Introductionž Having established that training is appropriate f or the identified needs, the next step is to f ind courses that meet the needs.ž We have to make choices whether to buy or develop courses that meet the needs.ž Developing a course f rom scratch can be both expensive and time consuming.ž Even purchasing a course that exactly match all the requirements is not as easy as it sounds.ž Therefore, one has to adopt a systematic approach to address the issues in designing a curriculum or course to meet the needs of the learners.
Training Curriculum and Content Development Issues:ž 1) Trainees: entry behaviors, needs and characteristicsž 2) Course Content: identification, structure, sequencing, timingž 3) Expertise: subject matter and the trainers, their rolesž 4) Approaches: methods and mediaž 5) Logistics
Course Selection:ž Two issues to consider: — 1) the availability of existing material — 2) the urgency and demand for the coursež Choices or options: — A) using an existing course availability is there — B) modifying an existing course add, remove or rearrange parts — C) buying or licensing an external course large and urgent demand; large budget caution: copyright issue, training manual
Course Selection (con t)ž D) developing our own course — specific to the organization; large and urgent demand — cheaperž E) using an in-house course — one in which a training company runs one of their courses on the premises — medium demand that is not the company s areaž F) using a public course — . cost-effective if demand is small — caution: suitability of the course, style, content and professionalism
Course Development Process:ž (Figure 3.4: Processes f or developing training courses)ž 1) Define Subject Matter — training needs analysis — to develop is what is really required — check on training needs analysis resultsž 2) Describe Goals (general learning objective) — provide as a tool f or evaluatin eff ectiveness as well as developing the course.ž 3) Obtain Subject Matter Expertise — save time — control over deadline and expected results.
Developing Courses (con t)ž 4) Describe Students — detailed prof ile of prospective students: knowledge, attitudinal and physical develop the course specif ically for them.ž 5) Identif y Course Content — in sequence — grasshopper technique — Mind Mapping (Fig 3.11: example of a mind map — mental maps: Spidergrams or Bubble Diagram
Developing Courses: (con t)ž 6) Structure Course Contentž determine structure and timingž A) Timingž estimate duration by: — i) estimate the duration of individual components and add them up — ii) start a fixed time and see what we can fit inž be aware of limitations and consequencesž Factors to consider: — i) student s current state of knowledge — ii) training methodology — iii) content of the course
Developing Courses: (con t)ž B. Sequencež Factors to consider: — i) dependencies or prerequisites? — ii) to be learnt now? — iii) can be learnt at the same time?ž Check for logical sequence/logical f low: — i) simple to complex or vice versa — ii) general to specif ic or vice versa — iii) concrete to abstract or vice versaž Once sequence and flow are decided then we have a course agenda.ž See Handout Figure 3.12 : Example of a course agenda
Developing Courses: (con t)ž 7) Write Objectives and Tests — A. Write Objectives i) Behavior ii) Conditions iii) Standard — B. Writing Tests does not need to be an exam should be able to observe the desired behavior see whether training has been achieved
Developing Courses: (con t)ž 8) Choose Methods and Media — Issues to Consider: — a) Best training methods trainer led or self directed specific to general or vice versa case study or a real -life example — b) Giving freedom of choice to the trainees construct a course map that has alternative routes through the course — See Handout: Figure 3.7: example of a course map
Developing Courses: (con t)c) The issue of training technologies only way to train ? will never be one best mediumd) Focus our attention to the traineese) Which methods and media - most suitable for each part of the course best courses have a wide range of media and learning experiences — See Handout: Table 3.2: Advantages and disadvantages of different media
Developing Courses: (con t)ž 9) Write Trainer s Guide and Student Materialsž A. Trainer s Guide — 1) course objectives — 2) course program — 3) course prerequisite — 4) course pre -work — 5) number of training and break -out room required — 6) list of student materials — 7) list of equipment required
Developing Courses: (con t)ž 8) list of audio-visual materials (transparencies, posters, prepared flip chart, slides, audiotapes and videotapesž 9) room layoutž 10) preparation notes for each sessionž 11) lessons plans f or each sessionž 12) masters for the overhead transparenciesž The structure of the trainer s guide is not necessarily in this order.
Developing Courses: (con t)ž B. Lesson plans script detailed timings, structure and activities format — See Handout: Figure 3. Example of a lesson plan)ž 10. Preparing Visual Aids if necessary?ž 11. Peer Assignment spot the flaws, annoying inconsistencies and irritating errors
Developing Courses: (con t)ž 12. Run Pilot Course(s) — are test flight for newly developed coursesž a) first test : developmental test to get all the mistakes out of the coursež b) second pilot course: should have students who are representatives of the target populationž feedback from invited stakeholders — take note of the difficulties or problems — get students fill in a written f eedback — discussion — work with trainers on how to change, amend and revise
An Example of Course Developmentž Background — company with full and contract employees — full time employees have started to immerse into the culture and language of TQM — company realized that contract staff are being isolated because they have no understanding of the language and processes of TQM — not justifiable to give contract staff a 6-day training (full time staff), therefore a one day overview of TQM was decided.
Example Course Dev t (con t)ž 1. Defining the Subject — What Total Quality Management is all aboutž 2. Describing the Aims — to allow the medium term contractors to participate in Quality circles.ž 3. Obtaining Subject Matter Expertise — training analyst who has been training the f ull course for two yearsž 4) Describing the Students — medium -term contractors with concerns about being treated differently from full time staff and whether there would be another contract af ter the current one expires.
Example Course Dev t (con t)ž may not have the same loyalty but they have a professional approachž might be easier to communicate customer awarenessž with electric/electronic, software or mechanical backgrounds and would not appreciate a wordy approach or put up with a signif icant amount of reading.ž are in good health with normal hearing and sight (good color vision)ž may have done business studies courses at university or polytechnic, the subject matter will be new to most of them.
Example Course Dev t (con t)ž 5. Identify the Course Content — mind mapping technique — check for familiar topics and advanced topics — see handout Figure 3.11 : Mind Map f or the TQMž 6. Structuring the Content — detailed topics f orm content of the course — larger bubbles -not necessarily be the course modules — mind map -to understand the relationships between the detailed topics, — developed structure may not be the most efficient for learning the subject; — logical flow
Example Course Dev t (con t)ž the modules chosen for this course: Tools of the trade Why did we introduce TQM Quality is f ree? Who s the customer? What is quality?ž See Handout: Figure 3.12: Course Agenda For TQMž 7. Choosing the Methods and the Media trainer presentation and student exercises short excerpts f rom videos tape/slide presentation put on to video
Example Course Dev t (con t)ž 8. Writing the Objectives and Tests — A. Objectives — See Handout Figure 3.13 : Objectives f or TQM course — B. Design Test — See Handout Figure 3.14: An example of a test based on the course objective — test based on 4th objective: video slip of a restaurant scene with 4 main characters (paying customer, waitress, cook, owner), students identify customer or supplier.
Example Course Dev t (con t)ž 9) Writing the Trainer s Guide and Student s Materialsž Student s guide and student materials: — a) a booklet which had a section for each of the module. — b) a set of cards that had objects, or pictures of larger products, glued to them designed to help the students define Quality and decide a Quality product give a reason f or their decision.ž 10. Preparing the Visual Aids — artwork as masters for overhead transparencies.
Example Course Dev t (con t)ž 11. Peer Assessment — materials were given to a new trainer to review . — colleagues review the course at every stage of its development.ž 12. Running the Pilot Course — group of 12 target population students — trainer conducted the course — new trainer: made observations of the training process and the student s reactions — students : complete the feedback forms — debriefing session.