line Economy, Environment, Social Main document Bottom Line of the P&L sheet CSR is a concept defining firms’ voluntary integration of social and environmental concerns in their business operations and their relationships with stakeholders.
  105. 105. Justifying CSR TNC + Government - NGOs + Environment - Scandals + Stakeholders +
  106. 106. CSR spark
  107. 107. Angel or devil? 6.
  108. 108. Angel or Devil ?
  109. 109. Angel or Devil ? Toyota
  110. 110. Angel or Devil ? Toyota
  111. 111. Environment Friendly? Trend to green driving Cars are the main polluting agents Government incentives
  112. 112. Product lifecycle
  113. 113. Angel or Devil ? Smartphones
  114. 114. Product Lifecycle Analysis Angel or Devil ? Smartphones Extraction of raw material Purchasing production Packaging & distribution disposal Use & maintenance
  115. 115. Angel or Devil ? Smartphones Impact Greenhouse gas emission Extraction of raw material Purchasing production Packaging & distribution disposal Use & maintenance
  116. 116. Angel or Devil ? Smartphones Extraction of raw material Purchasing production Packaging & distribution disposal Use & maintenance Impact Greenhouse gas emission 70%
  117. 117. Angel or Devil ? Smartphones Impact Greenhouse gas emission Extraction of raw material Purchasing production Packaging & distribution disposal Use & maintenance 70% 27%
  118. 118. Angel or Devil ? Smartphones Impact Greenhouse gas emission Extraction of raw material Purchasing production Packaging & distribution disposal Use & maintenance 70% 27% 1,5%
  119. 119. Angel or Devil ? Smartphones Impact Greenhouse gas emission Extraction of raw material Purchasing production Packaging & distribution disposal Use & maintenance 70% 27% 1,5% 1,5%
  120. 120. Other impacts Angel or Devil ? Smartphones Social Economic Environment
  121. 121. Angel or Devil ? Smartphones Création de richesses et élévation du niveau de vie via l’exploitation de mines …mais probables problèmes de santé dus aux mauvaises conditions de travail. Source de devises nécessaires au pays …mais potentiellement à l’origine d’instabilités politiques. Moins de matières premières que pour le filaire …mais l’extraction d’or génère beaucoup de gravats.
  122. 122. Angel or Devil ? Smartphones Augmentation du niveau de vie des populations grâce aux salaires versés… …mais des substances dangereuses pour la santé sont encore utilisées Source de richesses et d’innovations, facteurs de développement. La phase la plus polluante
  123. 123. Angel or Devil ? Smartphones Conditions de travail des vendeurs. Problème des libertés individuelles et de la géo-localisation Un marché en forte croissance en Asie, au Moyen-Orient et en Afrique …mais concentration en oligopole et spéculation sur les nouvelles technologies Le transport contribue à la destruction de la couche d’ozone (10% de la pollution)
  124. 124. Angel or Devil ? Smartphones Outil d’expression démocratique …mais aussi de cyber- intimidation, d’atteinte aux libertés publiques et d’intrusion dans la sphère privée Essentiel dans les PVD pour les contacts professionnels et sociaux …mais connections et astreintes illimitées, source de stress due à la quasi- immédiateté des informations 1 à 19% des impacts selon les indicateurs environnementaux
  125. 125. Angel or Devil ? Smartphones Création de richesses et élévation du niveau de vie locale …mais probables problèmes de santé dus aux mauvaises conditions de travail Source de devises nécessaires au pays …mais potentiellement à l’origine d’instabilités politiques En France, 5 % des portables sont recyclés Des tonnes de déchets européens sont exportés en Inde, Afrique, et Asie
  126. 126. Scale 4 bn.
  127. 127. 1. De nouvelles lois internationales ? •  Exploitation environnementale, sanitaires et conditions de travail •  Souffrance et stress au travail •  Respect de la vie privée et des libertés publiques Quelles actions possibles pour le portable ?
  128. 128. Quelles actions possibles pour le portable ? 1. De nouvelles lois internationales ? 2. De nouvelles pratiques du business ? •  Notation « développement durable » •  Professionnalisation des circuits de collecte et de recyclage •  Régulation des oligopoles •  Adoption de transports moins contributeurs de GES
  129. 129. Quelles actions possibles pour le portable ? 1. De nouvelles lois internationales ? 3. Des innovations ? •  Eco-conceptions des appareils 2. De nouvelles pratiques du business ?
  130. 130. Quelles actions possibles pour le portable ? 1. De nouvelles lois internationales ? 2. De nouvelles pratiques du business ? 3. Des innovations ? 4. L’évolution du comportement de chacun ? •  Code d’usage du portable •  Rapporter, échanger = Gestes civiques
  131. 131. •  pollution •  Ressources naturelles •  biodiversité •  Gaz à effet de serre •  Santé •  Communication •  Liens sociaux •  Gouvernance •  Education •  Culture •  Création de richesses •  Source d’emplois •  Innovations technologiques 360°
  132. 132. Angel or Devil ? Apple
  133. 133. Angel or Devil ? Apple
  134. 134. Angel or Devil ? Apple
  135. 135. Angel or Devil ? Apple
  136. 136. Angel or Devil ? Apple
  137. 137. Angel or Devil ? Apple
  138. 138. If efforts to be good become a distraction from the core business they may actually be downright irresponsible Putting technology into the hands of the youth worldwide Angel or Devil ? Microsoft
  139. 139. Angel or Devil ? Microsoft
  140. 140. Angel or Devil ? Microsoft
  141. 141. Angel or Devil ? Microsoft
  142. 142. Angel or Devil ? Microsoft
  143. 143. Angel or Devil ? Microsoft
  144. 144. Angel or Devil ? Microsoft
  145. 145. Angel or Devil ? Microsoft
  146. 146. Angel or Devil ? Microsoft
  147. 147. Angel or Devil ? Microsoft
  148. 148. Angel or Devil ? Microsoft
  149. 149. Angel or Devil ? Microsoft Steve Kleynhans, Gartner, IT Specialist
  150. 150. Shell and Brent Spar (sea oil storage) http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/june/20/ newsid_4509000/4509527.stm Angel or Devil ? Shell
  151. 151. Angel or Devil ? Shell Interactions between several stakeholders NGO, Governments, Private Company, Civil Society, Medias, etc. Evidence that something changed The power of New Stakeholders
  152. 152. Angel or Devil ? Shell
  153. 153. Only 8 women are top-models. 3 bn. are not “!
  154. 154. Greenwashing 7.
  155. 155. Greenwashing
  156. 156. Greenwashing Greenwashing is a form of spin in which green public relations or green marketing is deceptively used to promote the perception that an organization's products, aims or policies are environmentally friendly
  157. 157. Greenwashing
  158. 158. Greenwashing
  159. 159. Greenwashing
  160. 160. CSR I a long way
  161. 161. CSR I a long way
  162. 162. Stakeholder Management 8.
  163. 163. Stakeholder management Freeman, R. Edward (1984) Strategic Management: A stakeholder approach Boston: Pitman Stakeholders are probably the main issue of CSR. A corporate stakeholder is a party that can affect or be affected by the actions of the business as a whole Environmental, social, human, and civil-rights values become included in the product.
  164. 164. Stakeholder management Traditional Peripheral
  165. 165. Traditional Stakeholders Peripheral Stakeholders Shareholders Industrial Associations Customers Minoritarian shareholders Directors Governments Employees Legislators Syndicates Regulation agents Business partners Medias and Press Retailer Political Lobbying Suppliers Customers associations Co-contractors Franchises Competitors Financial community Stakeholder management
  166. 166. Stakeholder management Traditional Peripheral Civil society
  167. 167. Traditional Stakeholders Peripheral Stakeholders New Stakeholders Civil Society Shareholders Industrial Associations Voters Customers Minoritarian shareholders Public Opinion Directors Governments NGOs Employees Legislators Neighbors Syndicates Regulation agents Churches Business partners Medias and Press Associations Retailer Political Lobbying Clubs Suppliers Customers associations Activists Co-contractors Hedge Funds Franchises Scientists Competitors Pressure Groups Financial community Stakeholder management
  168. 168. Stakeholders Examples of interests Government taxation, VAT, legislation, low unemployment, truthful reporting Employees rates of pay, job security, compensation, respect, truthful communication Customers value, quality, customer care, ethical products Suppliers providers of products and services used in the end product for the customer, equitable business opportunities Creditors credit score, new contracts, liquidity Community jobs, involvement, environmental protection, shares, truthful communication Trade Unions quality, staff protection, jobs Stakeholder management
  169. 169. Stakeholder management
  170. 170. Measurable Value Traditional Firm Measurable Value XXIst century Firm Goodwill brand capital, strategic position, alliances, knowledge capital New assets Reputation, stakeholder management, ethic involvment, social responsibility commitment Stakeholder management Goodwill Brand capital, strategic position, alliances, knowledge capital
  171. 171. Financial Value The financial analysis only shows the head of the iceberg undervaluing. The strategic capacity of the management team, Company’s ability to adapt to uncertainties, The durability of the competitive advantages. Environment Resource use Waste Pollution Product Cycle Providers Child Labor Human Rights Sustainable Value chain’ Corporate Governance Accountability Independence Remuneration Customers Quality Customer Satisfaction BusinessEthics Bribery and Corruption Employees Workplace standards Health/Security Diversity Community Philanthropy Involvement with Community Intangible factors in the value creation
  172. 172. Stakeholder management Reed, D. (2002) Employing normative stakeholder theory in developing countries Business and Society, 41(2), 32-45
  173. 173. 3rd Layer Integral and strategic relationship to obtain a sustainable competitiveness 2nd Layer Systematic relationship for the risk management and the better understanding of the stakeholders 1st Layer The pressure determines the impact of benefits that are minored. Most of the times, losses bound with confrontation Stakeholder management
  174. 174. Benefits
  175. 175. Low High Low High Stakeholder’s potentialforcooperation Stakeholder’s Potential for Threat to Organization Stakeholders Matrix ? Mixed Blessing Strategy I Collaborate Supportive Strategy I Involve Marginal Strategy I Monitor Nonsupportive Strategy I Defend
  176. 176. 32,6% 35,7% 40,6% 25,1% 20,9% 20,8% 85,2% 43,1% 40,2% 80,5% 91,4% Dans le cadre de la norme ISO 14001 Pour accroître la rentabilité de l'entreprise Pour tirer un avantage concurrentiel Intérêts économiques Pour bénéficier d'aides ou de subventions Pour bénéficier d'avantages fiscaux Pour obtenir des marchés publics Indication Pour vous adapter à la légisalation en vigueur Pour répondre à la pression des DO ou des clients En raison de l'existence de sanctions Obligation Pour améliorer l'image de l'entreprise Par conviction personnelle Image de l'entreprise/engagement personnelFirm’s image/reputation & personal commitment Through personal conviction To improve the firm’s image Obligation Because of sanctions To answer to ordering parties or customers To conform to the legislation Indication To win invitation to tender To benefit from fiscal advantages To benefit from financial aids or subventions Economical interests To benefit from competitive advantage To increase the return of the firm In the framework of ISO 14001 norm Why did firm involve in SD? (OSEO, 2012)
  177. 177. Origin of companies’ commitment (ACFCI, 2010) CEO conviction Respect or anticipation of the legislation Risk control Firm’s image Firm’s project Motivation of employees Search for employees motivation Customer’s incitation New markets
  178. 178. Positive effects (ACFCI, 2010) Reputation increasing Links’ reinforcement with partners Social climate increasing Productivity gains
  179. 179. Moindres coûts Plus de sécurité Réponses aux exigences légales (env., santé, sécurité, etc.) Meilleure qualité du service ou des produits Présence médiatique et notoriété accrue Ouverture de nouveaux marchés ou nouveau positionnement Développement de relations de confiance et meilleure intégration locale de l'entreprise Motivation et fidélisation du personnel Sentiement de pérennité de l'activité de l'entreprise Image positive de l'entreprise auprès de sa clientèle, ses fournisseurs, sa collectivité 27,0% 27,0% 28,9% 34,9% 40,8% 47,4% 53,3% 59,9% 61,2% 86,8% Image positive de l'entreprise auprès de sa clientèle, ses fournisseurs, sa collectivité Sentiment de pérennité de l'activité de l'entreprise Motivation et fidélisation du personnel Développement de relations de confiance et meilleure intégration locale de l'entreprise Ouverture de nouveaux marchés ou nouveau positionnement Présence médiatique et notoriété accrue Meilleure qualité du service ou des produits Réponses aux exigences légales (env., santé, sécurité, etc.) Moindres coûts Plus de sécurité Positive image of the firm (stakeholders, clients, suppliers, community, etc.) Durability feeling about firm’s activity Motivation et loyalty of employees Development of trust relationship and better local integration of the firm New markets investigation or new position Media presence and increasing reputation Best quality of products or services Answer to legal requirements (env., health, security, etc.) Low costs More security Positive effects (OSEO, 2012)
  180. 180. Being socially responsible means not necessarily respecting legal issues but going beyond their application and investing more in human capital in environment and in relationships with stakeholders Partial Conclusion
  181. 181. Anticipate norms’ evolution Partial Conclusion Affirm a stronger role within the society New Rules Reinforce the dialogue with stakeholders Answer to social demand Gain in efficiency and control risks
  182. 182. Partial Conclusion Includes stages/divisions/departments/functions Main difficulty are temporal horizon & extra costs SD is a strategic action within the firm’s general policy Lies on BM (reinforcement, creation, change, etc.). Impact on firm’s capacity to generate returns
  183. 183. Partial Conclusion Enlargement of the firm’s horizon through its responsibility An increasing global value creation and commitment Transform constraints in opportunities in new market context Cooperation with stakeholders Make production and consumption modes evolve
  184. 184. Partial Conclusion Anticipate in an evolving context, be reactive to risks, adapt, convince, etc. Aims: recent concept, rhythm to find, listening and open spirit, etc. Managing innovation & change Managing SD in time {LT vs. ST}
  185. 185. Social Business Models 9.
  186. 186. Social Business Models L’approche BoP La notion de SBM Classification des SBM
  187. 187. There are a plethora of business model possibilities: some will be much better adapted to customer needs and business environments than others “! ”! Teece, D. (2010) Business Models, Business Strategy and Innovation Long Range Planning, 43, 172-194
  188. 188. 4 milliards d’êtres humains vivent avec moins de 5$ par jour
  189. 189. Base of the Pyramid Rangan, V.K., Chu M., et D. Petkosk (2001) Segmenting The Base of The Pyramid Harvard Business Review, Juin, 113-117
  190. 190. Base of the Pyramid C.K. Prahalad Stuart Hart
  191. 191. Base of the Pyramid Prahalad, C. K. (2004) The fortune at the BoP: Eradicating poverty with profits Philadelphia: Wharton Business Publishing
  192. 192. Low-income markets present a prodigious opportunity for the world’s wealthiest companies to seek their fortunes and bring prosperity to the aspiring poor “! ”!Prahalad, C.K. et Hart, L.S. (2002) The fortune at the bottom of the pyramid Strategy+Business, Janvier, 54-67
  193. 193. Base of the Pyramid Rangan, V.K., Chu M., et D. Petkosk (2001) Segmenting The Base of The Pyramid Harvard Business Review, Juin, 113-117 Revenus
  194. 194. Base of the Pyramid Rangan, V.K., Chu M., et D. Petkosk (2001) Segmenting The Base of The Pyramid Harvard Business Review, Juin, 113-117 3 milliards d’individus Personnes vivant dans les pays développés Classes supérieures et moyennes des pays émergents. Tiers supérieur
  195. 195. Base of the Pyramid Rangan, V.K., Chu M., et D. Petkosk (2001) Segmenting The Base of The Pyramid Harvard Business Review, Juin, 113-117 1,4 milliard d’individus Personnes ayant une éducation secondaire. Revenus relativement réguliers et compris entre 3 et 5$ par jour. Tiers supérieur Faibles revenus
  196. 196. Base of the Pyramid Rangan, V.K., Chu M., et D. Petkosk (2001) Segmenting The Base of The Pyramid Harvard Business Review, Juin, 113-117 1,6 milliard d’individus Niveau d’éducation faible. Revenus irréguliers compris entre 1 et 3 $ par jour. Pas d’accès au système bancaire et au crédit. Recours aux marchés informels. Tiers supérieur Faibles revenus Subsistance
  197. 197. Base of the Pyramid Rangan, V.K., Chu M., et D. Petkosk (2001) Segmenting The Base of The Pyramid Harvard Business Review, Juin, 113-117 1 milliard d’individus Populations déplacées. Revenus inférieurs à 1$ par jour. Survie grâce au troc et aux ONG. Tiers supérieur Faibles revenus Subsistance Extrême pauvreté
  198. 198. Besoins non satisfaits par le système économique traditionnel Base of the Pyramid
  199. 199. Recours à l’économie informelle, au troc et aux ONG Base of the Pyramid
  200. 200. Faible quantité et faible qualité des produits consommés Base of the Pyramid
  201. 201. Adaptation Les marchés bop sont très différents les uns des autres. Les approches indifférenciées sont vouées à l’échec. Access Les consommateurs peuvent avoir des difficultés à accéder à l’offre (surtout s’ils vivent en dehors centres urbains). Affordability Faire en sorte que les consommateurs puissent s’offrir les produits ou les services sans détériorer la qualité (souvent lié à la question des volumes). Availability Assurer la continuité de l’offre permet de fidéliser la clientèle qui ne peut souvent pas différer ses achats. Base of the Pyramid Prahalad, C.K. et Hart, L.S. (2002), The fortune at the bottom of the pyramid Strategy+Business, 54-67 Prahalad, C.K. (2011) Bottom of the Pyramid as a Source of Breakthrough Innovations Journal of Product Innovation Management, 29(1), 6-12
  202. 202. Adaptation Les marchés bop sont très différents les uns des autres. Les approches indifférenciées sont vouées à l’échec. Access Les consommateurs peuvent avoir des difficultés à accéder à l’offre (surtout s’ils vivent en dehors centres urbains). Affordability Faire en sorte que les consommateurs puissent s’offrir les produits ou les services sans détériorer la qualité (souvent lié à la question des volumes). Availability Assurer la continuité de l’offre permet de fidéliser la clientèle qui ne peut souvent pas différer ses achats. Base of the Pyramid Prahalad, C.K. et Hart, L.S. (2002), The fortune at the bottom of the pyramid Strategy+Business, 54-67 Prahalad, C.K. (2011) Bottom of the Pyramid as a Source of Breakthrough Innovations Journal of Product Innovation Management, 29(1), 6-12
  203. 203. Adaptation Les marchés bop sont très différents les uns des autres. Les approches indifférenciées sont vouées à l’échec. Access Les consommateurs peuvent avoir des difficultés à accéder à l’offre (surtout s’ils vivent en dehors centres urbains). Affordability Faire en sorte que les consommateurs puissent s’offrir les produits ou les services sans détériorer la qualité (souvent lié à la question des volumes). Availability Assurer la continuité de l’offre permet de fidéliser la clientèle qui ne peut souvent pas différer ses achats. Base of the Pyramid Prahalad, C.K. et Hart, L.S. (2002), The fortune at the bottom of the pyramid Strategy+Business, 54-67 Prahalad, C.K. (2011) Bottom of the Pyramid as a Source of Breakthrough Innovations Journal of Product Innovation Management, 29(1), 6-12
  204. 204. Adaptation Les marchés bop sont très différents les uns des autres. Les approches indifférenciées sont vouées à l’échec. Access Les consommateurs peuvent avoir des difficultés à accéder à l’offre (surtout s’ils vivent en dehors centres urbains). Affordability Faire en sorte que les consommateurs puissent s’offrir les produits ou les services sans détériorer la qualité (souvent lié à la question des volumes). Availability Assurer la continuité de l’offre permet de fidéliser la clientèle qui ne peut souvent pas différer ses achats. Base of the Pyramid Prahalad, C.K. et Hart, L.S. (2002), The fortune at the bottom of the pyramid Strategy+Business, 54-67 Prahalad, C.K. (2011) Bottom of the Pyramid as a Source of Breakthrough Innovations Journal of Product Innovation Management, 29(1), 6-12
  205. 205. La notion de SBM
  206. 206. Social business models ≠For profit Business model La notion de SBM
  207. 207. Social business models ≠Œuvres de Charité La notion de SBM
  208. 208. Approche Approche La notion de SBM
  209. 209. Alignement Maximisation financière Approche
 SHAREHOLDERS La notion de SBM
  210. 210. Alignement Maximisation financière Approche
 SHAREHOLDERS La notion de SBM Approche
 STAKEHOLDERS Parties prenantes Maximisation économique et sociale vs.
  211. 211. Traits génériques des SBM Yunus, M., Moingeon, B. et Lehmann-Ortega, L. (2010) Building Social Business Models: Lessons From the Grameen Experience Long Range Planning, 43 (2-3), 308-325 Partenariats Entreprises-ONG et/ou gouvernements
  212. 212. Traits génériques des SBM Yunus, M., Moingeon, B. et Lehmann-Ortega, L. (2010) Building Social Business Models: Lessons From the Grameen Experience Long Range Planning, 43 (2-3), 308-325 Partenariats Entreprises-ONG et/ou gouvernements Double finalité sociale et économique
  213. 213. Traits génériques des SBM Yunus, M., Moingeon, B. et Lehmann-Ortega, L. (2010) Building Social Business Models: Lessons From the Grameen Experience Long Range Planning, 43 (2-3), 308-325 Partenariats Entreprises-ONG et/ou gouvernements Double finalité sociale et économique Participation des communautés locales à la création de valeur
  214. 214. Traits génériques des SBM Yunus, M., Moingeon, B. et Lehmann-Ortega, L. (2010) Building Social Business Models: Lessons From the Grameen Experience Long Range Planning, 43 (2-3), 308-325 Partenariats Entreprises-ONG et/ou gouvernements Double finalité sociale et économique Participation des communautés locales à la création de valeur Innovation de produit et/ou de procédé
  215. 215. Classification des SBM Maucuer, R. (2013) Partenariats ONG-Entreprise et évolution du Business model de la Grande entreprise Thèse de doctorat en Sciences de Gestion, Université Paris Dauphine Business Models Responsables Business Models Communautaires Business Models Philantropiques
  216. 216. Classification des SBM Maucuer, R. (2013) Partenariats ONG-Entreprise et évolution du Business model de la Grande entreprise Thèse de doctorat en Sciences de Gestion, Université Paris Dauphine Business Models Responsables adaptation de modèles traditionnels pour répondre à des contraintes sociales et environnementales.
  217. 217. Partenariats avec des ONG (WWF, Farm Africa, etc.) Prévention de l’alcoolisme (formation des employés) Production responsable (diminution de la consommation d’eau) Partenariats avec des petits producteurs locaux Mécénat (financement de programmes de micro-crédit, lutte contre le SIDA, etc.)
  218. 218. Classification des SBM Maucuer, R. (2013) Partenariats ONG-Entreprise et évolution du Business model de la Grande entreprise Thèse de doctorat en Sciences de Gestion, Université Paris Dauphine Business Models Responsables adaptation de modèles traditionnels pour répondre à des contraintes sociales et environnementales.
  219. 219. Classification des SBM Maucuer, R. (2013) Partenariats ONG-Entreprise et évolution du Business model de la Grande entreprise Thèse de doctorat en Sciences de Gestion, Université Paris Dauphine Business Models Communautaires Remise en question plus profonde des modes de fonctionnement traditionnels. « No loss / No dividend » Business Models Philantropiques Business Models Responsables adaptation de modèles traditionnels pour répondre à des contraintes sociales et environnementales.
  220. 220. Classification des SBM Maucuer, R. (2013) Partenariats ONG-Entreprise et évolution du Business model de la Grande entreprise Thèse de doctorat en Sciences de Gestion, Université Paris Dauphine Business Models Communautaires Remise en question plus profonde des modes de fonctionnement traditionnels. « No loss / No dividend » Business Models Philantropiques Pas d’objectif immédiat de rentabilité économique Business Models Responsables adaptation de modèles traditionnels pour répondre à des contraintes sociales et environnementales.
  221. 221. Classification des SBM Maucuer, R. (2013) Partenariats ONG-Entreprise et évolution du Business model de la Grande entreprise Thèse de doctorat en Sciences de Gestion, Université Paris Dauphine Introduction de pratiques RSE Business Models RESPONSABLES Business Models PHILANTHROPIQUES Business Model
 COMMUNAUTAIRES Faible adaptation de l’offre Maintien de l’objectif de rentabilité économique Mécénat Diminution du nombre d’intermédiaires No loss No dividend Bénéfices réinvestis Modification drastique de l’offre Joint-venture entreprise et ONG Forte implication des communautés dans la création de valeur Promotion de l’entrepreneuriat par le micro-crédit Pilotage des projets par une ONG Pas d’objectif de rentabilité immédiate Financement par les activités traditionnelles de l’entreprise Amélioration de la réputation Entrée sur des marchés prometteurs Dons financiers ou en nature
  222. 222. Types de SBM Rangan, V.K., Chu M., et D. Petkosk (2001) Segmenting The Base of The Pyramid Harvard Business Review, Juin, 113-117 Tiers supérieur Faibles revenus Subsistance Extrême pauvretéBusiness Models PHILANTHROPIQUES Business Model COMMUNAUTAIRES Business Models RESPONSABLES
  223. 223. Pour aller plus loin… Radjou, N., Prabhu, J. et S. Ahuja (2013) L'innovation Jugaad Diateino Eds
  224. 224. Ce qu’il faut retenir Les SBM permettent de répondre aux enjeux identifiés par l’approche BoP 4 milliards de personnes vivant avec moins de 5$ par jour. Des populations aux niveaux de vie et aux besoins différents. Trois types de SBM (responsables, communautaires, philantropiques)
  225. 225. Conclusion Thanks for your attention! Keep contact I sebchnt@gmail.com

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